Skip to main content

Full text of "The Imperial gazetteer of India"

See other formats


















Notes on Transliteration 

Vowel- Sounds 

a has the sound of a in ' woman.' 

a has the sound of a in ' father.' 

e has the vowel-sound in 'grey.' 

i has the sound of / in ' pin.' 

i has the sound of / in ' poHce.' 

o has the sound of o in ' bone.' 

u has the sound of u in ' bull.' 

u has the sound of ?/ in ' flute.' 
ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 
au has the vowel-sound in ' house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the 1 )ravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 


Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d, /, -'■, &c., marked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic ^, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of (/, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and, 
in particular, d/i and ^/i (except in Burma) never have the sound of 
/// in ' this ' or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as in ' woodhouse ' 
and 'boathook.' 



Burvicsc Words 

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in ' hiw.' 
<i and ii are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like y in 'jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in * this,' in some cases as in 

w after a consonant has the force of mv. Thus, yiva and pwe 
are disyllables, pronounced as if written yuwa and puwe. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

The names of some places — e.g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 2s., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as \s. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 


tlie exchange value of the rupee to is. 4(/., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 15 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of i^. 4^. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873. 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — i = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, '^I'^cl as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 after 1899; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purpcjses by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as \\d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id. The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer = 16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District io District, and even from village to 
village ; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in terms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
changCj, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 


same (luantily, bill the (luanlily to be obtained fur ibe same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices. Wlicn the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an Enghsh reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
sh()[)s, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money i)rices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted — based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at \s. ^d. : 1 seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 2s. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 2s. ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the blgha^ which varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer either 
in square miles or in acres. 



Einme (Thigvvin). — North-west township of Myaungmya District, 
Lower Burma, lying between i6° 34' and 16° 55' N. and 94° 52' and 
95° 18' E., with an area of 315 square miles. The population was 
41,979 in 1891 and 59,367 in 1901, distributed in 122 villages. The 
head-quarters are at Einme (population, 2,050), on a waterway con- 
necting the Daga and Myaungmya rivers. The township is level, well 
watered, and fertile throughout. More than one-third of the popula- 
tion is Karen, and the proportion of Christians is large. In 1903-4 the 
area under cultivation was 170 square miles, paying Rs. 2,51,000 land 

Eksambe. — Village in the Chikodi taliikL. of Belgaum District, 
Bombay, situated in 16° 32' N. and 74° 40' E. Population (1901), 
5,970. The village is purely agricultural, and contains one boys' 
school with 90 pupils. 

Eksar. — Alienated village of 701 acres in the Salsette tdliika of Thana 
District, Bombay, situated in 19° 13' N. and 72° 59' E., about a mile 
north-west of Borivli station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway. Population (1901), 1,906. In a mango orchard, on the west 
bank of a fine pond, is a row of six slabs of trap, four of them about 
10 feet high by 3 broad, the fifth about 3 feet high by 3 broad, and the 
sixth about 4 feet high by i broad. All, except one which is broken, 
have their tops carved into funereal urns, with heavy ears and hang- 
ing bows of ribbon, and floating figures above bringing chaplets and 
wreaths. The faces of the slabs are richly cut in from two to eight 
level belts of carving, the figures in bold relief chiselled with much skill. 
They are Hindu paliyds or memorial stones, and seem to have been set 
up in front of a temple which stood on the top of the pond bank, a site 
afterwards occupied by a Portuguese granary. Each stone records the 
prowess of some warrior either by land or sea. 

[Eor a full description of these stones, which possess features of 
unusual interest, see Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xiv, pp. 57-9.] 

Elephanta (or Ghdrdpuri). — Island included in the Panvel taluka 

VOL. xn. B 


of Kolaha Disliict, Bombay, situated in i8° 58' N. and 73° E., in 
liomhay liarbour, about 6 miles from Bombay City and 4 from the 
shore of tlie mainland. 'I'he island measures from 4 to ^\ miles in 
circumference, and consists of two long hills separated by a narrow 
valley ; the superficial area varies from 6 to 4 square miles according 
as the tide is at ebb or flow. On the west side it furnishes building 
stone of medium quality, which is at present being extensively quarried 
by the contractors to the Uombay Port Trust for use in the new docks. 
The island was named l':iephanta by the Portuguese, from a large stone 
elephant which stood near the old landing-place on the south side of 
the island. This elephant was 1 3 feet 2 inches in length, and about 
7 feet 4 inches high ; but its head and neck dropped off in 1814, and 
subsequently the body sank down into a shapeless mass of stones, 
which were removed in 1864 to the Victoria Gardens in Bombay. 
Near the point where the two hills approach each other, and not far 
to the south-east of the Great Cave, once stood the stone statue of 
a horse, described by an early writer as being ' so lively, with such a 
colour and carriage, and the shape finisht with that Exactness that 
many have rather fancyed it, at a distance, a living Animal, than only 
a bare Representation.' This statue has disappeared. Except on the 
north-east and east the hill-sides are covered with brushwood ; in the 
hollows under the hill are clusters of mango, tamarind, and kara^ija 
trees. A broken line of palms stands out against the sky along the 
crest of the hill. Below is a belt of rice land. The foreshore is of sand 
and mud, bare and black, with a fringe of mangrove bushes. At one 
period, from the third to perhaps the tenth century, the island is supposed 
to have been the site of a city, and a place of religious resort. Some 
archaeologists would place here the Maurya city of Purl. The caves are 
the chief objects of interest ; but in the rice-fields to the east of the 
northern or Shet landing-place brick and stone foundations, broken 
pillars, fallen statues of Siva, and other traces of an ancient city have 
been found. The landing-place is now on the north-west of the island. 
The famous rock-caves are the resort of many visitors. Of these 
wonderful excavations, four are complete or nearly so ; a fifth is a large 
cave now much filled up, with only rough masses of stone left to support 
the roof; and a sixth is merely the beginning of the front of what seems 
to have been intended for a very small excavation — possibly two or three 
cells for recluses. The most important and most frequently visited of 
these Brahmanic rock-temples is the Great Cave, which is situated in 
the western or larger of the two hills of the island at an elevation of 
about 250 feet above high-water level. The entrance is reached by a 
winding path about three-quarters of a mile in length from the landing- 
place. The cave faces the north, and is entirely hewn out of a hard 
compact variety of trap rock. From the front entrance to the back it 


measures about 130 feet, and its length from the east to the west 
entrance is the same. It does not, however, occupy the entire square 
of this area. What may be called the porticoes, or the three open 
sides, are only about 54 feet long and i6i feet deep. Omitting these 
and the back aisle, immediately in front of three of the principal 
sculptured compartments, which is of about the same dimensions as 
each portico, the body of the cave may be considered as a square of 
about 91 feet each way, supported by six rows of columns, with six 
columns in each row, except at the corners, where the uniformity is 
broken on the west side to make room for the shrine, which occupies 
a space ecjual to that enclosed by four of the columns. There were 
originally 26 columns, with 16 half-columns; but 8 of the separate 
pillars have been destroyed, and others are much injured. As neither 
the floor nor the roof is perfectly horizontal, they vary in height from 
15 to 17 feet. The most striking of the sculptures is the famous 
colossal three-faced bust, or trimurti, at the back of the cave, facing the 
entrance. This is a representation of Siva in his threefold character of 
Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer ; and all the other sculptures relate 
to the same god, the cave being, like every other Hindu rock-temple 
of Western India, a Saiva one. The trimurti vs 17 feet 10 inches in 
height ; and a line drawn round the three heads at the level of the eyes 
measures 22 feet 9 inches in length. The length of the middle face 
(Brahma's) is 4 feet 4 inches; those of the others (Vishnu and Rudra) 
4 feet I inch and about 5 feet. In 1865 this unique bust was mutilated 
by some ' barbarian clothed in the garb of civilization,' who broke off a 
portion of the noses of two of the faces ; and since then some of the 
other sculptures in the temple have been similarly treated, so that it has 
been found necessary to place a sergeant and two native policemen to 
protect the cave. The trunurti is guarded by two gigantic dwarapdlas 
or 'doorkeepers' of rock, respectively 12 feet 9 inches and 13 feet 
6 inches high ; both figures are much defaced. The lingam chapel, 
on the right-hand side of the temple on entering, contains several 
dtvdrapdlas and other figures ; and two compartments on either side of 
the trimurti are also ornamented with numerous sculptured groups. 
There are several other compartments in the Great Cave, all containing 
interesting sculptures. Further details will be found in the exhaustive 
account of Dr. Burgess (^The Rock Temples of Elephanta or Ghcwdpiiri, 
Bombay, 1871), from which this article is chiefly condensed. 

'■ The impression on the mind,' writes Dr. Burgess, ' may be imagined 
rather than described, when one enters the portico [of the Great Cave], 
passing from the glare and heat of tropical sunshine to the dim light and 
cool air of the temple, and realizes that he is under a vast roof of solid 
rock, that seems to be supported only by the ranges of massive columns 
that rec^ede in the vistas on every side, some of which appear to have 

B 2 


split Di- fallen under the tremendous superincumbent weight. And the 
fcelinu ()l"^lrani;e uncertain awe that creeps over tlie mind is only pro- 
longed when in the obscure light we begin to contemplate the gigantic 
stony figures ranged along the walls from which they seem to start, 
and frmii the living rock of which they are hewn.' 

De Couto describes the stone of the mountain where the temples have 
been carved as of a grey colour. The same traveller, writing at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, continues : — 

' But the whole body inside, the pillars, the figures, and everything 
else, was formerly covered with a coat of lime mixed with bitumen and 
other compositions, that made the temjile bright and very beautiful, the 
features and workmanship showing very distinct, so that neither in 
silver nor in wax could such figures be engraved with greater nicety, 
fineness, or perfection.' 

At the present time there is no trace of this coating. 

The Second Cave, which is situated a short distance to the south- 
east of the Great Cave, faces east-north-east, and is 109-I feet in 
length, including the chapel at the north end. The fagade, which was 
nearly 80 feet in length, is completely destroyed, and the cave is so 
full of debris and so ruined by water that no proper estimate can now 
be formed of the appearance it originally represented. It contains at 
present only one sculptured group. At the south end of the portico 
of this cave is a large block of rock not hewn away, above which is a 
hole through a thin partition of rock into one of the cells of the Third 
Cave. The proper entrance, however, is a little to the south. This 
cave is in an even more dilapidated condition than the second. 

The Fourth Cave, now known to the natives as ' Sit5 Bai's Devala,' 
is situated on the other hill of the island, and about 100 feet above 
the level of the Great Cave. It is in better preservation than those 
last mentioned, and had formerly a beautiful gate with a marble porch 
of exquisite workmanship ; but these have now disappeared. 

Sufficient data do not exist to enable us to fix with precision the date 
of the Elephanta caves. Tradition attributes them variously to the 
Pandavas, to a king of Kanara named Banasur, and to Alexander the 
Great ; and many not less unreasonable conjectures have been hazarded 
regarding them. Mr. Fergusson concludes (for reasons for which the 
reader is referred to his Rock-cut Temples of India) that the Great 
Cave was excavated in the tenth century a.d. ; but Dr. Burgess, while 
admitting that there are grounds for this conclusion, is inclined to 
attribute them to the latter part of the eighth or to the ninth century. 
No inscription is now to be found in the caves. It is hoped, however, 
that the date and name of the excavator may yet be learned from a 
stone, taken to Europe about 1540 by the Portuguese Viceroy Dom 
Joao de Castro, which may one day be rediscovered and deciphered. 


The Great Cave is still used on Saiva festivals, and especially by 
Hindus of the Bania caste ; and at the Sivaratri, the greatest of the 
Saiva festivals, just before the first new moon falling after the middle 
of February, a religious fair is held here. The view from the front of 
the Great Cave is very beautiful ; and from the site of an old bungalow, 
not far from the porch, a fine prospect is commanded of Bombay 
harbour, with Butcher Island in the foreground. The island had 
a population of 480 in 1901. 

Elgandal District'. — Former District in the Warangal Division, 
Hyderabad State, lying between Adilabad and Nizamabad on the 
north and north-west, Medak on the west, and Warangal on the south, 
while on the east the rivers Pranhita and Godavari separated it from 
Chanda District and Bastar State of the Central Provinces. It had an 
area of 7,203 square miles, including jdgir lands, and lay between 
17° 14' and 19° 15' N. and 78° 30' and 80° 25' E. The area of the 
State and Sarf-i-khas or crown lands was 5,898 square miles. Changes 
made in 1905 will be referred to below. A range of hills, commencing 
at Gurrapalli, runs in a north-easterly direction as pt, • , 
far as Jagtial, whence it proceeds to Vemalkurti near aspects. 

the Godavari river. A second range, known as the 
Sunigram range, proceeds from Sunigram and Mallangur parallel to 
the former range, at a distance of about 32 miles. The villages of 
Kuncherla, Minola, and Marmulagutta on this range are between 2,200 
and 2,300 feet above the sea. A third range starts in the south-west 
corner of the District from the valley of the Maner river, and runs in a 
north-easterly direction. Intersecting the Sunigram range, it passes 
beyond Ramglr, where it is about 1,600 feet above the sea. This 
range ends near the river Godavari. The most important river is the 
Godavari, which enters the north-west corner of the District and flows 
for a distance of 176 miles within its limits, dividing it from Chanda 
and Bastar in the Central Provinces. Another important river is the 
Maner, which traverses the District from west to east as far as Karla- 
gunta, whence it flows due north till it falls into the Godavari in the 
Mahadeopur taluk. Its length in the District is about 145 miles. 
The Pranhita, another tributary of the Godavari, joins it in the 
Chinnur taluk. The Peddavagu, 50 miles long, and the Chelluvagu, 
12 miles long, are also tributaries of the Godavari, which they join on 
the southern or right bank. 

The geological formations are the Archaean gneiss, the Cuddapah, 
SuUavai, and Gondwana series, the latter including the Talcher, 
Barakar, Kamptee, Kota-Maleri, and Chikiala formations. The 

' Elgandal ceased to exist in its present form in 1905. The new District called 
Karimnagar is briefly described in the paragraph on Population. See also KarIm- 



Archaean series occupies most of the District, the remaining forma- 
tions occurring at its eastern end '. 

Among the trees of the District may be mentioned teak, mango, 
ebony, custard-ai)i)le, tamarind, black-wood, tarvar {Cassia auriciflata), 
babul {Acacia arabica), eppa {Hard^vickia binnta), and nalldmaddi 
( Tcrminalia tomeutosd). 

All kinds of large game abound, including tigers, bears, leopards, 
wolves, hyenas, sambar, spotted deer, &c., while peafowl, jungle-fowl, 
partridges, and quails are also found. In the vicinity of tanks and 
rivers water-fowl, duck, teal, &c., are abundant. 

The portions of the District near the Godavari are malarious ; but 
the remaining taluks are healthy. The temperature in Karimnagar 
and Jamikunta rises in May to iio°, while in the rest of the taluks 
the maximum varies between ioo° and 105°. During December it 
falls to 60°. 

The annual rainfall for the twenty-one years ending 1901 averaged 
33 inches, but considerable fluctuations are recorded. Thus in 1881 
and 1900 only 15 inches, or less than half the average, was received. 

Nothing is known of the early history of the District ; but it certainly 

formed part of the Warangal territory, and after the conquest of 

Telingana by the Musalmans, and the fall of War- 
History. .^ . • , , J • , • , -r, , 

angal, it was mcluded successively in the Bahmani 
and the Kutb Shahi kingdoms. Upon the conquest of Golconda, it 
was annexed to the empire of Delhi by Aurangzeb, but was again 
separated from it on the foundation of the Hyderabad State, early 
in the eighteenth century, by Asaf Jah. 

Places of archaeological interest comprise a number of forts, temples, 
and mosques. The fort at Elgandal is an ancient structure, and 
contains a mosque built by Zafar-ud-daula about 1754, with a minaret 
which oscillates if shaken. In the Jamikunta tdluk are the two forts 
of Bajgur and Malangur, said to have been built respectively 700 and 
1,000 years ago, and the two temples of Gurshal and Katkur, the 
former built about 1229, during the reign of Raja Pratap Rudra of 
Warangal. Though now in ruins, its exquisite stone carving is still in 
a good state of preservation. A pillar outside the temple has an 
inscription in Oriya. The fort of Jagtial was built for Zafar-ud-daula 
in 1747, by French engineers. In the same taluk is an old temple 
at Dharampuri on the right bank of the Godavari. The old fort of 
Anantagiri in the Sirsilla taluk, now in ruins, is built on a hill. Two 
mosques in the Mahadeopur taluk, one at Kalesar and the other at 
Sonipet, were built by Aurangzeb, as was the mosque at Rajgopalpet 
in the Siddipet taluk. Pratapgiri fort, in the Mahadeopur taluk, is 
said to have been built by Raja Pratap Rudra. 

' W. King, Meiitoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. xviii, ])art iii. 



The number of towns and villages in the District is 1,523. The 
population at the last three enumerations was : (1881) 939,539, 
(1891) 1,094,601, and (1901) 1,035,582. The de- 
crease during the last decade was due to cholera and 
distress during the famine of 1900. The important towns are Jagtial, 
KoRATLA, Manthani, Karimnagar, the District head-quarters, and 
Vemalwada. About 96 per cent, of the population are Hindus. 
Telugu is spoken by 90 per cent, and Urdu by 6 per cent. The follow- 
ing table exhibits the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 


Number of 













Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 189 1 
and igoi. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 








Chinnur . 
Siddipet . 
Sirsilla . 
Jdglrs, &c. 




I ,.^05 












- 3-4 

+ 7.0 
+ 0.7 
+ 4-6 

- 9.6 

- 3-2 

- 7-9 

- 2-0 

- 3-6 

- 6-4 

Not available. 








In 1905 the Parkal fd///k was added to the District from Warangal, 
while Chinntir and Lakhsetipet were transferred to Adilabad (Sirpur 
Tandur), and Siddipet to Medak. In its present form the District, 
henceforth to be known as Karimnagar, comprises the seven taluks 
of Karlmnagar, Sultanabad, Mahadeopur, Jamikunta, Parkal, Sirsilla, 
and Jagtial. 

The purely agricultural castes number 164,000, or about 16 per cent, 
of the total, the most important being Kunbis (89,000), Mitaiwars 
(28,000), and Velmas (21,000). The Brahmans muster strong, being 
221,000, or over 21 per cent. The Dhangars or shepherds number 
89,000, excluding Hatkars (64,400) and Kurmas (21,800). The Salas, 
or weaver caste, number 80,400 ; the Malas, or village menials, 67,300 ; 
the Komatis, or traders, 39,600 ; and the Ausalas, or smith caste, 30,000. 
More than 35 per cent, of the population are engaged in agriculture. 

A Wesleyan mission was started in 1884 at Karimnagar, with a Euro- 
pean missionary and a staff of native catechists, and has branches at 
Kottapali and Manakondur. The mission supports several schools and 
a dispensary. The Wesleyan mission at Siddipet, established in 1S86, 
maintains nine schools. The Census of 1901 showed the Christian 
population as 214, of whom 212 were natives. 


Tlic soils consist of cJia/ka, masab, and regar. The regar is utilized 

for rabi crops, the masnb ]-)artly for garden crops and partly for rabi, 

while the kharlf crops are raised on chalka lands, 

gncu ure, ^^.|^j^.], occupy about three-fifths of the entire cultivated 

area. The existence of numerous tanks is a marked feature. I'he 

alluvial soils of the river valleys are very fertile. 

The tenure of lands is mainly ryoiwdri. Khdlsa and crown lands 
occupy 5,898 square miles, of which 1,244 were cultivated in 1901 ; 
cultivable waste and fallows covered 778 square miles, 3,018 were 
forest, and 858 were not available for cultivation. The staple food-crop 
IS jo'ivdr, grown on 570 square miles, or 45 per cent, of the net area 
cropped. Next to it is rice with 169 square miles. The areas occupied 
by gram, cotton, pulses, and oilseeds were 11, 58, 225, and 197 square 
miles respectively. 

No breed of cattle is characteristic of the District; those found are 
small, but are well suited for light ploughing in the chalka lands. Ponies of 
very inferior class are bred. The sheep and goats are of the ordinary kind. 

The irrigated lands cover an area of 183 square miles. The principal 
sources of irrigation are 5,694 tanks, large and small, and 16,693 
masonry and 6,323 unbricked wells, all in good repair. A staff of 
irrigation engineers is engaged in preparing estimates for the tanks in 
disrepair, which number over 1,750. 

The District contains large tracts of forest, especially in the taluks 
of Chinnur, Mahadeopur, Lakhsetipet, and in parts of Jagtial and 
_ Sirsilla, all under the Forest department. The total 

area of forests is 3,018 square miles, of which 816 
square miles are 'reserved,' and 2,202 square miles protected and 
unprotected forests. The trees include teak, ebony, rosewood, satin- 
wood, somi i^Soymida febrifuga), tirman {Anogeisstis latifolia), sandra 
(^Acacia Catechu), kodsha {Ckistaiithus co/lifiiis), eppa {Hardivickia 
bi?iata), 7ialldmaddi {Termitialia tomentosa), and chintiangi {Lagerstroemia 
parvijiorn), all of which produce good timber. 

Ironstone of very good quality is found almost everywhere, and 
is smelted by a primitive process for making ploughshares and other 
implements of husbandry. The Konasamudram and Ibrahimpatan steel 
is famous for the fine watered sw^ord-blades that were formerly made 
from it. Steatite and talc are found in the vicinity of the iron mines 
throughout the District. 

Silk satis and scarfs are made in the Siddipet and Jagtial taluks and 

exported to Hyderabad. Coarse cotton cloth of every description is 

made in all parts and is extensively used by the 

o^,^™„«,•^of;/^«c people. The Salas or Khatris, who number over 
communications. ^ '■ ' 

80,000, are engaged in weaving silk and cotton 
cloth. Coarse paper is manufactured at Koratla in the Ji^gtial taluk, 


and used by the pahvaris for their village account-books. In Chinnur, 
silk cloth is made from tasar cocoons, which is strong and durable. 
Silver filigree work of superior quality is turned out by the goldsmiths 
of Karlmnagar and Manakondur. Fine brass vessels are also made. 
There is a tannery at Karlmnagar, established in 1869 ; it employs 
30 workmen and turns out leather to the value of Rs. 73,000 annually, 
which is exported to Madras. 

The chief exports consist of ncQ,joivdr, sesamum, mustard, castor- 
seed, tobacco, silk cloth, cotton, chillies, sheep, hides and leather, bones 
and horns, and brass vessels, which are sent to Warangal and Hyderabad. 
The principal imports are cotton and woollen cloth of European manu- 
facture, glass-ware, refined sugar, jaggery, silver and gold, salt, opium, 
kerosene oil, and brass and copper sheets. The chief centres of trade 
are Siddipet, Peddapalli, Kamanpur, Jagtial, Ghambiraopet, and 
KarTmnagar. The Komatis are the chief trading caste. 

No railway passes through the District. There are 202 miles of road, 
of which 168 are gravelled, the rest being merely fair-weather roads. 
The principal route is the KarTmnagar-Kazipet road. The other roads 
connect the District and taluk head-quarters with one another. 

Elgandal has generally been immune from famine, owing to its 
numerous tanks and wells and large forest tracts. In 1897, though the 
rainfall was about 28 inches, it fell at such inopportune 
periods and in such small quantities that the majority amine, 

of the crops failed. Relief works were opened to alleviate the distress. 
The effects of the famine had not passed away when cholera supervened, 
and carried off a large number of people, as is evidenced by the decline 
of population at the Census of 1901. The great fcunine of 1900 did 
not affect this District very seriously. 

The District, as now constituted, is divided into four subdivisions for 

administrative purposes. The first consists of the ialuks of Jamikunta 

and Parkal ; the second of Sultanabad and Maha- . , . . 

, ' . , ^ -. , ., , , Administration. 

DEOPUR ; the third of Jagtial and sirsilla ; and the 

fourth of KarTmnagar. Each of the first two is under a Second 
Talukdar, and each of the other two under a Third Talukdar. The 
First Talukdar exercises a general supervision over all his subordi- 
nates. Each taluk is under a tahslldar. 

The First Talukdar is the Chief Magistrate, as well as the Civil Judge 
of the District, and has a Judicial Assistant. The tahslldars preside in 
the subordinate civil courts. The Judicial Assistant is a joint- magis- 
trate. The Second and Third Talukdars and the tahsilddrs exercise 
magisterial powers of the second and third class within their respective 

Up to 1866, villages and taluks were leased out to revenue farmers, 
and iii^some instances collections were made from individual ryots, but 



the State due was received in kind on a summary estimate. After the 
formation of the District, the ryohvdri system was adopted, and the 
lands were roughly measured, the assessment being fixed on the average 
of the previous ten years. The District has not yet been completely 
surveyed, and llir old r.ites are still in force. The average assessment 
on 'dry" kuul is R. i-o-o (maximum Rs. 5-0-0, minimum Rs. 0-2-0), 
and on 'wet' land Rs. 12-0-0 (maximum Rs. 36-0-0, minimum 
Rs. 4-0-0). The land revenue and total revenue for a series of years 
are shown below, in thousands of rupees : — 





Land revenue 
Total revenue 

13,79 22,60 
24,13 31.41 



Owing to the changes in area made in 1905, the revenue demand is 
now about 22-6 lakhs. 

The one-anna cess has been levied since 1903. Taluk boards have 
been established at all tdhik head-quarters, except Karlmnagar, where 
there is a District board, which supervises the work of the taluk boards 
as well as that of the Karlmnagar and other municipalities. Small 
municipal establishments are maintained at all the taluk head-quarters. 

The First Talukdar is the head of the police administration of the 
District, with a Superintendent {Mohtamim) as his executive deputy. 
Under the latter are 10 inspectors, 75 subordinate officers, 608 con- 
stables and 25 mounted police, distributed among 36 thdnas and 
35 outposts. The l^istrict jail is at Karlmnagar, but prisoners whose 
terms exceed six months are sent to the Central jail at Warangal. 

The District occupies a low position as regards the literacy of its 
population, of whom only i-8 per cent. (3-3 males and o-o8 females) 
were able to read and write in 1901. The total number of pupils 
under instruction in State schools in 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1903 was 
527, 2,948, 2,732, and 2,870 respectively. In 1903 there were 40 pri- 
mary and 2 middle schools, with 27 girls under instruction in :;hat year. 
The total expenditure on education in 1901 was Rs. 18,600, of which 
Rs. 1,836 was allotted to aided schools. The fee receipts amounted 
to Rs. 1,012 in the State schools and Rs. 227 in the aided schools. . 

There were five dispensaries in the District in 1901, with accom- 
modation for 19 in-patients. The total number of out-patients treated 
was 39,514 and of in-patients 113, and the number of operations 
performed was 649. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 15,400. The 
number of persons vaccinated in the same year was 3,597, or 3-47 per 
1. 000 of the population. 

Ellichpur District (^//V///>/('r).— District of Berar, lying between 
20° 50' and 21° 47' N. and 76° 40' and 77° 54' E., with an area of 


2,605 square miles, which in 1905 was added to AmraotI District. 
It was bounded on the north-west and north by the Tapti river and 
the Betul District of the Central Provinces ; on the east by Amraoti ; 
on the south by the Puma river and the Akot and Jalgaon taluks; 
and on the west by the Nimar District of the Central Provinces. The 
area contains two entirely distinct natural divisions : 
the Melghat taluk, situated in the Gawilgarh hill aspects 

ranges, and the taluks of Ellichpur and Daryapur, 
situated in the Payanghat, or central valley of Berar. The scenery 
of these two tracts is described generally in the article on Berar. 
That portion of the District which lies in the plains is generally 
better wooded than the rest of the Payanghat ; and at the base of 
the hills the soil is stony, and the country is cut up by streams and 
small rivers which are liable to freshes in the rainy season. The blue 
range of hills relieves the scenery from the monotony which character- 
izes the landscape in other parts of the Payanghat. 

The river system consists of streams which rise in the Gawilgarh 
hills, and flow either northwards into the TaptI or southwards into the 
Purna, which is itself a tributary of the Tapti and drains the central 
valley of Berar. I'owards the hot season all these streams dry up, save 
in parts where dohos hold a supply of water which lasts throughout the 
dry months of the year. These dohos, which are natural cavities worn 
out of the solid rock by the rush of water from above, are found chiefly 
in the hills. Lower down the water lies in large sheets. 

The geology of that portion of the District which lies in the Payan- 
ghat is described in the article on Berar. Here the Deccan trap is 
covered with a layer of alluvial black loam, which is everywhere, except 
at the base of the hills, of considerable depth. The Gawilgarh hills 
are formed chiefly of compact basalt, very much resembling that of the 
Giant's Causeway. It is found columnar in many places ; and at 
Gawilgarh it appears stratified, the summits of several hills presenting 
a continued stratum of many thousand yards in length. The basalt 
frequently and suddenly changes into a wacke, of all degrees of indura- 
tion, and of every variety of composition usually found among trap 

The forest vegetation of the Melghat taluk will be noticed under the 
head of Forests. In the plains and at the foot of the hills, the commonest 
trees are the tamarind, the viahua, the mango, the babul, and the hiwar. 
The weedy vegetation of cultivated lands resembles that of Central 
India and the Deccan. In the Melghat orchids are fairly common ; 
and, owing to the heavier rainfall, the ground vegetation is more luxu- 
riant and more varied in colour than that of the plains. Wild balsams 
and other flowering plants are common. 

Thehill forests contain tigers, leopards, bears, bison, sdinbar, barking- 


deer, and spotted deer. Peafowl abound, and the grey jungle-fowl 
{Ga/li/s soniicrafii) and spur-fowl are common. The plains are now so 
covered with cultivation that game is scarce. Hog, mlgai, chinkdra, 
and antelope are, however, found. Of monkeys there are two kinds : 
the hfipir, found in both the plains and the hills ; and the small red 
monkey, found only in the hills. 

The climate of the two taluks in the plains resembles that of the rest 
of the Berar valley ; but the country immediately under the hills is, as 
is usual in such tracts in India, malarious and unhealthy. The same 
may be said of the valleys of the Melghat. On the higher plateaux of 
the Gawilgarh hills the climate is pleasant and temperate throughout 
the year, the mean temperature at the sanitarium of Chikalda in 
]\Iay, July, and December being 85-5°, 74-5°, and 65°. 

The Melghat receives more rain than any tract in the Province. The 
average for the six years ending 1901, which included two years of 
deficient rainfall, was 65 inches. The rainfall in the plains does not 
vary from that recorded elsewhere in the Berar valley. The rainfall at 
EUichpur in 1901, which may be taken as a normal year, was just short 
of 26 inches. The District has been fortunate in escaping serious 
natural calamities other than famine. 

The history of the District centres in that of EUichpur, the chief 
town, and the old fortress of Gawilgarh. Until the Assignment in 1853, 
when AmraotI became the administrative head-quar- 
ters of the province, EUichpur was always regarded as 
the capital of Berar, although during Akbar's wars with Ahmadnagar, in 
the latter part of the sixteenth century, Balapur, in Akola District, 
became, on account of its position, the head-quarters of the imperial 
army of the Deccan. 

EUichpur was included, immediately after the Assignment, in the Dis- 
trict of East Berar, the head-quarters of which w^ere at Amraoti ; but in 
1867 it was separated from Amraoti and became a District under the 
charge of a Deputy-Commissioner. EUichpur at first included the tdhtk 
of Morsi, which was, however, after a short time, retransferred to Amraoti. 

The District contains some of the most interesting archaeological re- 
mains in Berar, which are described in the articles on Ellichpur Town 
and Gawilgarh. They consist of the Gawilgarh fort with its buildings, 
especially the large mosque (1425), the Pir Fath, or south-western gate 
(1488), and the bastion of Bahram (1577). The shrine at Ellichpur, 
which bears the name of the mythical hero. Shah Abdur Rahman, is 
probably the tomb of Firoz Shah Bahmani's general, who was slain at 
Kherla in 1400. There is an old building at P211ichpur, locally known 
as Barkul. It is believed that it dates from the time of the Khilji 
Sultans of Delhi, and its name is said to be a corruption oi bdrgdh-i-kiill, 
or ' hall of public audience.' 



The number of towns and villages in the District is 794. The 
population at each of the last enumerations has been : (1867) 278,629, 
(1881) 313,412, (1891) 315,616, (1901) 297,403. Population. 
The decline in 1901, which was due to the famine of 
1 899- 1 900, does not entirely represent actual diminution of population, 
but is partly accounted for by the northward emigration of Korkus from 
the Melghat into the Central Provinces. The District was divided into 
the three taluks of Ellichpur, Daryapur, and Melghat. The head- 
quarters of the first two are at the places from which they take their 
names, and of the last at Chikalda. The six towns are Eli.ichpur 
Town, Paratwada (the civil station), Anjangaon, Karasgaon, 
Sirasgaon, and Chandur Bazar. 

The following table gives, for each taluk, particulars of area, towns 
and villages, and population in 1901 : — 




Number of 




Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween i8gi 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 





Melghat . 

District total 












- 0.2 

- 15-5 

- 6.2 






- 7-0 


Ellichpur is the most densely, and Melghat, with a population of no 
more than 22 to the square mile, the most sparsely po[)ulated taluk in 
Berar. More than 78 per cent, of the population are Hindus. The 
vernacular of the District is MarathI, but Urdu is more commonly 
spoken than in other Districts, owing to the influence of the Muham- 
madan town of Ellichpur. The Korkus of the hills have their own 
language, which is a Munda dialect ; and the small and rapidly dis- 
appearing tribe of Nihals formerly spoke a language of their own which 
is believed, though on insufficient authority, to have exhibited Dravidian 
affinities. They now speak Korku, and the Nihall language is probably 
completely lost. 

Kunbis (68,000) are by far the most numerous caste in the District. 
Next to them in numbers come Mahars (36,000) Musalmans (30,000), 
Korkus (25,000), and Malls (25,000). Brahmans number no more 
than 7,700. Ethnologically the Korkus and the Nihals (1,800) are the 
most interesting tribes in the District. The Gawllgarh hills are the 
home of both. The former are a tribe of hill and forest men speaking 
a Munda dialect ; and the latter are a rapidly disappearing tribe, who 
seem to have held, in comparatively recent times, the position of helots 
among the Korkus, though it may be doubted whether they were always 


subordinate to them. F.Uichpur is mainly an agricultural District ; but 
the proportion (67 per cent.) of those who live by agriculture to the 
whole population is lower than in any other District in the province, 
and the percentage of those who live by industries (16) is higher. 

There are two Christian missions : one of the Roman Church, under 
the management of the Order of St. Francis of Sales, and the Korku 
and Central Indian Hill Mission, which is a Protestant mission. Both 
missions did excellent work in the two recent famines in the Melghat. 
The Roman Catholic mission owns a small village, Mariampur, near 
Chikalda. Of the 363 Christians enumerated in 1901, 285 were natives, 
of whom 215 were Roman Catholics. 

The Melghat differs as much from the rest of the District in agricul- 
tural conditions as it does in climate and altitude. Agricultural 
conditions in the plains are similar to those prevailing 
throughout the Berar valley. Here the soil is a rich 
black loam of considerable depth, except in the tract at the base of the 
hills, which is principally forest land. In the hills the soil, except in 
the valleys, is poorer and shallower than that in the plains, and the 
country is chiefly covered with forests ; but where cultivation is found, 
the heavier rainfall compensates in some measure for the comparative 
poverty of the soil. 

The tenures are almost entirely ryohvdri. /agir, ijdra, and ifidm 
lands, which are found chiefly in the Melghat, cover only 124-I square 
miles out of 2,617. The chief agricultural statistics in 1903-4 are 
shown below, areas being in square miles : — 

Total. Cultivated. 


""t^' Forest. 

2,617 i>o85i 




The staple food-grain is joivdr or great millet, varied in the hills by 
kodo {Faspa/umfn/metitaceum) and rdl {Fanicum sativum). The area 
under /(^zfflr was 286 square miles, and 'other cereals,' including kodo 
and rdl, occupied 26-| square miles in the hills. Rice and v/heat were 
formerly grown in the Melghat more extensively than at present ; in 
1903-4 they occupied only 3^ and 7 square miles. The latter covered 
77 square miles in the plains. The areas under cotton, pulses, and oil- 
seeds were 496, 85, and 45 square miles. These crops, except pulses, 
which occupy nearly equal areas in the hills and the plains, are grown 
chiefly in the plains. It has been said that the tea plant thrives on the 
higher plateaux of the Melghat, bxit it is not grown there now. Excel- 
lent coffee is grown in private gardens at Chikalda, but its cultivation 
on a large scale has not been attempted. 

The extension of the area of holdings has only amounted to 4-6 per 
cent, in the last thirty-three years. There is, however, no room for 


extension in tlie plains, where practically the whole of the arable land is 
already occupied. In the hills a considerable area has gone out of cul- 
tivation since the famine of 1 899-1 900. It is not likely that cultivation 
will ever be much extended in this tract, more than 85 per cent, of 
which is forest. Little or nothing has been done towards the improve- 
ment of agricultural products. On the contrary, the fine, long-stapled 
cotton for which Berar was formerly famous has practically disappeared, 
its place being taken by a coarser, short-stapled variety which is more 
prolific and demands less attention than the old variety. The ryots have 
availed themselves less freely of the Loans Acts than those of any Dis- 
trict in Berar, except Wun, where famine has been less severe than 
elsewhere. In the three years following the famine of 1899-1900 only 
Rs. 72,000 was disbursed, and it is only since that year that the people 
have applied for advances. 

The Umarda, or smaller variety of the Berari breed of cattle, was 
formerly the principal breed in the District ; but since recent years of 
scarcity and famine large numbers of animals ot the Nimari, Hoshang- 
abadi, and Malwi breeds have been imported. Buffaloes are princi- 
pally of the Nagpuri breed, but a few of the Malwi breed have been 
imported. Ponies bred locally are weedy animals of little value ; and 
sheep and goats are poor, except in the larger towns, where good milch 
goats of the Gujarati breed are kept. 

The area of land irrigated in 1903-4 was less than 5 miles, of which 
nearly all was watered from wells and was situated in the taluks in the 
plains. Irrigation is almost entirely confined to chillies, garden produce, 
and tobacco. Leathern buckets drawn with a rope and pulley by cattle 
working down an inclined plane are universally used for lifting the water. 

Forests cover 56 per cent, of the whole District, and their area is 
about twice as great as in any other District of Berar. About half the 
area is real forest land, as distinguished from ranuias 
and grazing lands with patches of scrub and small 
trees which usually make up the greater part of the technical forest area. 
All the forests, except 38 square miles of grazing land and 95 acres of 
ramna, are confined to the Melghat. They contain the usual trees of 
Central India, the commonest being Boswe/Iia, teak, Ougei?na, Adina, 
Sfephegyne, Schreibera, and various species of Terminalia. The woody 
climbers met with are species of Bai/kifiia, Conidretuiii, and Alillettia. 
In ravines and valleys a bamboo {Dendrocalamus strictiis) occurs. 

Arts and manufactures are unimportant, as in other Districts of Berar. 
Cotton and silk fabrics are woven and dyed, principally 
at Anjangaon, and cotton carpets are woven at communkTtfons. 
EUichpur. The largest industry is the preparation 
of cotton for the market, and the District contains ten ginning factories 
and one press, all worked by steam. 


The chief imports are grain and pulse, salt, and sugar ; and the chief 
exports are raw cotton, grain and pulse, oilseeds, and forest produce. The 
cotton, grain and pulse, and oilseeds are exported from Kllichpur by road 
to Amraoti or Badnera, whence they are dispatched by rail to Bombay ; 
and e\i)orts from Daryapur go by road to Murtazapur on the railway. 

There is no railway in the District. The total length of metalled 
roads is 73 miles, and of unmetalled roads 40 miles. The former are 
in charge of the Public Works department and the latter of the District 
board. The principal road is the Chikalda-Amraoti road, which passes 
through EUichpur town, and has a length in the District of 49 miles. 
An important road from EUichpur to Daryapur via Anjangaon is under 

The two taluks in the plains are neither more nor less fortunate than 
the rest of Berar in respect of their liability to famine, and they have 
suffered from all famines which have fallen upon the 
amine. province. A famine orphan school was established 
at EUichpur by the fifth Sultan of the Bahmani dynasty, Muhammad 
(sometimes, but erroneously, called Mahmud) Shah, who reigned from 
1378 to 1397, and in whose reign a severe famine occurred. The 
emperor Shah Jahan also, in the fourth year of his reign, established 
a poorhouse at EUichpur, where food was distributed to the famine- 
stricken. Sir William Sleeman, in his Rambles and Recollections \ men- 
tions that EUichpur suffered from the famine of 1837-8. The Melghat 
is, owing to the comparative poverty of its soil and the thriftlessness of 
the Korku cultivator, far more liable to famine. In 1896-7, when the 
greater part of Berar suffered only from scarcity, famine conditions pre- 
vailed here, and in the famine of 1899-1900 the taluk suffered very 
severely. At the height of the distress, in July, 1900, 25,216 persons 
were on relief works and 33,194 in receipt of gratuitous relief in the 
District, and it is estimated that 60 per cent, of the cattle died. In 
both famines the Forest department rendered signal service. 

The District is divided into the three taluks of EUichpur, Daryapur, 

and Melghat, at the head-quarters of each of which there is a tahsJlddr, 

and since 1905 EUichpur and Melghat have formed 

a subdivision of Amraoti. The superior staff of the 

District consists of the usual officers. 

In EUichpur, as in other Districts of Berar, the Deputy-Commissioner 
was the District Judge ; but here he was District Judge in more than 
name, for he exercised, and was not empowered to delegate, the 
ordinary original civil powers of a District Judge in the Melghat, where 
the tahsllddr exercises the powers of a subordinate civil judge. The 
existing machinery for the administration of justice is described in the 
article on Amraoti District. Serious crime is not common, but dacoi- 

' Vol. i, p. 190 (ed. 1S93). 



ties, cattle-thefts, and burglaries fluctuate considerably in numbers with 
the state of the season. The Korkus, though behind other classes of 
the population in education, and somewhat addicted to strong drink, 
exhibit no marked criminal propensities. 

According to the Ain-i-Akhari, the land revenue demand in the 
parganas which till lately formed Ellichpur District amounted to 
13-2 lakhs ; and at the time of the Assignment in 1853 the demand in 
the same area had fallen to 5-6 lakhs, owing to wars, maladministra- 
tion, and famines. In 1903-4 the assessment on all land available 
for cultivation amounted to 12-4 lakhs, or rather less than Akbar's 
assessment, though it is certain that cultivation is more extended now 
than it was in the sixteenth century. The two taluks in the plains were 
first surveyed and assessed, after the Assignment, between the years 
1868 and 1873, the settlement being made in each case for thirty years. 
Before its expiration revised assessment lists were prepared, but the 
new rates were not introduced until 1903-4. The assessment per acre 
varies from Rs. 2-1 i-o to 2 annas, with an average of Rs. i-ir-3. 
Rice land is assessed at a maximum rate of Rs. 6 per acre, and land 
irrigated from streams and tanks, of which the area is only 23 acres, at 
a maximum combined land and water rate of Rs. 8 per acre. Land 
irrigated from wells sunk before the original settlement is assessed at 
the maximum ' dry ' rate for land in the same village ; but where wells 
have been made subsequently the cultivator is allowed the full advan- 
tage of the improvement, and the land is treated in all respects as ' dry ' 
land. The average extent of a holding in the plains is 14I acres. The 
Melghat has never been regularly surveyed, and a system of assessment 
is in force based on the number of yokes (pairs of bullocks) employed. 
The maximum, minimum, and average rates per yoke are Rs. 8, Rs. 3, 
and Rs. 5. As a measure of relief, following on the famine of 1899- 
1900, one-half of the land revenue was remitted for a period of three 
years in this taluk. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — ■ 





Land revenue 
Total revenue . 






Beyond the two municipal areas of Ellichpur town and civil station, 
the local affairs of that portion of the District which lies in the plains are 
administered by the District board, with the two fdluk boards sub- 
ordinate to it. The expenditure of these boards in 1903-4 amounted 
to Rs. 87,000, of which Rs. 14,000 was spent on education, and 
Rs. 4i,oao on public works, chiefly roads and buildings. The chief 

VOL. XII. c 



sources of income were rrovincial rates, tlic bazar cess, and assessed 
taxes. The local affairs of the Mclgliat are managed by the Deputy- 
Commissioner and the iahs'ilddr. 

The District Superintendent has control over the police under the 
Deputy-Commissioner. The number of police stations is 15, and there 
are four outposts. The police force numbers 367, under three inspec- 
tors, one for each taluk. The only jail in the District is that at Ellich- 
pur, which contained in 1903-4 a daily average of 27 prisoners. 

Ellichpur stands first among the six Districts of Berar in regard to 
the literacy of its population, of whom 54 per cent. (10-4 males and 
0-3 females) were able to read and write in 1891. 
ducation. j^^ superiority would be still more marked but for 
the Melghat, which in point of education is more backward than any 
other part of the province. In 1903-4 the District contained 79 public, 
65 aided, 5 unaided, and 4 private schools, with a total of 7,738 pupils, 
of whom 5,950 attended public schools and 334 were girls. 

One of the secondary and nine of the primary schools were Hin- 
dustani schools for Muhammadan boys, five were girls' schools — three 
for Hindu and two for Muhammadan girls — and two were schools for 
children of aboriginal tribes in the Melghat. All schools, except nine, 
were aided from public funds. The great majority of pupils under 
instruction were only in primary classes, and no girls had advanced 
beyond that stage. Of the male population of school-going age 13 per 
cent, were in the primary stage of instruction, and of the female popula- 
tion of the same age 0-75 per cent. Among Musalmans the percentage 
of pupils of each sex to the male and female population of school-going 
age was 24 and 2-6. At the special schools in the Melghat, 34 abo- 
rigines were under instruction. The total expenditure on education in 
1903-4 was Rs. 57,268, of which Rs. 5,575 was provided from Local 
and municipal funds. 

The District possesses 3 hospitals and 4 dispensaries, containing 
accommodation for 79 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases 
treated was 47,000, of whom 603 were in-patients, and 1,533 operations 
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, the greater part of 
which was met from Provincial revenues. 

Vaccination has made much progress, and the people generally seem 
to be aware of its usefulness. In 1903-4 the number of persons 
successfully vaccinated was 31-7 per 1,000, the mean for the province 
being 36 •6. Vaccination is compulsory only in the two municipalities. 

In August, 1905, when the six Districts of Berar were reconstituted, 
Ellichpur ceased to exist as a separate District and was incorporated in 
Amraotl, of which District it now forms the Ellichpur subdivision. 

\Tdhik Setfkmetit Reports : Major R. V. Garrett, Daryapur (1897) ; 
F. W. Francis, Ellichpur (1898) ; C. Bagshaw, Melghat (1899).] 


Ellichpur Subdivision. — Subdivision of Amraoti District, Btrar, 
consisting of the Ellichpur and Melghat taluks. 

Ellichpur Taluk. — Formerly the head-quarters taluk of ElHchpur 
District, but since August, 1905, a taluk of Amraoti District, Berar, 
lying between 21° 9'' and 21° 24' N. and 77° 23' and 77° 53' E., with 
an area of 469 square miles. The population fell from 146,215 in 1891 
to 146,035 in 1901, but its density, 311 persons per square mile, is higher 
than in any other taluk in Berar. The taluk contains 214 villages 
and five towns : Ellichpur (population, 26,082), the head-quarters, 
Paratwada (10,410), Karasgaon (7,456), SiRASGAON (6,537), and 
Chandur Bazar (5,208). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 
was Rs. 5,17,000, and for cesses Rs. 41,000. The taluk lies in the 
Payanghat, and is bounded on the north by the Gawllgarh hills. 

Ellichpur Town. — Head-quarters of the Ellichpur taluk of Amraoti 
District, Berar, situated in 21° 16' N. and 77° 2,2> E. The population 
in 1901 numbered 26,082, of whom 18,440 were Hindus, 7,244 Musal- 
mans, 231 Jains, and 136 Animists. Until August, 1905, Ellichpur 
was the head-quarters of a District of the same name. 

The town of Ellichpur has an interesting history. Local legend 
ascribes its foundation to the eponymous Raja II, said to have been 
a Jain who came from the village in Ellichpur District now known as 
Khan Zamannagar, in Samvat 11 15, corresponding to a.d. 1058. The 
legend represents him as a powerful independent Raja ; but from all 
that is known of the history of Berar at this period it seems that the 
province formed part of the kingdom of Somesvara I, of the restored 
Chalukya dynasty. The absurdities of the legend of the war of Raja II 
with Shah Abdur-Rahman Ghazi, a hero of the ' headless horseman ' 
type, said to be, like Salar Masud of Bahraich, a nephew of Mahmud 
of GhaznT, are sufficient to cast a doubt on the very existence of Raja 
II ; and it is not improbable that the whole story is a corruption of 
the Pachpirya legends of Northern India. 

The first mention of Ellichpur in authentic history is made by 
Barani, who describes it as being, towards the end of the thirteenth 
century a.d., 'one of the famous cities of the Deccan.' The city, and 
the district of which it was the capital, were assigned to Ala-ud-din 
after his first expedition to Deogiri in 1294, but still remained under 
Hindu administration, the revenues being remitted to Delhi. On the 
final fall of I)eogiri in 1318, the city, with the rest of Berar, came under 
the direct administration of the Muhammadan conquerors. During the 
rule of the Bahmani Sultans of the Deccan it was the capital of the taraf 
or province of Berar. Muhammad Shah (1378-97), the fifth king of 
that dynasty, established here an orphanage after the famine which 
occurred during his reign. Firoz Shah, the eighth king, halted at 
Ellichpur_in 1400 while his generals undertook a successful expedition 

c 2 


against the C.ond kingdom of Kherla; and Ahmad Shah Wall, the 
brother and successor of Firoz, halted with his army at the provincial 
capital, while the forts of Gawilgarh and Narnala were being built and 
repaired between 1425 and 1428. From 1490 to 1572 Kllichpur was 
the capital of Eerar under the kings of the Tmad Shahi dynasty'. On 
the overthrow of that dynasty by Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar 
in the latter year, the town again became a provincial capital. In 
the early days of the Mughal occupation of Berar its importance 
declined, owing to the selection of Balapur as the seat of the provincial 
governor; but it soon regained its position as the capital of the imperial 
STibah of Berar. It again lost most of its local prestige when Asaf Jah, 
the first Nizam, in 1724 became virtually the independent ruler of the 
Deccan, and the city was placed under a governor subordinate to the 
viceroy. The first governor appointed was Iwaz Khan, who ruled for 
five years (1724-8), and was succeeded by Shujaat Khan (1729- 
40), who quarrelled with the Maratha, Raghuji Bhonsla, fought with 
him near Bhugaon, and was killed in the battle. The victor plundered 
the Ellichpur treasury. Sharif Khan next succeeded and held ofifice 
from 1 75 1 to 1762. He claimed equality with the Nizam, who con- 
sequently deposed him. The Nizam's son, All Jah Bahadur, was then 
appointed governor ; but he administered by his deputy, Ismail Khan, 
the Afghan, the first of a succession of Afghan governors. The next in 
succession was Salabat Khan, who, though he remained only two years 
at Ellichpur, did much to improve the city. He enlarged the palace, 
made a public garden, and extended the ancient water-channels. He 
was a brave soldier, and, on war breaking out between the Nizam and 
Tipu Sultan, he was ordered to join the army, and distinguished himself 
in the field. He also saw service at the battle of Kardla, and was with 
General Wellesley's army in 1803. His son, Namdar Khan, received, 
besides his father's y';/^/;* of two lakhs, another of like value at Ellichpur, 
and succeeded his father as governor of Berar, with the title of Nawab, 
holding the governorship till his death in 1843. He is said to have 
been placed by his father under the special protection of General 
A\'ellesley ; and he received a separate jdglr for the payment of the 
Ellichpur Brigade. After some years he fell into arrears and gave up 
the greater part of his jag'ir, retaining only a rental of £3,500. He 
was succeeded by his nephew, Ibrahim Khan, who lived until 1846, 
when his widow's father, Ghulam Hasan, was allowed to inherit the 
estate and the title of Nawab on payment of a nazardna of 7 lakhs. 

' The kings of this dynasty were : — 

1. Fathiillah Imad-ul-mulk .... 1490-1504 

2. Ala-ud-dTii Iniad Shah .... 1504-29 

3. Darya Tmad Sliah ..... 1529-60 

4. Burhan Imad Shah ..... 1560-72 

EL LOR A 2t 

This sum he borrowed from a local banker, at whose suit the palace 
and other property of the Nawab at Ellichpur were attached. The 
family is now extinct. 

There is at Ellichpur a well-known dargdh or burial shrine, which 
bears the name of the mythical warrior, Abdur-Rahman, already men- 
tioned. Though the shrine is certainly not the resting-place of a nephew 
of Mahmud of Ghazni, it is by no means modern. It is said to have 
been built by one of the Bahmani Sultans more than four hundred 
years ago, and may thus have been erected by Ahmad Shah ^Vali 
during his visit to Ellichpur, in the belief that Mahmud's nephew 
actually perished here ; but as the legend of Dulha Rahman, as the 
saint is popularly known, connects this shrine with another at Kherla, 
where the hero's head is said to be buried, the more probable sup- 
position is that it was erected by Firoz Shah to the memory of one (jf 
his captains slain at Kherla in 1400. The iirs or anniversary ceremony 
of the mythical Abdur-Rahman is celebrated annually by a fair on 
the loth of Rabi-ul-awal. The old palace of the Nawabs is a building 
of little historical interest, but some of the tombs are handsome. 

The municipality of Ellichpur was created in 1869, and the receipts 
and expenditure for the ten years ending 1901 averaged Rs. 19,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 14,669, mainly derived from taxes; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 24,171, the principal heads being conservancy 
and public works. The municipality has not undertaken any new works 
of importance, but it maintains the old system of water-supply. The 
trade in cotton is considerable, the commodity being conveyed to 
Amraoti by road (32 miles). Cotton carpets are woven locally. There 
are excellent metalled roads connecting Ellichpur with Amraoti and 
with Chikalda via Ghatang (30 miles). Considerable quantities of 
forest produce are brought from the Melghat for sale in the weekly 
market. The more important public buildings are at the civil station of 
Paratwada, 2 miles distant. In the town are several relics of the 
Nawabs, such as gardens, wells, mosques, &c., besides several ginning 

Ellora ( F^r?//). — Village in the District and taluk of Aurangabad, 
Hyderabad State, situated in 20" 2\' N. and 75° 10' E., about 15 miles 
north-west of Aurangabad city. Population (1901), 1,095. Near the 
village is a handsome temple of red stone erected by Ahalya Bai, the 
Ram" of Indore (1767-95), which is considered a good specimen of 
modern Hindu architecture (Burgess). Ellora is famous for its rock- 
temples and caves, which extend along the face of a hill for a mile 
and a quarter, and are divided into three distinct series — Buddhist, 
Brahmanical, and Jain— and are arranged chronologically. They 
are excavated in the scarp of a large plateau, and run nearly north 
and south for about a mile and a (quarter, the scarp at each end of this 


interval throwing out a horn towards the west. The Buddhist caves, 
twelve in number, are situated at the south end ; the Indra Sabha or 
Jain grou}), consisting of five caves, lies at the other extremity of the 
series ; the Brahmanical caves, which number seventeen, are between 
the other two series. In age the caves vary from about the fifth to 
the ninth or tenth century, and important inscriptions have been found 
in them. Among the most interesting objects at Ellora is the Kailas 
temple, one of the most wonderful and interesting specimens of archi- 
tectural art in India. 

'Unlike any of the preceding cave-temples,' says Dr. Burgess, 
' Kailas is a great monolithic temple, isolated from surrounding rock, 
and carved outside as well as in. It stands in a great court averaging 
154 feet wide by 276 feet long at the level of the base, entirely cut out 
of the solid rock, and with a scarp 107 feet high at the back. In 
front of this court a curtain has been left, carved on the outside with 
the monstrous forms of Siva and Vishnu and their congeners, and with 
rooms inside it. It is pierced in the centre by an entrance passage, 
with rooms on each side. Passing this, the visitor is met by a large 
sculpture of Lakshmi over the lotuses, with her attendant elephant. 
There are some letters and a date on the leaves of the lotus on which 
she sits, but illegible, and probably belonging to the fifteenth century. 
On the bases of the pilasters on each side have been inscriptions in 
characters of the eighth century. As we enter, to right and left is the 
front portion of the court, which is a few feet lower than the rest, and 
at the north and south ends of which stand two gigantic elephants— 
that on the south much mutilated. Turning again to the east and 
ascending a few steps, we enter the great court occupied by the temple, 
whose base measures 164 feet from east to west, by 109 feet where 
widest from north to south. In front of it, and connected by a bridge, 
is a inandapa for the Nandi, and on each side of this mandapa stands 
a pillar or dvajdatid — ' ensign staff' — 45 feet high, or with what 
remains of a trisula of Siva on the top, a total height of about 
49 feet.' 

This temple was built by Krishna I, the Rashtrakuta king of 
Malkhed (760-83). 

\Archaeological Survey Reports of Western India, vol. v.] 
Ellore Subdivision. — Subdivision of Kistna District, Madras, 
consisting of the Ellore and Yernagudem taluks. 

Ellore Taluk.— Taluk on the northern border of Kistna District, 
Madras, lying between 16° 34' and 17° 13' N. and 80° 53' and 
81° 24' E., with an area of 778 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 181,035, compared with 171,985 in 1891. It contains one 
town, Ellore (population, 33,521), the head-quarters; and 206 
villages. The demand on account of land revenue and cesses in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,69,000. The taluk is sparsely populated; 
for, although the southern part of it lies within the influence of the 
irrigation systems of the Kistna and Godavari rivers, the northern and 


greater portion is covered with hills and jungle. On the south the 
taluk borders the Colair Lake. Two small streams, the Tanimileru and 
Ramileru, run through it, and are used to a certain extent for irrigation. 

Ellore Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and taluk of the 
same name in Kistna District, Madras, situated in 16° 43'' N. and 
81° 1' E., on the East Coast Railway, 304 miles from Madras, and at 
the junction of canals from the Godavari and Kistna rivers. The 
population in 1901 was 33,521, of whom Hindus numbered 29,098, 
Muhammadans 3,977, and Christians 443. 

About 8 miles north of Ellore, at Pedda Vegi, are extensive remains 
which are supposed to mark the site of the capital of the Buddhist 
kingdom of Vengi. After overrunning the country in 1470, the 
Muhammadans drew upon the ruins of the old city for materials for 
their fort at Ellore. The town was afterwards taken from the Gajapati 
kings of Orissa by Krishna Deva of Vijayanagar in 15 15, but was 
recovered by the Kutb Shahi Sultan of Golconda. His lieutenant 
then withstood a prolonged siege by the Hindu chieftains from north 
of the Godavari. With the fall of Rajahmundry in 1572 Ellore became 
the capital of the Sarkar of the same name ; and its history is thence- 
forward uneventful. It was for some time a cantonment for the 
Company's troops, but was early abandoned. 

Ellore is situated on the border of the swamps round the Colair 
Lake, and its climate is excessively hot. It is the chief market for 
the surrounding country, and has a large trade in grain. There are 
two tanneries near the town and a rice factory. Saltpetre, manufac- 
tured on a small scale in the neighbouring villages, is refined here. In 
the suburb of Tangellamudi, separated from Ellore by a stream called 
the Tammileru, the noted Ellore carpets are made. This industry, 
a very old one, is carried on solely by Muhammadans. Although it is 
now principally confined to cheap carpets of foreign design for export, 
well-woven carpets of old patterns can still be obtained. Both wool 
and dyes are prepared locally. 

Ellore was constituted a municipality in 1866. During the ten 
years ending 1902-3 the municipal receipts and expenditure averaged 
Rs. 33,000 and Rs. 36,000 respectively. The income in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 48,000, derived principally from the taxes on houses and lands 
(Rs. 15,000) and tolls (Rs. 11,000); the expenditure was Rs. 49,000, 
of which the main items were conservancy (Rs. ii,ogo) and roads 
(Rs. 12,000). A municipal hospital is maintained, in which there are 
24 beds for in-patients. The principal educational institution is the 
Church of England Mission's high school, founded in 1854 on the 
model of that at Masulipatam, to which a primary class is attached. 
The two together have an attendance of about 490. There is also 
a branch of the Church of England Zanana Mission. 


Eminabad. — ^Town in the District and tahstl of Gujranwala, 
Punjab, situated in 32° 2' N. and 74" 16' E., 8 miles south-east of 
Gujranwala town, on the North-AVestern Railway and the direct road 
to Amritsar. Population (1901), 6,494. The original town is said 
to have been ftjunded by Salivahan, Raja of Sialkot, and was once 
called Saiyidpur. Sher Shah destroyed it in the tenth century and 
built Shergarh, which was itself destroyed and its Afghan garrison 
expelled under Akbar by Muhammad Amin, after whom the new town 
was called. The Mughal emperors made Eminabad the capital of a 
mahdl in the Lahore Siibah. They were dispossessed in 1760 by Sardar 
Charat Singh. Ranjit Singh gave the town in jdglr to Raja Dhyan 
Singh of Jammu, and it has never lost its connexion with that State, 
several of whose prime ministers have been natives of PLminabad. A 
Sikh temple, the Rohri Sahib, commemorates the penance of Baba 
Nanak, when he made his bed on a heap of stones {rohri). The 
municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 3,500, and the expenditure Rs. 3,300. 
The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,000, chiefly from octroi ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 3,200. The town possesses an unaided Anglo- 
Sanskrit high school and also a Government dispensary. It is of no 
commercial importance. 

Enamakkal Lake. — A shallow lake in the Ponnani tdhik of 
Malabar District, Madras, lying between 10° 26' and 10° 36' N. and 
76° \' and 76° 14' E. It covers about 25 square miles, the major 
portion of which lies within the limits of Native Cochin, and is remark- 
able for the peculiar rice cultivation carried on in its bed. On the 
western side the lake is protected by a masonry dam from tidal 
influences. As soon as the dry season has set in, artificial dams of 
bamboo and mud are raised to a height of 4 or 5 feet all over the lake, 
and the water is baled out of each partition by means of Persian wheels 
and steam pumps into channels, which form waterways high above the 
cultivation on either side. The soil of the lake is a very fine silt, and 
excellent rice crops are raised. 

English Bazar, — Head-quarters of Malda District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam, consisting of a series of trading villages lining the right 
bank of the Mahananda, situated in 25° o' N. and 88° 9' E. Popula- 
tion (1901), 13,667. Being an open elevated site on the river bank in 
a mulberry-growing country, it was chosen in 1676 as the site of one of 
the Company's silk factories. The Dutch and the French also had 
settlements here, and the residence of the Civil Surgeon was formerly 
a Dutch convent. The East India Company's factory was of consider- 
able importance during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, and 
its ' Diaries and Consultations' from 1685 to 1693 are preserved in the 
India Office under the title of ' Maulda and Englesavade.' The town 

ERAN 25 

is still known as Angrezabad. In 1770 English Bazar was fixed upon 
for a Commercial Residency, and retained its importance until the 
discontinuance of the Company's private trade. An extensive trade in 
grain is now carried on. English Bazar was constituted a municipality 
in 1869. The income during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged 
Rs. 16,000, and the expenditure Rs. 15,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 19,000, of which Rs. 5,000 was derived from a tax on persons (or 
property tax), and Rs. 4,000 from a conservancy rate ; and the expen- 
diture was Rs. 16,000. The largest building is the public kacheri 
or courthouse, the former Commercial Residency, which is regularly 
fortified, and within its walls are all the public oftices. The District jail 
has accommodation for no prisoners. A small embankment protects 
it from the inundations of the Mahananda. 

Ennore. — Village in the Ponneri tdhik of Chingleput District, 
Madras, situated in 13° 13' N. and 80° 19' E., on the shore of the Bay 
of Bengal and on the Madras Railway. Population (1901), 3,192. Its 
proper name is Kattivakkam. It was once a favourite resort for Euro- 
peans from Madras, and contains several bungalows, built on the strip 
of land between the sea and the backwater, in which they used to stay ; 
but it has ceased to have any attractions, owing to the prevalence in 
recent years of virulent malarial fever, Ennore is now only a fishing 
village and a centre of salt manufacture. The sand-dunes along the 
coast at this point, which cover an area of about 20,000 acres, have 
been almost all taken up by private persons and converted into casua- 
rina plantations. This tree yields rapid returns, attaining, in favourable 
localities, its full growth in about fifteen years ; and as there is a large 
and increasing demand for firewood in Madras, the enterprise has 
reached such proportions as to change materially the physical aspect of 
long stretches of the coast in this neighbourhood. 

Eran. — Village in the Khurai tahsil of Saugor District, Central 
Provinces, situated in 24^ 6' N. and 78° 11' E., at the junction of the 
Bina and Reuta rivers, 6 miles from Bamora station on the Indian 
Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population 
(1901), 171. A most interesting collection of archaeological remains is 
to be seen on some high ground near the village. There were at one 
time several small Vaishnava temples, but these are now in ruins. The 
principal statue is a colossal Vardha, or figure of the boar-incarnation 
of Vishnu, 10 feet high and 15 feet long. A garland of small human 
figures is sculptured on a band round the neck, and the figure bears 
an inscription of the White Hun king Toramana. From a record of 
Samudra Gupta on a stone close by, it is inferred that this is one of the 
oldest Brahmanical statues in India, and the coins found here show that 
the place was inhabited before the Christian era. Another remarkable 
object is a great stone column, 47 feet high, standing before the temples, 

2 6 ERAN 

which bears an inscription of Biidha Gupta, dated in a.d. 484-5. 
Another inscription, on a i)illar now turned into a /ini^a/ii, records 
perhaps the earhest known sail immolation in India. 

[J. F. Fleet, Gufta htscriptions (1888), pp. 18, 88, 91, and 158.] 

Erandol Taluka.— 7'J///'X'rt of East Khandesh District, Bombay, 
lying between 20° 44' and 21° 9' N. and 75" 9' and 75° 31^ E., with an 
area of 458 square miles. There are three towns, Erandol (popula- 
tion, 11,885) ^"d Dharangaon (14,172) being the largest ; and 195 
villages. The population in 1901 was 105,840, compared with 105,808 
in 1891. The density, 231 persons per square mile, is above the Dis- 
trict average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 3 lakhs, 
and for cesses Rs. 20,000. The soil is part of the fertile Tapti valley. 
Mango groves are scattered all through the tdhika. Besides water- 
supply from the rivers, there were 2,213 wells used for irrigation in 
1902-3. The annual rainfall averages nearly 29 inches. 

Erandol Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name 
in East Khandesh District, Bombay, situated in 20° 55' N. and 
75° 20' E., on the Anjani river, 36 miles east of Dhulia. Population 
(1901), 11,885. Erandol is connected by metalled roads with the 
towns of Dhulia and Dharangaon (7 miles north-west), and the railway 
station of Mhasvad (9 miles south-east). It is a place of some anti- 
quity, and was formerly celebrated for its manufacture of coarse native 
paper, an industry which still survives to a limited extent. There is 
a considerable trade in cotton, indigo, and grain, the chief market 
being Jalgaon, a station 27 miles north-east. The town has one cotton- 
ginning factory. A fine stone quadrangle in the town, known as Pan- 
dav's vdda, contains the remains of a strongly built enclosed mosque 
richly carved, and constructed of old Hindu materials. About 5 miles 
south-east of the town on the top of a hill is the beautiful tank of 
Padmalya, near which is a temple of Ganpati. The municipality dates 
from 1866. The municipal income during the decade ending 1901 
averaged Rs. 9,100. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,600. The town 
contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a dispensary, and five schools 
with 743 pupils, of which one, with 60 pupils, is for girls. 

Erinpura. — Cantonment in the north-east of the State of Sirohi, 
Rajputana, situated in 25° 9' N. and 73° 4'' E., on the left bank of the 
Jawai river, about 6 miles from Erinpura Road station on the Raj- 
putana-Malwa Railway. Population (1901), 3,206. Erinpura is the 
head-quarters of the 43rd (Erinpura) Regiment, which has detachments 
at Abu, Bikaner, and Pachbhadar. By the treaty of 181 8 the Marwar 
Darbar was bound to furnish a contingent of 1,500 horse for the service 
of the British Government when required ; but the force thus supplied 
by it in 1832 proved so useless that the obligation was commuted 
in 1835 to an annual payment of 1-2 lakhs towards the maintenance of 


a corps, which was raised in 1836 and styled the Jodhpiir Legion. It 
was located on the site of the present cantonment, which Captain 
Downing, the commandant, named Erinpura after the island of his 
birth. The Legion consisted of three troops of cavalry and eight 
companies of infantry, with two 9-pounder guns ; and three companies of 
Bhils were added in 1841. With the exception of the latter the corps 
mutinied in 1857 ; and shortly after the Erinpura Irregular Force was 
raised, with the Bhil companies as a nucleus. This force was composed 
of a squadron of cavalry, mainly Sikhs, numbering 164 of all ranks, and 
eight companies of infantry, numbering 712. Bhils and Minas were 
mostly enlisted in the infantry, the object being to a.Tord occupation to 
the local tribes and thus wean them from their lawless habits. From 
the end of 1870 to 1881 the commandant was in political charge of 
Sirohi, and detachments were on several occasions sent out to assist 
the police in patrolling the disturbed tracts and arresting dacoits. In 
1895 the strength of the squadron was reduced from 164 to 100 of all 
ranks; in 1897 the force, which had till then been under the Foreign 
Department of the Government of India, was placed under the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and in 1903 it was renamed the 43rd (Erinpura) 
Regiment. At the present time the squadron consists of Sikhs and 
Musalmans from the Punjab, while the infantry are mainly composed of 
Rajputs, Minas, Mers, and Musalmans. 

Ernad. — Tahik in Malabar District, Madras, adjoining the Nilgiris, 
and lying between 10° 57' and 11° 32' N. and 75° 49^ and 76° 2,z' E. 
with an area of 979 square miles. It contains 54 amsa»is, or parishes. 
The population increased from 343,775 in 1891 to 357,142 in 1901. 
The land revenue demand in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 3,40,000. The 
only places of importance besides the head-quarters (Manjeri) are the 
military station of Malappuram, and the villages of Ferokh, Nilambijr, 
and Tirurangadi. The tdhik is made up of hills clothed with forest. 
The eastern portion includes the valley of Nilambur, which produces 
the finest teak and other timber in the District. The centre contains 
several smaller ranges separating more level valleys. The coast portion 
is more gently undulating, and is intersected in all directions by low 
ground in which rice is extensively cultivated. 

Ernagudem. — Taluk of Kistna District, Madras. See Yernagudem. 

Ernakulam. — Capital of Cochin State, Madras, situated in 9° 59' 
N. and 76° 17' E., on a backwater, 2 miles east of, and opposite to, 
British Cochin and the bar. Area, 5 square miles ; population (1901), 
21,901, consisting of 11,197 Hindus, 9,357 Christians, 935 Musalmans, 
and 412 Jews. Ernakulam is the terminus of the Cochin State Rail- 
way and is rapidly growing in population and importance. The chief 
public buildings and institutions are the Darbar Hall, where the British 
Resideut pays his state visits to the Raja, the office of the Dlwan and 


the Chief Court, tlic R'lja's College, containing more than 700 students, 
the General Hospital with 68 beds, the Central jail with accommodation 
for 200 prisoners, the St. Albert's high school managed by the Verapoli 
Mission, the St. Teresa's Convent with an orphanage and girls' school 
attached to it, the palace of the Romo-Syrian Bishop, and the Carmelite 
monastery. There are also four Catholic churches in the town. Its 
trade, which is not very considerable, is chiefly in the hands of the 
Konkanis and the Jews. The Residency is picturesquely situated on 
an island close to Ernakulam. It was originally a Dutch factory, built 
in 1774, but several additions and improvements have since been 
made to it. 

Erode Subdivision {Lvdti). — Subdivision of Coimbatore District, 
Madras, consisting of the td/uks of Erode, Bhavani, Dharapuram, 
and Karur. 

Erode Taluk. — Eastern taluk of Coimbatore District, Madras, lying 
between 11° 2' and 11° 27' N. and 77° 22' and 77° 55' E., with an area 
of 598 square miles. The population in 1901 was 275,460, compared 
with 247,008 in 1 89 1. There are 198 villages, and only one town, 
Erode (population, 15,529), the head-quarters. The demand for land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 5,07,000, a higher 
figure than in any other taluk. Erode is a gently undulating plain with 
no hills of importance and but little forest, sloping gradually to the 
Cauvery river, which bounds it on the east. It is rather bare of trees, 
and in the valley of the Cauvery the climate is hot and close. The 
irrigated land is of a good class, much of it being fed by the Kalinga- 
rayan channel from the Bhavani river. Wells are also unusually 
plentiful. The rainfall averages 27 inches at Erode, but it is variable 
and partial. Cambu is the chief cereal, and much cotton is raised. 

Erode Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name on the 
eastern border of Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in 11" 21' N. 
and 77*^43' E., 243 miles from Madras at a junction of the Madras and 
South Indian Railways, and close to the bank of the Cauvery. Popu- 
lation (1901), 15,529. It seems to have been long an important place. 
Early in the seventeenth century the Jesuit Fathers established a station 
here. In Haidar's time it is said to have contained 3,000 houses, 
which would be equal to a population of 15,000 souls; but in con- 
sequence of successive Maratha, Mysore, and British invasions the 
town became almost utterly deserted. It was taken from Madura by 
Mysore troops in 1667, and from Haidar by the British in 1768, only to 
fall into his hands again at the end of the same year. It was retaken 
in General Medows's expedition of 1790, but was abandoned on Tipu's 
advance. It does not appear to have been a place of any real strength. 
As soon as the peace was signed in 1792 the people returned, and 
within a year it had 400 houses and a population of over 2,000. It was 


garrisoned by the Company at first ; but the troops were witlidrawn in 
1807, and in 1877 the old fort was levelled as a famine-relief work. 

Erode is a well-built town and is the head-quarters of the divisional 
officer, the Assistant Superintendent of police, a District Munsif, a 
stationary sub-magistrate, a tahs?Iddr, and the Public Works depart- 
ment subdivisional officer. It was constituted a municipality in 187 1. 
The municipal receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 
T903 averaged Rs. 18,000. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 23,000, most of 
the income being derived from the house and land taxes. Surveys and 
levels for a drainage scheme have been taken. A water-supply scheme 
has been investigated, but has not been begun owing to want of funds. 
The antiquities of the town include two ancient temples which contain 
inscriptions in Tamil and Grantha characters. Its chief industries are 
a cotton-press and the making of carts. It is also the trade centre 
of this corner of the District. 

Etah District {Eta). — District in the Agra Division of the United 
Provinces, lying between 27° 18' and 28° 2' N. and 78° 11' and 79° 
\Y E., w^ith an area of 1,737 square miles. It is bounded on the north 
by the river Ganges, separating it from Budaun ; on the west by AlTgarh, 
Muttra, and Agra ; on the south by Agra and Mainpuri ; and on the 
east by Farrukhabad. Bordering on the Ganges lies a broad stretch of 
alluvial land, known as the tarai, reaching to the old high bank of the 
river. Below this is the stream called the Burhiganga, or old bed of 
the Ganges, which had become blocked in places by 
spits of sand, but has been deepened and straightened asnects 

by the Irrigation department, and now carries off 
drainage. The rest of the District is situated in the upland plain of 
the Doab, and its physical features depend chiefly on the rivers which 
cross it from north-west to south-east. The largest of these is the Kali 
Nadi (East), or KalindrT, as it is generally and more correctly called in 
this District. It has a deep and well-defined channel, but occasionally 
brings down disastrous floods. The other rivers are the Isan, Arind, 
and Sengar (also called the Isan here), which are dry in the hot season. 
The central tract contains a few marshes ox Jhl/s. 

The District consists entirely of Gangetic alluvium ; and kankar 
or calcareous limestone, and saline efflorescences on the soil, are the 
only minerals found. 

The flora presents no peculiarities. Trees and groves are com- 
paratively scarce ; the mango, nlm {Melia Azadirachta), tamarind, and 
jdmun {Eugenia Jamholana) are perhaps the commonest trees. The 
only jungle is composed of dhdk {Butea frondosa) or Imbul {Acacia 
arabica). The reeds found in the tarai are used extensively for thatch- 
ing and for making rope. 

Etah-was formerly noted for sport, and hog and antelope are still 


fairly common. Wild cattle have now become very rare, and the 
improvements to the Burhiganga have lessened the attractions for wild- 
fowl. Wolves are occasionally .seen, and jackals, though occurring in 
many parts, are comparatively rare. 

The absence of large marshes and the common occurrence of barren 
areas and sandy soil, together with the facilities for drainage, make the 
climate of Etah, except south of the Kali NadT, dry and healthy ; but 
dust-storms arc frequent in the hot season. In winter the cold is 
sometimes intense, though frost is rare. The annual rainfall for the 
District averages 29 inches, varying from 25 in the Jalesar iahsll in 
the west, to 34 in the Aliganj tahsil in the east. 

The early history of the District is altogether uncertain. Ancient 
mounds along the Kali Nadi point to the presence of important towns 
early in the Christian era. Tradition says that Ahirs 
and Bhars were followed by Rajputs, and the District 
must have formed part of the kingdom of Kanauj, When that king- 
dom was conquered by Muhammadans, Etah came under Muslim rule, 
and was governed from Koil, Biana, or Kanauj. Patiali, in the north 
of the District, was the principal town ; and it was visited by Ghiyas-ud- 
din Balban about 1270, who chastised the lawless peasantry in the 
neighbourhood, and left a garrison to keep open the roads and protect 
caravans and merchants. Constant expeditions were required in later 
years, and in the fifteenth century the District suffered from the struggle 
between Delhi and Jaunpur, being taken and retaken by the rival 
armies. Bahlol Lodi died at Saklt in 1489 from wounds received in 
a batde with the Rajputs. Under Akbar, raids against the refractory 
Hindus continued, and in the eighteenth century the District fell into 
the hands of the Bangash Nawabs of Farrukhabad ; but even these 
never obtained a firm hold. Later it was shared between the Nawab 
of Oudh and the Nawab of Farrukhabad, and was acquired by the 
British in 180 1-2, when the present area was distributed among the 
surrounding Districts. After many territorial changes a subdivision 
was formed in 1845, ^^ account of the lawlessness of the outlying 
portions, which included most of the present District ; and Etah became 
a separate charge in 1856. 

The succeeding year saw the outbreak at Meerut which quickly 
developed into the Mutiny of 1857. As soon as the troops in garrison 
at Etah received intelligence of the revolt at Aligarh, the whole body 
left the station without any disturbance. As there was no place of 
strength in the town and no force with which to defend it, the Magistrate 
found it necessary to withdraw until the mutineers from Mainpurl and 
Etawah had passed through. After a gallant but unsuccessful attempt 
to hold Kasganj, the whole District was abandoned on June 7, and the 
officers reached Agra in safety. Damar Singh, Raja of Etah, then set 


himself up as an independent ruler in the south of the District. As 
usual, however, rival claimants appeared in various quarters ; and to- 
wards the end of July the rebel Nawab of Farrukhabad practically took 
possession of the country for some months. On the approach of 
General Greathed's column from Delhi, the rebels retired, and Mr. Cocks 
was appointed Special Commissioner for Etah and Aligarh. The force 
at his disposal, however, was quite insufficient to restore order, and the 
rebels still continued to hold Kasganj. It was not till December 15 
that Colonel Seaton's column attacked the rebels at GangTri in Aligarh 
District, and after totally routing them, occupied Kasganj. By the 
middle of 1858 order was completely restored, and peace has not since 
been disturbed. 

The District contains several ancient sites, though these have not 
been fully explored. AtranjI Khera and Bilsar have at different times 
been identified with the Pi-lo-shan-na visited by Hiuen Tsiang in the 
seventh century \ At Bilsar were found two pillars with inscriptions 
of Kumara Gupta, dated in a.d. 415-6^. The village of Nuh Khera 
has extensive mounds containing relics of the Buddhist period, and it 
is still regarded by several of the gipsy tribes as their head-quarters. 
Patiali, Sarai Aghat, and Soron are other places of great antiquity, 
while the chief Muhammadan buildings are found at Marahra and 

There are 18 towns and 1,466 villages in the District. Population 
has fluctuated considerably during the last thirty years. The number 
at the last four enumerations was as follows: (1872) 
829,118, (1881) 756,523, (1891) 701,679, and(i9oi) op" at'on- 
863,948. The great decrease between 1872 and 1891 was due to 
the deterioration of the land owing to flooding about 1884; but there 
is some reason to believe that the figure for 1872 was over-estimated, 
and it is probable that the population did not alter much between 1872 
and 1 88 1. There are four tahsih — Etah, K.^sganj, AlTganj, and 
Jalesar — the head-quarters of each being at a place of the same 
name. The principal towns are the municipalities of Kasganj, 
Jalesar, Soron, and Etah, the District head-quarters, and the ' noti- 
fied area' of Marahra. The table on the next page gives the chief 
statistics of population in 190 1. 

Hindus form 88 per cent, of the total and Musalmans nearly 1 1 per 
cent. The density of population is about the same as that of the sur- 
rounding Districts, but the rate of increase between 1891 and 1901 was 
the highest in the United Provinces. This was due to recovery after 
previous bad seasons due to flooding. Western Hindi is spoken by 
almost the entire population, the prevailing dialect being Braj. 

' A. Cnniiingham, Anhaeological Sw-vcy Reports, vol. i, p. 269, and vol. xi, p. 13. 
^ J. F. Jleet, Gupta hiscriptions, p. 42. 







Number of 




3 5 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 












District total 








39 • 


+ 14-4 

+ 38.4 

-(- 26-9 
+ 10.2 





+ 23.1 


The most numerous castes among Hindus are : Chamars (leather- 
workers and labourers), 114,000; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 
88,000 ; Lodhas (cultivators), 88,000 ; Rajputs, 80,000 ; Brahmans> 
63,000 : and Kachhis (cultivators), 62,000. The District contains 
several gangs of wandering tribes, such as Habiiras and Nats. Among 
Muhammadans are found Shaikhs, 15,000; Pathans, 12,000; Fakirs, 
7,000 ; and Rajputs, 6,000. The agricultural population forms nearly 
6g per cent, of the total — a high proportion. Rajputs, Brahmans, 
and Kayasths are the principal landholders, while Rajputs, Brahmans, 
Lodhas, Ahirs, and Kachhis are the chief cultivators. 

Of the 4,268 native Christians in 1901, more than 3,700 were 
Methodists. The American Methodist Mission, to which these belong, 
is controlled from Agra, each tahsil forming a circuit. The American 
Presbyterian Church commenced work in the District in 1843, but 
has only recently appointed a minister here. There are also branches 
of the Church Missionary Society at Soron and Kasganj. 

The District comprises three natural tracts. The tarai^ ly'"g between 
the Ganges and its old high bank, south of the Burhiganga, contains 
rich fertile soil in its lower parts, while the higher 
ridges are bare sand. It is especially liable to injury 
from floods or from waterlogging. Between the Burhiganga and the 
Kali NadI lies an area which consists of a light sandy soil, flanked by 
strips of high sandy uplands near the rivers, but changitig near the 
centre to loam and barren usar. This tract also has suffered much in 
the past from waterlogging, and, where cultivation is relaxed, from the 
growth of the grass called kdns {Saccharum spontaneuni). Along the 
south bank of the Kali NadI stretches another line of high sandy soil, be- 
yond which is a rich plain of fertile loam interspersed with usar plains. 

The tenures are those usually found in the United Provinces. Out 
of 2,500 mahdls^ about 1,500 are zamlnddri and 1,000 pattiddri or 
bhatydchdrd, the last class being very few in number. The main 
agricultural statistics for 1898-9^ are given in the following table, in 
square miles : — 

' Later figures are not available, owing to settlement operations. 























The areas in square miles under the principal food-crops in the same 
year were: wheat (332), barley (147), hdjra (140), y6i7c''(?r (123), maize 
(113), and gram (99). Cotton occupied 48 square miles, sugar-cane 27, 
indigo 23, and poppy 12. 

There has been some improvement in agricultural methods during 
the last thirty years. This has chiefly taken the form of an increase in 
the double-cropped area. ^Vheat has largely taken the place of barley, 
and mai/.e is more extensively grown. The culiivation of indigo largely 
extended at one time, but is now practically non-existent. A most 
important change has been the opening of the Fatehgarh branch of the 
Upper Ganges Canal, accompanied by the improvement of drainage 
throughout the District. The cultivators take advances readily under 
the Agriculturists' Loans Act in adverse seasons, whether wet or dry ; 
more than i^ lakhs was lent between 1891 and 1904. The amount 
lent under the Land Improvement Act was only Rs. 90,000, more than 
half (jf which was advanced in 1896-7. 

The breed of cattle is of the ordinary inferior type found throughout 
the Doab ; but in the Jalesar tahs'il the animals are a little better. 
An attempt has been made to improve the breed of horses and ponies, 
and since 1894 a (lovernment stallion has been kept. Private persons 
also maintain two good stallions. The sheep and goats are inferior. 

In the tarai irrigation is usually unnecessary, though wells can be 
readily made when required. The rest of the District is served by the 
Fatehgarh and Bewar branches of the Lower Ganges Canal, and by the 
Cawnpore and Etawah branches of the Upper Ganges Canal. The main 
channel of the Lower Ganges Canal crosses the Kali Nad! at Nadrai, 
near Kasganj, by a magnificent aqueduct which was carried away by 
a flood in 1885, but has been rebuilt. \\'ells can be made in the whole 
of this tract, except in the high sandy ridges near the rivers, but are 
often of little use where the subsoil is sandy. In 1902-3 the total area 
irrigated was 461 square miles, of which wells supplied 254, canals 176, 
tanks ox jh'i/s 18, and rivers 13. In dry years the rivers are used more 

Block kankar or calcareous limestone is found in the uplands, and the 
nodular form occurs in all parts of the District. Saltpetre, salt, and 
sulphate-of soda are found in saline efflorescences. 


34 ETA 1 1 n I STRICT 

The chief industries carried on are coiton-weaving, sugar-refining, 

glass-making, and the preparation of saUpetre and sulphate of soda. 

Cotton is woven as a liand industry all over the I )is- 

Trade and ^^j^^^ Sugar refineries conducted by native methods 
communications. ^ , . , 

are found chiefly in the towns near the tarat, where 

sugar-cane is largely grown. About 250 factories prepare crude salt- 
petre, the average out-turn at each being approximately 100 maunds. 
There are also eight refineries, which produce an annual out-turn of 
nearly 8,000 maunds of refined saltpetre. Sulphate of soda is made at 
about 80 factories, each producing 200 maunds annually. In 1903 a 
cotton-press employed 128 hands, and three cotton-gins 795 hands. 
Five other factories have been opened since. 

Etah has a considerable export trade in agricultural produce. 
Cotton, wheat, barley, pulses, millet, opium, and sugar are the chief 
items ; but saltpetre and country glass are also exported. The imp(jrts 
include piece-goods, metals, and salt. Most of the foreign tratific is 
carried by the railway, but a great deal passes by road to and from the 
adjacent Districts. There is a little traffic on the canal with Aligarh, 
Mainpuri, and Cawnpore. Kasganj and Jalesar are the chief trading 
centres, and Soron is noted as a place of pilgrimage. 

The Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway crosses the District from east to 
west. A branch line, connecting Kasganj with Soron on the Burhi- 
ganga, meets at the latter place a branch of the Rohilkhand and 
Kumaun Railway, which passes across the Ganges to Budaun and 
Bareilly. The East Indian Railway runs close to the western border 
of the Jalesar tahsil. The total length of metalled roads is 140 miles, 
and of unmetalled roads 488 miles. The metalled roads are all in 
charge of the Public Works department ; but the cost of maintaining 
87 miles is charged to the District board, which is also in charge of 
the unmetalled roads. Avenues of trees are maintained on 165 miles. 
The grand trunk road runs through the District from south-east to 
north-west, and other metalled roads lead to Agra, Muttra, MainpurT, 
and to the Ganges. 

The memory of the famines of 1783-4 and of 1803 long survived in 
this District. In 1837-8 famine was again severe, and many deaths 
. occurred in spite of relief measures, while the prices 

of all grain doubled. The next great famine occurred 
in 1 860-1, and was known to the peasantry by the graphic title of 
' seven seer famine,' as the cheapest food sold at the rate of seven seers 
per rupee. In 1868-9 the District escaped from famine, though 
visited by drought and scarcity; and in 1877-8 canal-irrigation saved 
a large area of the crops, but distress was felt among the crowds of 
immigrants who poured in from the tracts south of the Jumna. Before 
the next famine of 1896-7 canal-irrigation had been largely extended. 



and, though relief works were opened, the numbers who came to them 

were small. 

The Collector is assisted by a member of the Indian ("ivil Service 

(when available) and by four Deputy-Collectors re- . , , . 

1 • T 1- A / 7 7j- • .• J . .1 Administration. 

cruited \\\ India. A tahsildar is stationed at the 

head-quarters of each tahsll. 

There are three Munsifs, and the whole District is included in the 
civil and criminal jurisdiction of the Judge of Allgarh, sessions cases 
being usually tried by the Additional Judge. Crime is very heavy in 
I'itah, and murders, dacoities, and cattle-thefts are common, besides 
the more ordinary offences. Cases under the Opium and Excise Acts 
are also frequent. Female infanticide was formerly rife, but no portion 
of the population is now under surveillance. 

The nucleus of the District was formed out of the surrounding 
Districts in 1845, ^'^'^ '^s early fiscal history belongs to Farrukhabad, 
Budaun, Allgarh, and Mainpuri. The earliest settlements after acqui- 
sition by the British were for short terms, and were based merely on 
a consideration of the previous demands and a rough estimate of the 
condition of villages. The first regular settlement under Regulation IX 
of 1833 was carried out in the Districts named above before Etah 
became a separate unit, and the revenue assessed was about 7-2 lakhs, 
excluding the Jalesar tahsll, which was added later. A subsequent 
revision was made at first by various Collectors, in addition to their 
ordinary District work, and later by Settlement otificers, between 1863 
and 1873. The methods adopted varied, but agreed in selecting rates 
of rent for each class of soil, and valuing the ' assets ' at those rates, 
modified by the circumstances of individual villages. The demand so 
fixed amounted to 9-3 lakhs. In 1879 the Jalesar /a/w7/ was transferred 
from Agra to this District, the revenue on which amounted to 2-9 lakhs. 
After heavy rainfall in 1884-6 there was great deterioration in the iarai 
and central tract, and a large area fell out of cultivation and became 
overgrown with kd)is {Saccharu»i spontaneuni). By 1893 the revenue 
had been reduced by Rs. 57,000. The latest revision was made 
between 1902 and 1905. Although the revenue was slightly raised to 
12-4 lakhs, much relief has been afforded by a redistribution of the 
demand, which now amounts to 48 per cent, of the net 'assets.' 

Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have been, 
in thousands of rupees : — 


1 890- 1. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue 






Their are four municipalities — Kasganj, Jalesar, Soron, and 

D 2 

36 r.lWn DTSTRTCT 

Etah — and one 'notifu'd area," M\k.\iii-;\. hrsidcs thirteen towns 
adniinisiereil under Act XX of 1856. Beyond tlir limits of these, 
local affairs are managed by the District board, which had an income 
of Rs. 96,000 in 1903-4, chiefly from rates. The expenditure on roads 
and buildings was Rs. 51,000. 

There are 17 police stations; and the District Superintendent of 
police commands a force of 4 inspectors, 83 subordinate officers, and 
322 men, besides 200 municipal and town police, and more than 1,500 
rural and road police. The District jail contained a daily average of 
267 prisoners in 1903. 

Etah takes a low place as regards literacy, and in 1901 only 2-2 per 
cent, of the population (3-8 males and 0-2 females) could read and 
write. The number of public schools fell from 155 in 1 880-1 to 131) 
in 1900-T ; but the number of pupils increased from 4,306 to 4,585. 
In 1903-4 there were 229 public schools with 7,179 pupils, of whom 
620 were girls, besides 129 private schools with 1,314 pupils. Most of 
the schools are primary ; three are managed by Government, and 136 
by the District or municipal boards. Out of a total expenditure on 
education of Rs. 34,000 in 1903-4, Local funds contributed Rs. 28,000 
and fees Rs. 2,500. 

There are 10 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
90 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 76,000, of 
whom 800 were in-patients, and 2,600 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 11,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 30,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting a proportion of 35 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is 
compulsory only in the municipalities. 

[S. O. B. Ridsdale, Settkme/if Repoii (1874); Distrid Gazetteer 
(1876, under revision).] 

Etah Tahsil. — Central tahsll of Etah District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Etah-Sakit, Sonhar, and Marahra, and lying 
between 27° 20' and 27° 47° N. and 78° 25' and 78° 56'' E., with an 
area of 492 square miles. Population increased from 227,030 in 
1891 to 259,773 in 1901. There are 463 villages and four towns, the 
largest of which are Etah (population, 8,796), the District and tahsll 
head-quarters, and Marahra (8,622). The demand for land revenue 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,06,000, and for cesses Rs. 66,000. The density 
of population, 528 persons per square mile, is above the District 
average. This tahsil is bounded on the north and east by the Kali 
NadI, while the Isan flows across the southern portion. A small 
alluvial tract lies on the bank of the Kal! NadT, from which a gentle 
slope leads to the upland area. The edge of the slope is sandy, but 
most of the tahsll is a fertile area which, however, tends to become 
sandy in the east and is interspersed with stretches of iisar land. 


Ample irrigation is afforded by the main channel of the Lower Ganges 
Canal and its Bewar branch, and by the Cawnpore and Etawah 
branches of the Upper Ganges Canal. The Irrigation department has 
done much to improve the drainage. In 1898-9 the area under 
cultivation was 274 square miles, of which 171 were irrigated. Wells 
supply more than double the area served by canals. 

Etah Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsll of the same 
name, United Provinces, situated in 27° 34' N. and 78° 41' E., on the 
grand trunk road, 19 miles from Kasganj station on the Cawnpore- 
Achhnera Railway. Population (1901), 8,796. The town is said to 
have been founded in the fourteenth century by Sangram Singh, a 
Chauhan Rajput descended from Prithwi Raj of Delhi. His descen- 
dants occupied the surrounding territory until the Mutiny, when Raja 
Damar Singh rebelled, Etah derives its importance chiefly from the 
presence of the civil station, removed here from Patiali in 1856 on 
account of its more central position. The principal market-place, 
Mayneganj, which has been recently improved and enlarged and is the 
property of the municipality, perpetuates the name of Mr. F. O. 
Mayne, C.B., a former Collector. Westward lies the new town with the 
principal public buildings, a fine temple, school, municipal hall, ta/isi/i, 
dispensary and hospital, and the District offices. The site is low and 
was formerly subject to floods ; but a cutting to the Isan river, effected 
by Mr. Mayne, partially remedied this evil, and an effective drainage 
scheme has been undertaken by the municipality, through the Canal 
department. The American Methodist and Presbyterian Missions are 
both represented. Etah has been a municipality since 1865. During 
the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged 
Rs. 12,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 21,000, chiefly from octroi 
(Rs. 14,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 23,000. There is a good 
deal of road tratific through the town, and eight commodious sarais 
provide for this. The tahslli school has about 200 pupils, and the 
municipality maintains one school and aids nine others with 340 

Etaiyapuram. — Zaintnddri estate and town in Tinnevelly District, 
Madras. See Ettaiyapuram. 

Etawah District {Itdtvd or Itdwa). — District in the Agra Division 

of the United Provinces, lying between 26° 22' and 27° i' N. and 78° 

45' and 79° 45' E., with an area of 1,691 square miles. It is bounded 

on the north by Mainpuri and Farrukhabad ; on the east by Cawnpore ; 

on the south by Jalaun ; and on the west by the State of Gwalior and 

Agra District. Etawah lies entirely in the Gangetic . 

" . Physical 

plain, but its [)hysical features vary considerably and aspects. 

are determined by the rivers which cross it. Chief 

of theiiE is the Junma. which forms part of the western buuudary, 

38 ETAU .1// J) I STRICT 

and then flows across the western portion of the District to the southern 
boundary, where it separates Etawah from Jalaun. The area north-east 
of the Jumna is a level tract of extremely fertile soil, intersected by 
small rivers, the Pandii, the Arind, with its tributaries the Ahncya and 
Puraha, and the more important Sengar, with its tributary the Sirsa. 
In this area the stretch of rich cultivation is interrupted by patches of 
barren soil called iisar, and by swamps or j hi Is. The banks of both 
the Sengar (in the lower reaches) and the Jumna are high and fissured 
by deep ravines, increasing in wildness and extent as the rivers flow 
eastward. West of the Jumna the character of the country changes 
completely. The river Chambal forms part of the western boundary of 
the District, and after a winding course across i)art of it falls into the 
Jumna near the southern boundary, and south-west of it the Kuari 
also divides Etawah from the State of Gwalior. The area between the 
Jumna and Chambal presents, for the most part, a scene of wild deso- 
lation, which can hardly be equalled in the plains of India, In the 
central tract a small area of level upland is found ; but in the north- 
west and south-east the network of ravines which borders both the 
rivers meets in an inextricable maze. The finest view of this desolate 
wilderness is obtained from the fort at Bhareh, which stands near the 
junction of the Chambal and Jumna, and within a few miles c^f the junc- 
tion of the Kuari, Sind, and Pahuj. South-west of the Chambal lies a 
tract as inhospitable as that just described, but with ravines of a less 
precipitous nature. 

The District consists entirely of Gangetic alluvium, and the chief 
mineral product is kankar or limestone. This occurs in both nodular 
and block form, especially in the ravines. Reefs of kankar obstructing 
the navigation of the Jumna were removed many years ago, when some 
interesting mammalian remains were discovered '. 

The flora is that of the plains generally. A large jungle once existed 
in the north-east, but has been largely cut down and cultivated, and 
only patches oi dkdk {Bu/ea frondosa) remain. The chief trees growing 
wild are varieties of acacia, especially the babul {Acacia aiabica), and 
the District is fairly well wooded. Near the town of Etawah a portion 
of the Jumna ravines was enclosed as a fuel and fodder reserve, but this 
has been leased to a Cawnpore tannery as a babul plantation. Else- 
where the ravines are generally covered merely witli grass and thorny 
brushwood, or are entirely bare. 

Leopards are occasionally seen in the wild tract south of the Jumna, 
and a tiger was shot in the Reserve in tlie Eisher Eorest in 1902. 
Wolves are becoming rare, and hog are commonest near the ravines and 
in the jungle near the north of the District. 'I'he antelope and ulli^ai 
are found in the Doab, and 'ravine deer' (gazelle) near the rivers. 
' Joitntal, .hialic Socif/j' 0/ Bengal. %ol. ii, p. 622. 



Duck, teal, and snipe abound in the cold season. 'I'hc larger rivers 
contain turtles, crocodiles, and the Gangetic porpoise, besides a great 
variety of fish. 

The climate is that of the Doab generally. From April to the break 
of the monsoon hot west winds are usual, but the District is regarded as 
healthy. The annual rainfall averages 32 inches. Only slight variations 
occur in different parts, but the north-east receives a little more than 
the west. Considerable fluctuations are recorded from year to year. 
In 1868-9 the fall was less than 15 inches, while a year earlier it was 
nearly 50. 

Numerous mounds still show the ancient sites of prehistoric forts 
throughout the District, which long formeci a main stronghold of the 
Meos, the Ishmaelites of the Upper Doab. In their 
hands it doubtless remained until after the earliest 
Muhammadan invasion, as none of the tribes now inhabiting its borders 
has any traditions which stretch back beyond the twelfth century of 
our era. Etawah was probably traversed both by Mahmud of Ghazni 
and by Kutb-ud-din on their successful expeditions against the native 
dynasties ; but the memorials of these events are indistinct on all local 
details. It is clear, however, that the Hindus of Etawah succeeded on 
the whole in maintaining their independence against the Musalman 
aggressors ; for while some of the neighbouring Districts have a number 
of influential Muhammadan colonies, only a thin sprinkling of Shaikhs 
or Saiyids can be found among the territorial families of Etawah. The 
Rajputs seem to have occupied the District during the twelfth century. 
Etawah town lies on one of the old routes through Northern India, and 
became the seat of a Muhammadan governor ; but the histories teem 
with notices of raids conducted with varying success by the Saiyid 
generals against the 'accursed infidels' of Etawah. The Hindu chiefs 
were generally able to defend their country from the invaders, though 
they made peace after each raid by the payment of a precarious tribute. 
Early in the sixteenth century Babar conquered the District, together 
with the rest of the Doab ; and it remained in the power of the Mughals 
until the expulsion of Humayun. His Afghan rival, Sher Shah, found 
this portion of his dominions difficult to manage, and stationed 12,000 
horsemen in and near the neighbouring pargana of Hatkant (now the 
Bah fahsllxw Agra District), who dealt out such rude measures of jus- 
lice as suited the circumstances of the place and the people. Akbar 
included parts of Etawah in his sarkars of Agra, Kanauj, Kalpi, and 
Erachh. But even that great administrator failed to incorporate 
Etawah thoroughly with the dominions of the Delhi court. Neither as 
proselytizers nor as settlers have the Musalmans impressed their mark 
so deeply here as in other Districts of the Doab. During the decline 
of the ^Mughal power, Etawah fell at first into the hands of the 


Marathas. The battle of I'anTpat dispossessed them for a while, and 
the District became an apanage of the Jat garrison at Agra. In 1770 
the Marathas returned, and for three years they occupied the Doab 
afresh. But when, in 1773, Najaf Khan drove the intruders southward, 
the Nawab \\'az!r of Oudh crossed the Ganges, and laid claim to his 
share of the spoil. During the anarchic struggle which closed the cen- 
tury, Etawah fell sometimes into the hands of the Marathas. and some- 
times into those of the Wazir ; but at last the power of Oudh became 
firmly established, and was not questioned until the cession to the East 
India Company in 1801. Even after the British took possession many 
of the local chiefs maintained a position of independence, or at least of 
insubordination ; and it was some time before the revenue officers 
ventured to approach them with a demand for the Government dues. 
Gradually, however, the turbulent landowners were reduced to obe- 
dience, and industrial organization took the place of the old predatory 
regime. The murderous practice of fhagl had been common before the 
cession, but was firmly repressed by the new power. In spite of a 
devastating famine in 1837, which revolutionized the proprietary system 
by dismembering the great talukas or fiscal farms, the District steadily 
improved for many years under the influence of settled government. 
The Mutiny of 1857 interrupted for some months this progress. 

News of the outbreak at Meerut reached Etawah two days after its 
occurrence. Within the week, a small body of mutineers passed 
through the District and fired upon the authorities, upon which they 
were surrounded and cut down. Shortly after, another body occupied 
Jaswantnagar, and, although a gallant attack was made upon them by 
the local officials, they succeeded in holding the place. On May 22 it 
was thought desirable to withdraw from Etawah town ; but the troops 
mutinied on their march, and it was with difficulty that the officers and 
ladies reached Barhpura. There they were joined by the first Gwalior 
Regiment, which, however, itself proved insubordinate on June 17. It 
then became necessary to abandon the District and retire to Agra. 
The Jhansi mutineers immediately occupied Etawah, and soon passed 
on to MainpurT. Meanwhile many of the native officials proved them- 
selves steady friends of order, and communicated whenever it was 
possible with the Magistrate at Agra. Bands of rebels from different 
quarters passed through between July and December, until on Christ- 
mas Day Brigadier Walpole's column re-entered the District. Etawah 
station was recovered on January 6, 1858 ; but the rebels still held the 
Shergarh ghat, on the main road to Bundelkhand, and the whole south- 
west of the District remained in their hands. During the early months 
of 1858 several endeavours were made to dislodge them step by step ; 
but the local force was not sufficient to allow of any extensive opera- 
lions. Indeed, it was only by very slow degrees that order was 



restored ; and as late as December 7 a body of plunderers from Oudh, 
under Firoz Shah, entered the District, burning and killing indiscrimi- 
nately wherever they went. They were attacked and defeated at 
Harchandpur, and by the end of 1858 tranciuillily was completely re- 
stored. Throughout the whole of this trying period the loyalty exhibited 
by the people of Etawah themselves was very noticeable. Though 
mutineers were constantly marching through the District, almost all the 
native officials remained faithful ; and many continued to guard the 
treasure, and even to collect revenue, in the midst of anarchy and rebel- 
lion. The principal zaminddrs also were loyal almost to a man. 

The District is rich in ancient mounds, though none has been 
explored. Munj and Asai Khera in the Etawah tahsil have been 
identified with places visited by Mahmud of Ghazni, but with doubtful 
accuracy (see Zafarabad). At the latter place a number of Jain 
sculptures, dated between the ninth and twelfth centuries, have been 
discovered. Several copperplate grants of Gobind Chand of Kanauj, 
dated early in the twelfth century, have been found at different places. 
The most striking building in the District is the Jama Masjid at 
Etawah town, built by altering an ancient Hindu or Buddhist 

There are 6 towns and 1,474 villages. Population has increased 
considerably during the last thirty years. The number of inhabitants 
at the last four enumerations was as follows: (1872) 
668,641, (1881) 722,371, (1891) 727,629, and (1901) 
806,798. The District is divided into four tahslls — -Etawah, Bhar- 
THANA, BiDHUNA, and AuRAiYA — the head-t]uarters of each being at 
a place of the same name. The principal town is the municipality 
of Etawah, the administrative head-quarters of the District. The 
following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 


'J ahsil ■ 

Area in square 

Number of 


(U . 



4 7'5 

5.2^ c 2^ 
S 2 a" <« 

Ph — 

+ 9-1 

+ 1 2-4 

+ 9-9 
+ '2-3 




persons ab 

read an 


Bharthana . 

District total 















4- 10.9 


About 94 per cent, of the total are Hindus and less than 6 per cent. 
Musalmans, the latter proportion being the lowest in any District of the 
Doab. -^The absence of large towns and the barren area in the south- 

42 E TAW All n I STRICT 

west cause a low density. The increase between 1891 and 1901 was 
large, as the District escaped from serious famine, and the number 
was augmented by immigration. Almost the whole population speak 
Western Hindi, the prevailing dialect being Kanaujia. 

Among Hindus the most numerous castes are Chamars (leather- 
workers and labourers), 107,000 ; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 
103,000; Brahmans, 97,000: Rajputs, 69,000; Kachhis (cultivators), 
51,000; Lodhas (cultivators), 48,000; Banias, 29,000; and Koris 
(weavers), 27,000. It has already been stated that Muhammadans 
form a very small part of the total. The principal tribes are Pathans, 
11,000, and Shaikhs (many of whom are descended from converted 
Hindus), 16,000. The agricultural population forms 70 per cent, of 
the total, while 7 per cent, are supported by general labour and 6 per 
cent, by personal services. Brahmans and Rajputs each hold about 
one-third of the land in proprietary right. Brahmans, Rajputs, and 
AhIrs occupy the largest areas as tenants ; but Kachhis and Lodhas 
are the best cultivators. Ahlrs are the founders of many new hamlets, 
as they prefer to have waste land as pasturage for their cattle, and are 
more ready to migrate than most castes. 

There were 198 native Christians in 1901, of whom 62 were Presby- 
terians. The American Presbyterian Church has had a mission here 
since 1863, with two out-stations. 

The District contains four natural divisions affecting cultivation. 

The tract north-east of the Sengar is known as the pachar. The soil 

. , is a rich loam, interspersed with large tracts of usar 

Agriculture. , , •/-/ 1 j c c 

and marshes or j litis, and produces fine crops of 

wheat and sugar-cane. South-west of the Sengar, and reaching to the 
high ground in which the Jumna ravines begin, lies an area known 
as the ghat', the s(jil of which is a red sandy loam. Water is at a great 
depth, and there are no usar i)lains and no jh'ds. The extension of 
canal-irrigation has made this the most fertile tract in the District, and 
there is now little difference between it and the pachar. The uplands 
and ravines of the Junina are called the karkha. The uplands are 
similar to the ghdr, but the ravines are barren. Along the Jumna rich 
alluvial land is found in places where the river does not approach the 
high bank. The area between the Jumna and Chambal and south- 
west of the Chambal, called par, is largely uncultivated. Where the 
ravines do not meet, the table-land is composed of good loam. The 
Chambal alluvium is black soil resembling the mar of Bundelkhand, 
and is fertile ; but there is little of it. ^^'here the ravines contain 
good soil, this is protected by terraces and embankments, as in the 
Kumaun hills. 

The tenures are those usually found in the United Provinces. Out 
of 4,282 malials, 2,030 are held zaiiu/iddri and 1,252 paltiddri or 



bhaiyachara ; but the last class of tenure is very rare. 'l"he main 
agricultural statistics in 1903-4 are given below, in square miles: — 





















8 76 



The chief food-crops, with their area in square miles, in the same 
year were: wheat (179), gram {\i,A^, joivdr (93), barley (135), and 
bajra (150). Cotton covered 68 square miles and poppy 34. 

There has been no extension of the cultivated area in the last thirty 
years. The area twice cropped has, however, nearly doubled, and 
is now about a fifth of the cultivated area. The cultivation of cotton 
and sugar has decreased, but on the other hand the area under maize 
and rice is higher than in 1872. In the west of the District drainage 
was obstructed by the railway and by the BhognTpur branch of the 
canal, but has been improved. Advances under the Agriculturists' 
Loans Act have been taken freely in adverse seasons. Thus in the wet 
years, 1890-2, Rs. 61,000 was advanced, and in the scarcity of 1896-7 
Rs. 22,000. In ordinary years the advances are usually less than 
Rs. 1,000. About Rs. 47,000 was advanced in 1896-7 under the 
Land Improvement Loans Act ; but in favourable seasons very few 
applications are received. 

The District has no particular breed of cattle or horses. No attempts 
have been made to improve the indigenous strains, and the best cattle 
are imported, 'i'he buffaloes are, however, noted for milch purposes. 
Sheep and goats are reared in considerable numbers between the 
Jumna and Chambal, and have a considerable reputation in the Doab. 
The goats, in particular, are jmrchased and kept to give milk. 

The pachdr or tract north-east of the Sengar is irrigated by the 
Etawah branch of the Lower Ganges Canal, and the ghar or red-soil 
area between the Sengar and the Jumna by the Bhognipur branch 
of the same canal. In 1903-4 canals irrigated 276 square miles, wells 
105, and tanks and other sources 16. ^^'ells are most common in 
the paclidr^ and are hardly used for irrigation in the karkha or the 
par area. 

Calcareous limestone or kankar is found in many parts of the Dis- 
trict, both in nodules and in bUxk form. The hardest variety is 
obtained from the ravines, where it has been washed free from 

44 ETA 1 1.11/ DISTRICT 

There are very few manufactures in the District. A little cotton 

cloth is woven in many villages, and finer kinds were formerly made 

at Etawah town. Crude glass is made at a few 

Trade and places, and jaswantnagar is noted for brass-work. 
communications. ' . ' . -^ ° , • i 

Indigo IS still made m 35 factories, employing about 

1,700 hands; and 8 cotton-gins, 3 of which contain presses, employ 

about 1,000. There is also a small sandal-oil factory at Sarai 


Cotton, g/u, gram, and oilseeds form the principal exports. Much 
of the ghl comes from the State of Gwalior, and is sent to Calcutta and 
Bombay, while cotton is exported to Cawnpore, Bombay, and Calcutta. 
'J'he imports are chiefly piece-goods, metals, drugs, and spices. There 
was formerly considerable traffic on the Jumna, but this has now ceased. 
Many fairs and markets are held in the District. 

The East Indian Railway passes through the centre of the District 
from south-east to north-west, and extensions to tap the trade of the 
rich ghdr tract are under consideration. There are 89 miles of 
metalled and 443 miles of unmetalled roads, all of which are main- 
tained at the cost of Local funds, though the former are managed by 
the Public Works department. The old imperial road from Agra to 
Allahabad runs through the District, but very little of it has been 
metalled. The chief trade route is the road from Farrukhabad to 
Gwalior, which is metalled, and good feeder-roads have been made 
to the principal railway stations. Avenues of trees are maintained on 
305 miles. 

The District has suffered repeatedly from famine. Immediately 
after the commencement of British rule, drought and hailstorms caused 
much distress in 1803-4. Minor famines occurred 
in 1 81 3-4, 1 81 9, and 1825-6. The great famine of 
1837-8 was most severely felt, and led to the breaking up of many 
large estates. In 1860-1 and in 1868-9 Etawah escaped as compared 
with other Districts. In 1877-8, though the rains failed almost com- 
pletely, the canal commanded a large area and saved the harvest. 
Prices were high and relief works were opened, but famine was not 
severe. The famine of 1896-7 was felt in the kharka and par tracts. 
Relief works were necessary, and the daily number on them rose to 
nearly 18,000 in February, 1897. Revenue was remitted to the extent 
of Rs. 59,000. 

The ordinary District staff consists of a Collector, a Joint Magistrate 

belonging to the Indian Civil Service, and three Deputy-Collectors 

recruited in India. There is a tahsildar at the head- 
Administration. ^ c U ^ 7 -/ 'P T- .■ T- • 

quarters of each tahsil. 1 wo Executive Engineers 
in charge of divisions of the Lower (ianges Canal and an officer of the 
Opium department are stationed at Flawah town. 


There are two regular District Munsifs : l)ut I'^tawah is included in 
the Civil and Sessions Judgeship of MainpurT. On the whole, crime 
is lighter than in other Districts of the Agra Division ; dacoities and 
cattle-theft are, however, common. Female infanticide was formerly 
rife, but is rarely suspected now. 

A District of Etawah was formed at the cession in 1801 ; but it 
included large areas now in adjoining Districts, and was administered 
from Mainpurl. Many changes took place, and in 1824 four sub- 
divisions were formed. In 1840 the District took its present shape. 
The first settlement of 180 1-2 was based on the accounts of the 
celebrated Almas All Khan, an officer of the Oudh government, and 
it was followed by other short-term settlements lasting three to five 
years. The demand at each of these was based on the previous 
demand, and on general considerations, such as the area under cultiva- 
tion and the ease or difiiculty with which collections were made. A 
large part of the District was held on fa/i/kdd^i tenures : but mnny 
of the talukdars gave much trouble to the administration, and some of 
them were forcibly ejected after open rebellion. The early settlements 
were oppressive, and cultivation decreased and tenants emigrated. 
The famine of 1837-8 completed the ruin of the talukdars^ whose 
estates were settled with the resident cultivators. Operations were 
commenced on a more systematic principle under Regulation VII 
of 1822 ; but progress was extremely slow, and when the first regular 
settlement was begun in 1833 by Mr. (afterwards Lord) John Lawrence 
under Regulation IX of 1833, 100 villages had not been .settled. The 
demand fixed in 1841 amounted to i3'i lakhs, and was a reduction 
of over 10 per cent, on the previous demand. The next revision was 
made between 1868 and 1874. The land of each village w^as classified 
according to its soil, and suitable rent rates for each class of soil were 
assumed. These rates were selected from rents actually paid, and the 
'assets' of each village were calculated from them. The" recorded 
' assets ' were rejected, partly as being incorrect, and partly because 
rents had not been enhanced as much as it was thought they might 
have been. The new revenue was fixed at 13-3 lakhs, which repre- 
sented 50 per cent, of the assumed 'assets.' At present the demand 
falls at an incidence of Rs. 1-7-0 per acre, varying from Rs. 1-6-0 to 
Rs. i-g-o in different parts of the District. It was expected that the 
actual 'assets' would rise to the assumed 'assets' within fifteen years. 
The question of a revision was considered in 1900, when it was decided 
that the settlement should be extended for a further ten years, as no 
increase of revenue was expected, and the existing demand was not so 
unequal as to require redistribution. 

Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue are given 
in the table on the next page, in thousands of rupees. 


The only municipality is thai of Etawali, hut five smaller towns arc 
administered under Act XX of 1856. Outside these, local affliirs 
are managed hy the District board, which had an expenditure of 
1-4 lakhs in 1903-4, of which Rs. 64,000 was spent on roads and 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 







'3,. 30 


The District Superintendent of police has a force of 4 inspectors, 
85 subordinate officers, and 344 men, besides 135 municipal and town 
police, and 1,500 village and road police. There are 19 police stations. 
The District jail contained a daily average of 231 prisoners in 1903. 

Education is not very advanced. Only 3 per cent, of the population 
(5 males and 0-3 females) could read and write in 1901. The number 
of public schools fell from 147 in 1880-1 to 119 in 1900-1 ; but the 
number of pupils rose from 3,809 to 5,096. In 1903-4 there were 
r6o public schools with 6,447 pupils, of whom 294 were girls, besides 
114 private schools with 1,214 pupils. Of the public schools, 3 are 
managed by Government and 107 by the District and municipal 
boards, the rest being under private management. The total expendi- 
ture on education was Rs. 45,000, of which Rs. 31,000 was derived 
from Local funds and Rs. 9,000 from fees. 

There are 8 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
75 in-patients. The number of cases treated in 1903 was 45,000, 
of whom 602 were in-patients, and 2,700 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 11,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 25,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903—4, repre- 
senting a proportion of 31 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination 
is compulsory only in the municipality. 

[C. H. T. Crosthwaite and W. E. Neale, Settlevmit Report (1875) ; 
District Gazetteer (1876, under revision).] 

Etawah Tahsil. — North-western tahsll of Etawah District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargona of the same name, lying 
between 26° 38' and 27° i' N. and 78° 45' and 79° 13' E., with an area 
of 426 square miles. Population increased from 128,023 'ii 1891 to 
216,142 in 1901. There are 353 villages and two towns : Etawah 
(population, 42,570), the tahsll head-quarters, and Jaswantnaoar 
(5,405). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,18,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 51,000. The density of population, 507 persons per 
square mile, is a little above the District average. The tahsil contains 
portions of the four natural tracts found in the District. North-east 
of the Sengar ri\er lies the. pachdr, a fertile loam tract which, however, 


contains marshes and patches of barren land or usar. A tract called 
ghar lies south of the Sengar, with a soil which, though lighter, is very 
fertile when irrigated. The Jumna ravines, known as karkha, and the 
area between the Jumna and Chambal, called J)dr, are generally barren 
and there is little alluvial land. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation 
was 221 square miles, of which 96 were irrigated. The Etawah and 
Bhognlpur branches of the Lower Ganges Canal supply more than half 
the irrigated area, and wells most of the remainder. 

Etawah To'wn. — Head-quarters of the District and taJisll of the 
same name in the United Provinces, situated in 26° 46' N. and 79° i' E., 
on the East Indian Railway, at the junction of the road from Farrukh- 
abad to Gwalior with the old imperial road from Agra to Allahabad. 
Population (1901), 42,570, of whom 28,544 are Hindus and 12,742 
Musalmans. The city dates back to a period before the Musalman 
conquest, but nothing is known of its early history. It became the 
seat of a Muhammadan governor, and was repeatedly attacked and 
plundered in the troublous times after the death of Firoz Shah 
Tughlak, when its Hindu chief raised the standard of revolt. Under 
Akbar it was the chief town of a pargana, and is mentioned in the 
Ain-i-Akbarl as possessing a brick fort. A century later Etawah was 
famous as a banking and commercial centre ; but in the eighteenth 
century it suffered much from Rohilla and afterwards from Maratha 
raids. For its later history and events of the Mutiny, see Etawah 
District. The Jama Masjid is a fine building constructed from a 
Hindu temple, with a massive front or propylon resembling those of 
the great mosques at Jaunpur. There are also some fine Hindu tem- 
ples and bathing ghats, and a great mound with a ruined fort. The 
town is situated among the ravines of the Jumna, to the banks of which 
the suburbs extend. Humeganj, a handsome square, called after a 
former Collector, Mr. A. O. Hume, CT3., contains the public buildings 
and forms the centre of the city. It includes a market-place, tahs'ili, 
mission-house, police station, and male and female hospitals. The 
Hume high school, built chiefly by private subscriptions, and one of 
the first to be founded in the United Provinces, is a handsome building. 
The north and south sides of the square form the principal grain and 
cotton markets. The civil station lies about half a mile north of the 
town. Besides the ordinary District staff, two Executive Engineers 
and an officer of the Opium department have their head-quarters here. 
Etawah is also the chief station of the American Presbyterian Mission 
in the District. The municipality was constituted in 1864. During 
the ten years ending 1901, the income averaged Rs. 37,000 and the 
expenditure Rs. 36,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 55,000, chiefly 
from octroi (Rs. 41,000); and the expenditure was Rs. 59,000. There 
are no important manufactures, but cotton cloth is woven, and the town 


is noted for a special sweetmeat. In 1903 seven cotton gins and 
presses employed 805 hands. Trade consists largely in the export of 
,i,'"//J, gram, cotton, and oilseeds. The municipality maintains four 
schools and aids eight others, with a total attendance of 814 [)upils in 

Eta"wa. — Town in the Khurai tahsll of Saugor District, Central 
Provinces, situated in 24° 12' N. and 78° \\' E., 2 miles from Blna 
railway junction. Population (1901), 6,418. Etawa is not a muni- 
cipality, but a town fund is raised for sanitary purposes. The open- 
ing of the branch line from Bina to Katni has greatly increased the 
importance of Etawa, and it is a thriving place. It contains ver- 
nacular middle and girls' schools, as well as schools and a dispensary 
supported from missionary funds. 

Ettaiyapuram Estate. — A zomhiddri in Tinnevelly District, 
Madras, situated in the Ottappidaram ta/itk in the north-east of the 
District. Its area is nearly 570 square miles, and it comprises 374 
villages with a population (1901) of 154,000. The principal castes are 
all Telugus by race. The ancestors of the zamlndar originally came 
from Chandragiri in North Arcot District. Kumaramuttu Naik, the 
fourteenth in descent, migrated to Madura owing to the disturbances in 
the north consequent on the invasion of Ala-ud-din Khilji. The exile 
was kindly received by the Pandyan king, who granted him extensive 
lands. Later on Kumaramuttu was sent down to quell disturbances in 
Tinnevelly. He accordingly proceeded to Sattur and built a fort there, 
the remains of which can be seen at the present day on the south bank 
of the Sattur river. The present town of Ettaiyapuram (population, 
8,788), the head-quarters of the za/innddri, is said to have been founded 
in 1567. Muttu Jaga Vira Rama Naik, the thirty-first zaminddr, had a 
standing army of 6,000 men and rendered help to the British Govern- 
ment during the Poligar wars of 1799-1801, receiving, in recognition 
of his services, four out of the six divisions into which the forfeited 
estates of the vanquished poligdrs were divided. The estate consists 
mainly of black cotton soil. Out of a cultivable area of 6,000 acres of 
'wet,' and 250,000 acres of 'dry ' land, nearly 5,000 acres and 240,000 
acres respectively are under cultivation, the ' wet ' land being watered 
by more than 90 tanks. The rainfall averages 2>2> inches. About 
10,000 acres are set aside as game preserves, in which antelope, hares, 
and partridges abound. Jaggery (coarse sugar) is made from the 
palmyra palm in large quantities, and half the cotton grown in Tin- 
nevelly District comes from this estate. 

The estate is held under permanent zaminddri tenure, and yields an 
income of more than 3^ lakhs, while the annual peshkash, or permanent 
assessment paid to Government, amounts to Rs. 1,16,000. About 100 
miles of road are maintained by the estate, and it contributes Rs. 1,000 


annually towards the upkeep of two Local fund hospitals at Ettaiya- 
purani and Nagalapuram. There is a high school for boys and a girls' 
school at Ettaiyapurani town. 

Ettaiyapuram Town. — Chief place in the zamlndari of the same 
name in the Ottappidaram taluk of Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated 
in y° 9' N. and 78° E., 10 miles from Koilpatti station on the South 
Indian Railway. Population (1901), 8,788. Eocal affairs are managed 
by a Union panchdydt. There is a hospital and a high school, and it 
also contains the residence of the zaminddr. 

Everest, Mount. —The highest known point on the earth's surface, 
situated in the Nepal Himalayas (27° 59' N., 86" 56' E.). Its altitude 
is 29,002 feet above sea-level ; and the name of Everest was assigned to 
it by Sir Andrew Waugh in 1856, in honour of Sir George Everest, his 
predecessor as Surveyor-Cleneral of India, no native name for the peak 
being traceable. The question of the identity of Everest with the peaks 
known as Gaurl Sankar has been constantly discussed, and at length 
satisfactorily disposed of by the observations recently taken in the 
neighbourhood of Katmandu by Captain Wood, R.E. He has con- 
clusively proved that the name Gauri Sankar is applied to the two 
highest peaks of the only conspicuous mountain group visible from 
Katmandu city, and that these are no less than 36 miles west of Everest, 
which is not visible from the valley of Katmandu and is in no way con- 
spicuous from the hills surrounding the valley. 

Faizabad (i). — Capital of Badakhshan, in Afghanistan, situated in 
37° 8' N., 69'^ 47' E. ; 3,920 feet above the sea. It stands on the right 
bank of the Kokcha stream, which fiows in a rocky, trench-like bed, 
successive ridges of hills rising behind the town to a height of at least 
2,000 feet. Utterly destroyed by Murad Beg in 1829, it was still in 
ruins when visited by Captain Wood in 1837. It was restored by Faiz 
Muhammad Khan, when governor of Badakhshan in 1865. Ney Elias, 
who was there in 1866, writes : — 

' The town of Faizabad is one of the most uninteresting spots to be 
found even in Central Asia. It contains probably some 4,000 in- 
habitants, chiefly Tajiks. A bazar is held twice a week, and on these 
occasions a fairly large gathering of people from the neighbouring 
districts takes place ; but during the remainder of the week the place lies 
torpid, the majority of the shops being shut. The chief trade is pro- 
bal)ly with Kolab, whence Russian cotton manufactures, sugar, cutlery, 
crockery, candles, &c., and Bokhara silks are brought ; and these are 
the wares that, in addition to country produce, chiefly fill the shops. 
English manufactures are rare, but still they are to be seen — chiefly 
cotton prints and muslins — together with Indian-made lungls or turbans 
and comnKni kamk/nvdi>, all of which come from Peshawar by way 
of either Kabul or Chitral. Sanitary arrangements there are none ; 
and thisj combined with severe heat in summer, great cold in winter, 



and usually a deadly stillness in the atmosphere, seems to produce con- 
ditions that render outbreaks of epidemics of frequent occurrence.' 

It is hardly surprising thai, in a town \vliich has liccn rebuilt within 
the last forty years, no remarkable buildings exist. 

Faizabad (2). — Division, District, tahsll, and city in the United 
Provinces. See Fyzabad. 

Faizpur. — Town in the Yaval talnka of East Khandesh ] )istrict, 
Bombay, situated in 21° 10' N. and 75° 52' E., 72 miles north-east of 
Dhiilia. Population (1901), 10,181. Faizpur is famous for its cotton 
prints and its dark blue and red dyes. About 250 families dye thread, 
turbans, and other pieces of cloth, and print cloth of all sorts. A 
weekly timber market is held, and it is also one of the chief cotton 
marts in Khandesh. The municipality, established in 1889, had an 
average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 6,500. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,100. The town contains five schools, 
with 564 pupils, of which one, with 57 pupils, is for girls. 

Falakata. — Village in the Alipur subdivision of JalpaigurT District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26° 31' N. and 89° 13' E., on the 
east bank of the Mujnai river within a mile of the Cooch Behar 
boundary. Population (1901), 287. Falakata is an important market, 
at which some of the best jute, tobacco, and mustard grown in the 
Duars are sold. It lies on the main road between JalpaigurT and 
Alipur, and the river is navigable to this point by boats of 2 tons 
throughout the year. An annual fair lasting for a month is held in 
February. Agricultural produce and stock are exhibited for prizes, and 
the fair is visited by a large number of Bhotias and by merchants from 
all parts. 

Falam Subdivision. — Central subdivision of the Chin Hills, Burma, 
bounded on the north by the Tiddim and on the south by the Haka 
subdivision. The population in 1901 was 36,858, largely Tashon Chins, 
inhabiting 173 villages, of which Falam, containing 625 houses, is the 
largest "and most important. 

Falam. — Head-quarters of the Chin Hills, Burma, situated in 
22^56'N. and 93°44'E., on a spur above the Manipur river, 5,300 feet 
above sea-level, and distant 108 miles from Kalewa, and 72 from 
Kalemyo on the Myittha, with which it is connected by a good mule 
road. In the early days of the occupation of the Chin Hills, Falam 
post was built on a spur overlooking the Tashon village of Falam. 
Owing to the unhealthiiiess of the site, however, the station was moved 
to where it now stands, 5 miles to the west of Falam village. Roads 
have been made in the station and trees j)lanted. The water-supply is 
obtained from springs west of the station, and at present reaches the 
different buildings through open wooden ducts, soon to be replaced by 
iron pipes. The bazar lies to the east of the residential (juarter. The 


regular inhabitants numbered 911 in 1901, besides a large floating 

False Point. — Cape, harbour, and lighthouse in the Kendrapara 
subdivision of Cuttack District, Bengal, situated in 20° 20' N. and 
86° 47' E., on the north ot" the Mahanadi estuary. It takes its name 
from the circumstance that it was often mistaken by ships for Point 
Palmyras one degree farther north. Ships have to anchor in a com- 
paratively exposed roadway, and loading and unloading can only be 
carried on in moderately fair weather. A considerable export of rice, 
however, still takes place to Mauritius and Ceylon chiefly in sailing 
ships, valued in 1903-4 at 19-65 laklis, while the export to the Madras 
Presidency amounted to over a lakh. The lighthouse stands in 
20° 19' 50' N. and 86° 47' 30' E. 

Falta. — Village in the Diamond Harbour subdivisi(jn of the District 
of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22° 17' N. and 88° 7' E., 
on the left bank of the Hooghly river, nearly opposite to its junction 
with the Damodar. Falta is the site of an old Dutch factory, and it was 
to this place that the English retreated after the capture of Calcutta by 
Siraj-ud-daula in 1756. A fort is situated here, which mounts heavy 
guns. The steamers plying between Calcutta and Tamluk in the 
Midnapore District call at Falta. 

Farasdanga. — A French settlement or loge on the outskirts of 
Balasore Town, Bengal. The settlement was established towards the 
close of the seventeenth century, but much of the land comprised 
within it has been washed away, and its total area is now only 38 acres. 
This plot of land is under the authority of the Administrator of 
Chandernagore, and is leased out annually by public auction. 

Faridabad. — Town in the Ballabgarh /a/w/7 of Delhi District, Pun 
jab, situated in 28° 25' N. and 77° 20' E., 16 miles from Delhi, near 
the Delhi-Muttra road and on the Delhi- Agra branch of the (Ireat 
Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 5,310. The town was 
founded in 1607 by Shaikh Earid, Jahangir's treasurer, to protect the 
high road from Delhi to Agra. It is of no commercial importance. 
The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,900, and the expenditure Rs. 5,800. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,800, chiefly derived from octroi ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 6,400. The chief educational institutions are 
the Victoria Anglo-vernacular middle school (unaided), a vernacular 
middle school maintained by the municipality, and the English station 
school (middle). There is a Government dispensary. 

Faridkot State. — Native State in the Punjab, under the jiolitical 
control of the Commissioner of the Jullundur Division, lying between 
30° 13' and 30° 50' N. and 74° 3 i' and 75° 5' E., in the south of Feroze- 
porc District, with an area of 642 square miles. Population (1901), 


124,912. It lontains two towns, Faridkot (population, 10,405), the 
capital, and Kor Kapuka (9,519); and 167 villages. 'J'hc country is 
a dead level, sandy in the west, but more fertile to the east, where the 
Sirhind Canal irrigates a large area. 

The ruling foniily belongs to the Sidhu-Barar clan of the Jals, and are 
descended from the same stock as the Phulkian houses. Their occupa- 
tion of I'arldkot and Kot Kapura dates from the time of Akbar, though 
quarrels with the surrounding Sikh States and internal dissensions have 
greatly reduced the patrimony. Throughout the Sikh Wars Raja Pahar 
Singh loyally assisted the British, and was rewarded by a grant of 
half the territory confiscated in 1846 from the Raja of Nabha, while 
his ancestral possession of Kot Kapiira, which had been wrested from 
Faridkot in 1808, was restored to him. During the Mutiny, his son 
AA azlr Singh, who succeeded in 1849, rendered active assistance to 
the British and was suitably rewarded. The present Raja, Brij Indar 
Singh, is a minor, and the administration is carried on by a council 
under the presidency of an Extra-Assistant Commissioner, whose 
services have been lent to the State for the purpose. The council is, 
during the minority of the Raja, the final court of appeal, but sentences 
of death require confirmation by the Commissioner. The Raja is 
entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns. The State receives, at a reduced duty 
of Rs. 280 per chest, an allotment of 18 chests of Malwa opium 
annually, each chest containing i'2 5 cwt. The duty so paid is refunded, 
with the object of securing the co-operation of the State oiificials in the 
suppression of smuggling. The Imperial Service troops consist of one 
company of Sappers; and the local troops number 41 cavalry, 127 
infantry, and 20 artillerymen, with 6 serviceable guns. The State 
maintains a high school at Faridkot town and a charitable dispensary. 
Th(; total revenue amounted in 1905 6 to 3-6 lakhs. 

Faridkot Town. -Capital of the Faridkot State, Punjab, lying in 
30° 40' N, and 74*^ 49' E., 20 miles south of Ferozepore, on the 
Ferozepore-Bhatinda branch of the North-Western Railway. Popu- 
lation (1901), 10,405. The fort was built about 700 years ago by Raja 
Mokulsi, a Manj Rajput, in the time of Bawa Farid, who gave it his 
name. The town contains the residence of the Raja of Faridkot and 
the public ofifices of the State. It has a considerable trade in grain, 
and po.ssesses a high school and a charitable dispensary. 

Faridnagar. — Town in the Ghaziabad faksl/ of Meerut District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28° 46' N. and 77° 41' E., 16 miles south- 
west of Meerut city. Population (rgoi), 5,620. It was founded by 
Farld-ud-din Khan in the reign of Akbar. It is administered under 
Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,600, and contains 
a primary school. 

Faridpur District. — District in the Dacca Division of Eastern 


Bengal and Assam, lying between 22° 51' and 23° 55' N., and 89° 19' 
and 90° 37' E., with an area of 2,281 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north by the Padnia or main stream of the (langes ; on the east by 
the Meghna ; on the west by the Garai river, with its continuation the 
Madhumati and its branch the Barasia, which separate it from the 
Districts of Nadia and Jessore ; and on the south by Backergunge. 

This District is essentially a fluvial creation, and exhibits the later 
stages in the formation of the Oangetic delta. In the north and east 
the land is comparatively well raised, and is high and 
thy except during the rains ; but the level sinks asnects^ 

towards the south, and, on the confines of Backer- 
gunge, the whole country is one vast marsh intersected by strips of high 
land, the deposits of the rivers that have at different times flowed 
through the tract. The marshes are slowly but steadily silting up, and 
are being reclaimed for cultivation. The inhabitants build their houses 
on the higher land of the river banks or on mounds from 12 to 20 feet 
high laboriously thrown up during the dry months, and in the rains 
these homesteads alone rise above the waste of waters topped with 
grass or rice. 

With the exception of the Mrghna, the river system is that of the 
Padisia, one branch of which in the lower reaches is called the Kirtinasa 
or ' destroyer of antiquities,' owing to the ravages it has wrought among 
the palaces, temples, and monuments of Raja Raj Ballabh of Rajnagar, 
one of the old capitals of Eastern Bengal. This and the Madhumati, 
the Garai, and the Arial Khan are large rivers, navigable throughout the 
year by trading boats of 4 tons burden ; but there are numerous minor 
ramifications, the principal of which are the Chandna, the Bhubanesv/ar, 
the Mara (or ' dead ') Padma or Palang, and the Naya Bhangni (or 
'new cut'). 'Ilie interior is drained by a network of small waterways, 
such as the Kumar, the Sitalakhya, another Mara Padma, and the 
Jakhla, all of which flow ultimately into the Arial Khan. The southern 
marshes, known as the Naslbshahi, the Atadanga, and the Kajalia 
swamps, are drained by the Ghagar or Saildaha river, which falls into 
the MadhumatT. 

The District consists of recent alluvium, composed of sandy clay 
and sand along the course of the rivers and fine silt consolidating into 
clay in other parts of the river plain, while in the marshes beds of 
impure peat commonly occur. 

Almost all the trees and plants common to Lower Bengal grow here. 
Marsh plants and weeds are found in great variety and luxuriance, and 
in the south the surface of the marshes either shows huge stretches of 
inundated rice, or is covered with matted floating islets of sedges and 
grasses and various water-lilies, the most striking of these being the 
makaiia {Euryak ferox). The artificial mounds on which habitations 


are situated arc. where mil dccupied by gardens, densely covered witli 
a scrub jungle of semi-spontaneous species, with a few taller trees, 
among which the commonest is \\\&jiyal (Odina IVodier), and the most 
conspicuous the red cotton-tree {Bombax malaharicum). Palms are 
common, the chief species being the date-palm {Phoenix acmdis) in the 
north, and the betel-nut {Areca CatecJnt) in the south. Mangoes of an 
inferior quality abound and plantains are grown round every house, 
both on the mainland and the river flats, while dense clusters of 
bamboos surround and overshadow every village. Tall casuarinas 
{Casuarina muricatd) mark the sites of old indigo factories and line 
the roads. 

Leopards still lurk in the jungles in the north and west of the District, 
and occasionally a tiger breaks cover from the Sundarbans and takes 
refuge in the southern marshes. Wild hog devastate the crops, especi- 
ally in the Farldpur, Bhushana, and Ainpur tJidnas. Crocodiles, both 
of the man-eating and fish-eating varieties, swarm in the large rivers, 
which teem with fish, the hiha being an important article of export to 

Humidity ranges high from April to October. The mean temperature 
remains at 83° from April to September, but falls during the cold 
season to 66°, the mean minimum being lowest (53°) in January. Rain- 
fall commences early in the hot season ; the average is 8-5 inches in 
May, 12-2 in June, ii-8 in July, 11-5 in August, and 8-i in September, 
the total for the year being 66 inches. The District is always inundated 
when the rivers rise in the rainy season, but the floods .seldom cause 
more than local damage : and they are in fact beneficial, as they cover 
the country with a rich alluvial deposit, which is gradually raising the 
level of the swamps. 

Very little is known of the earlier history of Farldpur. The eastern 
subdivision of Madarlpur was once an apanage of Bikrampur, and the 
District was subsequently included in the ancient 
IS ory. kingdom of Banga (called Samatata by Hiuen Tsiang) 

which has given its name to the modern Province of Bengal. Its people 
are described in the Raghubansa as living in boats, and they were clearly 
the ancestors of the (^handals, who are still very numerous in this part 
of the country. Farldpur passed under Muhammadan rule with the 
rest of Eastern Bengal at the beginning of the fourteenth century, and 
in 1582, at the time of Todar Mai's settlement, it appears to have been 
included within the sarkar of Muhammadabad or Bhushana. In the 
reign of Jahanglr a number of chiefs, most of whom were Hindus, known 
to local tradition as the Bara ('twelve') Bhuiyas, established indepen- 
dent principalities in East Bengal : and among them two brothers, 
Chand Rai and Kedar Rai, extended their sway from Rajabari in the 
District of Dacca to Kedarbari, now in the Palang iha/ia of Farldpur, 

ro PUT. ATI ox 


where a deep ditch and the remains of a road known as Kachkigura 
Road mark the site of their residence or fort. The remains of a fort of 
Raja Sita Ram Rai, another of the Bhuiyas, can still be seen at Kilabari 
in the Bhushana thdna ; he was overthrown by the Mughals in a pitched 
battle at a place still known as Fatehpur ('town of victory'). For two 
centuries after the Muhammadan advent, the country was overrun by 
the Maghs or Arakanese, and their depredations drove the people into 
the inaccessible marshes, where protective moats are still to be seen 
at Ujani in Maksudpur and at KotwalTpara. Up to 1790 the present 
District was included in the tract known as Dacca Jalalpur, with the 
exception of the present thdna of Bhushana and part of Maksudpur 
which were included in Jessore, and the Goplnathpur /rtr^a//^ which 
belonged to Backergunge. The separate existence of the District dates 
from 181 1, when courts were built at Faridpur, and the tract east of 
the Chandna was transferred from Jessore. Subsequently, when the 
territory east of the Padma was given up to Dacca, the District became 
known as Faridpur. About this time GopTnathpur was received from 
Backergunge, and there were various subsequent changes of jurisdiction, 
the Madarlpur subdivision being transferred from Backergunge in 1874, 
and the Krokichar outpost from Dacca in 1895. The river Padma 
has of late years been steadily encroaching towards I )acca and re- 
ceding from this District, which has thus received a large accession 
of area. 

The population increased from 1,530,288 in 1872 to 1,660,037 in 
1881, to 1,823,715 in 1891, and to 1,937,646 in 1901. Malarial fever 
is prevalent, especially in the north and west of the 
District, and the decrease in the rate of progress in 
the last decade was due to the growing unhealthiness of this tract. 

The chief statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below : — 






District to!al 


Number of 


'f) a; 

rt - 










• . . 











O m 

712,226 S28 
319,285 746 
906,135 913 

i>937>646 849 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween i8qi 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 


+ 6.8 

- q.2 

+ 6.2 




The two towns are Faridpur, the head-quarters, and Madaripur. 
The density of population is greater than in any other part of Fast 
Bengal, except Dacca District ; the most crowded areas lie in the 
Madaripur subdivision. The whole of the (loalundo subdiv ision and 


the Bhushana thann in the head-quarters subdivision belong to a deca- 
dent tract, where th(; pojnilation is diminishing ; and there is an equally 
unhealthy area in the Palang thana to the east of the MndarTpur sub- 
division, which, however, has received extensive alluvial accretions. 
Several other t/idnas, such as Sibchar and Bhanga, have grown in the 
same way, and possess an area considerably in excess of that with which 
they are credited in the records of the Survey department, and on which 
the Census calculations of density were based. A number of immigrants 
from Dacca, whose houses on the north bank of the Padma have been 
destroyed by the erosion of the river, have crossed to the Faridpur side, 
and there is an annual influx of earth-workers, /JZ^Z-bearers, and other 
unskilled labourers from Bihar and the United Provinces. A similar 
exodus takes place from Faridpur to Backergunge. The vernacular 
spoken consists of the dialects known as Eastern or Musalmani, and 
East-Central, Bengali. Nearly 62 per cent, of the inhabitants are 
Muhammadans and, as elsewhere, the proportion is steadily increasing : 
they now number 1,199,351, and Hindus 733,555. 

The vast majority of the Muhammadans are Shaikhs (1,113,000), 
though Jolahas (58,000) are also numerous, doubtless in the main the 
descendants of converted Chandals or Namasudras, who are still so 
numerous that they include more than three-sevenths of the whole 
Hindu population. These people, who are chiefly found in the 
Madarlpur subdivision and in the southern marshes, are among the 
hardiest and most healthy of the Hindus, and are struggling hard to 
improve their social status, which is at present a very low one. Brah- 
mans (51,000) and Kayasths (85,000) are most numerous in the Madarl- 
pur and Palang thanas, formerly part of the Bikrampur/rt'r^''(i;;/(7 ; the 
men of these castes emigrate in large numbers in search of clerical 
employment. Sahas (36,000), the great mercantile caste, are also 
numerous. Nearly i^ millions, or 77 per cent, of the District popula- 
tion, are dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood, 12 per cent, 
on industry, i per cent, on commerce, 2 per cent, on the professions, 
and 3 per cent, on unskilled labour. 

The Australian Baptist Mission works at Faridpur, the Baptist Mis- 
sion at Madarlpur, and the Evangelistic Mission at Copalganj ; and 
their converts, who are mainly Chandals, have increased during the 
last decade from 3,500 to 4,600. The activity of these missions, how- 
ever, is not to be gauged simply by the number of their converts, for 
they have also done a great deal in the cause of education. 

The soil is generally a rich loam, with a deposit of vegetable mould 

in the marshy area. The comparatively high lands in the north-west 

and centre are well-wooded ; here, except in a few 
Agriculture. , , . ^ . . 

depressions where wmter rice is grown, two crops are 

usually obtained, rice or jute being harvested in July or August, and 



oilseeds, pulses, wheat, or barley in February. In recently reclaimed 
alluvial lands the alternation of crops is similar ; but low lands which 
are flooded early yield only spring rice, which is reaped in May or June. 
In the southern marshes early and late rice are sown together in April. 
The plants grow with the rise of the flood, and the early crop ripens in 
August and is reaped from boats. The late rice ripens in October or 
November, and so much of the stalks as is then above the water is 
cut ; the rest rots, and is burnt and ploughed in when the water has 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles: — 






Faridpur .... 
Goalundo .... 







1,752 97 

Rice occupies five-sixths of the cultivated area, the winter crop 
accounting for three-fifths of the whole. After rice, jute is the crop 
most extensively grown ; its cultivation has increased very rapidly of 
late years, and it now occupies 148 square miles. Pulses are an 
important cold-season crop, especially inCiskalai {Fhaseo/iis radiatiis) ; 
some of this is consumed or exported, but the greater part is grazed 
by cattle. Rape and mustard and sugar-cane are also largely 

Little cultivable land remains untilled ; the marshes are ploughed 
as soon as they silt up sufficiently, and newly formed alluvial lands are 
cultivated the moment they become fit to bear crops. In Government 
estates attempts have been made to introduce new cereals and vege- 
tables, and seeds have been freely distributed, but without much result. 
There is generally little need for Government loans, as the land is very 
fertile, yielding rich harvests with very little toil, and wealth is evenly 
distributed; but Rs. 23,000 was advanced in 1893-4 and Rs. 14,000 
in 1897-8 under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 

The indigenous breed of cattle is very poor, and very little has been 
done to improve it, though the richer farmers occasionally introduce 
better animals from Bhagalpur. Hie only fair of any importance is 
that held at Faridpur in January and February in connexion with an 
Agricultural Exhibition, at which prizes are given for agricultural 
produce, implements, and cattle, and also to weavers and other handi- 

Hand-weaving supports 53,000 persons, a larger number than in 

58 lARlnrrR n /strict 

any other District of Bengal. The industry is carried on chiefly by the 

Muhammadan Jolahns, who, in addition to coarse 

ra ean cotton cloths for local use, manufacture a larec 

communications. . ' _ _^ 

quantity of a cotton check, known as chark/iana, 

which finds a ready sale in Calcutta. A fine variety of sitalpdti 
iyPhrynium dichotomuni) mats is made in the Bhushana thdna, and the 
Namasudras weave coarse mats of bamboos, canes, and reeds ; gunny- 
bags are also manufactured, chiefly by the Kapali caste. A good deal 
of gold and silver jewellery, brass, copper and ironwork, and pottery is 
made for local use ; and boat-building is an important industry. There 
are no factories, but a few jute hand-presses have recently been 

The bulk of the trade is with Calcutta. Jute forms the principal 
export, rice, pulses, oilseeds, and fish being the articles of next im- 
portance. The chief imports are European cotton piece-goods, salt, 
kerosene oil, corrugated iron, molasses and sugar, coal and coke from 
Burdwan, Manbhuni, and Assam, common rice from Bogra and Dinaj- 
pur, and fine rice and timber from Barisal. The Calcutta trade is 
carried by the Eastern Bengal State Railway, by country boats via 
Khulna, or by the steamer services. Goalundo, the terminus of the 
railway and of several important steamer routes, is a focus through 
which an enormous volume of trade passes, and Madaripur is growing 
in importance. Other important trade centres are Faridpur, Pangsa, 
Belgachi, Rajbari, and Pachuria on the railway ; Sadarpur on the 
banks of the Bhubaneswar ; Jamalpur, Madhukhali, and Kamarkhali 
on the Chandna ; Saiyidpur and Boalmari on the Jessore road ; Kanai- 
pur, Jaynagar, and Bhanga on the Kumar ; Gopalganj, Bhatiapara, and 
Patghati on the Madhumat! ; Palang on the Palang river; and Mulfat- 
ganj inland. The middlemen who purchase agricultural produce from 
the cultivators are usually Muhammadans or Namasudras. Agents of 
European firms in Calcutta are employed to buy jute, and Sahas and 
Marwaris also do wholesale business. In the drier parts of the District 
bullock-carts and pack-ponies are occasionally used, but boats are the 
almost universal means of carriage ; during the rains every village is 
accessible by water and boat traffic is very brisk, stocks being purchased 
at that season for the whole year's consumption. 

The Eastern Bengal State Railway (broad gauge) enters the District 
near Machpara and crosses the north-west corner to its terminus at 
Goalundo on the Padma ; from Pachuria a branch line runs to the 
head-quarters station. The principal roads are those from Faridpur to 
Jessore, Rajbari, and Bhanga, and from Kanaipur to Pangsa. Exclusive 
of village and municipal roads, the District contains only 182 miles of 
road, of which 10 miles are metalled. As already stated, most of the 
traffic is carried bv water. 


The steamer services from Ooalundo down the Padma touch at 
various places within the District, and a branch Hne plies to Madaripur. 
An important route, known as the Kumar-MadhumatT-Bil route, carries 
most of the jute from the south of the District to Khulna. A con- 
necting canal, estimated to cost 20 lakhs, is under construction, but 
as yet it can only be used by steamers during the rainy season {see 
Calcutta and Eastern Canals). 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into three sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at Faridpur, Rajp.ari (Ooalundo), and 

Madaripur. Under the District Magistrate-Col- 

1 . .L . re r • • i i 1 Administration. 

lector the staff for crunmal and revenue work con- 
sists of six Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors, of whom four are stationed at 
head-quarters, and two are in charge of the Goalundo and Madaripur 
sulidivisions respectively ; a Sub-Deputy-Collector is stationed at Farid- 
pur and another at Madaripur. 

For civil work the courts subordinate to the District and Sessions 
Judge are those of a Sub-Judge and two Munsifs at Faridpur, two 
Munsifs each at Goalundo, Madaripur, and Chikandi, and four Munsifs 
at Bhanga. The criminal courts include those of the District and 
Sessions Judge, the District Magistrate, and the above-mentioned 
Deputy-Magistrates. Land disputes give rise to a large number of civil 
and criminal cases, and not infrequently lead to riots attended with 
bloodshed and loss of life ; such disputes are especially numerous and 
l)itter on the alluvial formations in the great rivers. 

At the time of the Permanent Settlement, Faridpur was included in 
the province of Dacca ; owing to the large amount of waste land at 
that time, the assessment was very small, and the incidence is conse- 
quently very low, being only R. 0-8-8 per cultivated acre or a quarter 
of the average rental. Of 5,998 estates, only five pay a revenue of 
over Rs. 10,000, and estates are being rapidly disintegrated under the 
working of the partition law. In 1903-4 the total current demand 
was 6-09 lakhs, of which 4-30 lakhs was due from 5,598 permanently 
settled estates, Rs. 38,000 from 147 estates temporarily settled with 
proprietors and middlemen, and the remainder from 234 estates 
directly managed by the ( 'ollector. The land revenue is liable to 
constant fluctuations, owing tf) alluvion and diluvion. The average 
rent paid for rice lands is Rs. 3 per acre, but for inferior sandy soil it is 
sometimes as low as 6 annas. For raised homestead and sugar-cane 
lands the rates range ordinarily between Rs. 4-8 and Rs. 7-8, but rise 
in some places to Rs. 9 or even more. 

'J'he table on the next page shows the collections of land revenue 
and of total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees. 

Outside the municipalities of Faridpur and Madaripur, local 
affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate local 


linards in the three subdivisions. In 1903-4, its incomi' was Rs. 
1,29,000, of whieh Rs. 63,000 was obtained from rates ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 1,45,000, including Rs. 61,000 spent on public 
works and Rs. 47,000 on education. 

I. and revenue 
Total revenue 

1880-1. i8gD-i. 

1900-1. 1903-4. 

T^fil 5,93 I 6,14 : 6,20 

10.16 11,82 I 14.51 i i4'7i 

The District contains 13 police stations or t/idnas, and 6 outposts. 
In 1903 the force under the District Superintendent of police consisted 
of 4 inspectors, 44 sub-inspectors, 29 head constables, and 355 con- 
stables, maintained at a total cost of Rs. 1,15,000; there was one 
policeman to 8>2 square miles, and to 7,045 of the population. There 
was, in addition, a rural police of 446 dajfadars and 4,392 chni/k'idihs. 
The District jail at Faridpur has accommodation for 321 prisoners, 
and subsidiary jails at Madarlpur and Rajbari for 58. 

Education made great strides between 1881 and 1901. In the latter 
year 5'i per cent, of the population (9' 7 males and o-6 females) could 
read and write. The total number of pupils under instruction increased 
from about 14,500 in 1882 to 37,774 in 1892-3 and to 38,502 in 1900-1, 
while 51,518 boys and 5,995 girls were at school in 1903-4, being 
respectively 35-4 and 4-1 per cent, of the children of school-going age. 
The number of educational institutions, public and private, in that 
year was 1,968, including 105 secondary, 1,656 primary, and 207 
special schools. The total expenditure on education was 2-57 lakhs, 
of which Rs. 25,000 was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 46,000 from 
District funds, Rs. 700 from municipal funds, and Rs. 1,42,000 from 
fees. The Muhammadans are far more backward than the Hindus, 
who in proportion to their numbers have six times as many males able 
to read and write ; less than a third of the pupils in the schools are 
Musalmans, though nearly two-thirds of the population profess this 

The District contained 19 dispen.saries in 1903, (jf which 4 had 
accommodation for 89 in-patients. These include the Kumar floating 
dispensary, which moves about on the Kumar river dispensing medi- 
cal relief to the inhabitants of the extremely unhealthy areas on its 
banks. The cases of 164,000 out-patients and 972 in-patients were 
treated during the year, and 5,223 operations were performed. The 
total expenditure was Rs. 32,000, of which Rs. 8,000 was met from 
Government contributions, Rs. 11,000 from Local and Rs. 1,600 from 
municipal funds, and Rs. 9,000 from subscriptions. 

Vaccination is carried on under difficulties, the majority of the 
population being Muhammadans of the Ivira/.i sect, who are extremely 


averse to vaccination. It is, however, making great progress ; and, 
though it is conii^ulsory only in the two municipaHties, 119,000 persons, 
or 62-3 per 1,000 of the population, were successfully vaccinated in 


[Sir \W. \\. Hunter, Statistical Accoii /if of Bengal, vol. v (1875).] 

Faridpur Subdivision. —Head-quarters subdivision of Faridpur 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 23" 8' and 23*^ 
42' N. and 89*^ 30' and 90° 12' E., with an area of 860 square miles. 
The whole of the subdivision is an alluvial formation, comparatively 
high to the east, but very marshy in the interior. The population in 
1901 was 712,226, compared with 666,594 in 1891. The subdivision 
contains one town, FarIupur (population, 11,649), the head-(iuarters ; 
and 2,299 villages. The density of [)opulation is high (828 persons per 
square mile), rising to 1,223 ^^ Bhanga thana in the north, and not 
falling below 600 even in the swampy tracts in the south. 

Faridpur Town (i). — Head-quarters of Far'dpur District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, situated in 23° 37' N. and 89° 51'' E., on the west 
bank of the Mara (' dead ') Padma. Population (i 901), 11,649. Faridpur 
takes its name from a Muhammadan saint Farid Shah, whose shrine it 
contains. The town is connected with the main Hne of the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway by a branch from Pachuria. Faridpur was con- 
stituted a municipality in 1869. The income during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs. 14,500, and the expenditure Rs. 13,500. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 19,000, of which Rs. 6,000 was derived from 
a property tax, and Rs. 5,000 from a conservancy rate ; and the expen- 
diture was Rs. 19,800. A water-filter has been constructed at a cost of 
Rs. 10,000, and a second is under construction. The town contains 
the usual public offices; the District jail has accommodation for 321 
prisoners, who are employed on cloth and carpet-weaving, brick-making 
and pounding, oil-pressing, and the manufacture of cane furniture and 
coco-nut fibre mats. 

Faridpur Tahsil.— South-eastern talisll of Bareilly District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, lying 
between 28° i' and 28° 22' N. and 79° 23' and 79° 45' E., with an area 
of 249 square miles. Population increased from 119,805 in 1891 to 
128,861 in 1901. There are 314 villages and two towns, including 
I'^ARIDPUR (population, 6,635), '^'^^ tahsil head-quarters. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,84,000, and for cesses Rs. 30,000. 
The density of populati(Mi, 518 i:)ersons per square mile, is the lowest in 
the District. On the south-west the Ramganga river divides the tahsil 
from Budaun, while the East Bahgul crosses it from north to south. 
Faridpur is the most unproductive part of the District, consisting for 
the most part of plateaux of light siliceous soil, undulating into gleaming 
sanciy ridges, which sometimes present the appearance of low hills. In 


seasons of favourable rainfall such soil oftt'n i)roduces a good autumn 
crop, but a series of years of heavy rain throws it temporarily out of 
cultivation. The basins of the rivers are more fertile, both naturally 
and because irrigation is easier. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation 
was 196 square miles, of which 34 were irrigated. Wells supply more 
than half the irrigated area, tanks or jhils about a ([uarter, and rivers 
the remainder. 

Faridpur Town (2). — Head-quarters of the /«//^l/of the same name in 
Bareilly District, United Provinces, situated in 28*^ 13' N. and 79° 33' E., 
on the main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, and on the road 
from Lucknow to Delhi. Population (1901), 6,635. ^^^ place was 
formerly called Pura, and was founded by insurgent Katehriya Rajputs 
ejected from Bareilly between 1657 and 1679. It derives its present 
name from one Shaikh FarTd, a mendicant or, according to others, a 
governor, who built a ioxi here during Rohilla rule (i 748-74). The town 
contains a iahsill, a dispensary, and a branch of the American Methodist 
Mission. It is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of 
about Rs. 1, 000. The tahs'iH school has 125 pupils, and a girls' school 
about 20. 

Farrah. — Capital of the Farrah province of Afghanistan, situated in 
32° 26' N. and 62° 8' E. ; 2,460 feet above the sea. Formerly a place 
of some importance, Farrah is now almost deserted, the governor and 
his escort being the principal inhabitants. The whole place is in ruins, 
the only habitations being the quarters of the garrison and a few shops. 
Some large granaries have recently been added. The governor himself 
lives in a village near the fort. From outside, Farrah presents an 
imposing appearance, being encircled by a solid rampart of earth to 
a height of 30 or 40 feet ; within, beyond the few buildings mentioned, 
there is nothing but a succession of mounds and heaps of mud ruins, 
varied by pits and holes. The place is very unhealthy, being built in 
a swamp. Farrah is a place of great antiquity ; it is believed to be the 
Phra of Isidore of Charax (first century). According to Ferrier it was 
sacked by Chingiz Khan, and the survivors were moved farther north. 
They returned, however, and the town prospered again till its bloody 
siege by Nadir Shah. In 1837 the remaining population, amounting to 
6,000, was carried off to Kandahar. 

Farrukhabad District. — Easternmost District of the Agra Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 26° 46' and 27° 43' N. and 79° 8'' and 
80° \' E., with an area of 1,685 ■'square miles. On the north the Ganges 
divides it from Budaun and Shahjahan[)ur ; on the east is the Oudh 
District of Hardoi, ])artly separated by the Ganges ; Cawnpore and 
Etawah he to the south, and Mainpuri and Etah to the west. The 
greater part of the District lies in the Doab along the right bank ol' 
the Ganges, but the Ahgarh tahnl lies wholly on the opposite bank. 


The former division consists of an upland area called hangar, and a low- 
lying tract called farai, katri, or kachohd. The lowlands 
stretch from the present bed of the Ganges to the old ^^'^^ 

high bank, with a breadth of 6 miles in the north of 
the District. At Farrukhabad the river is at present close to its high 
bank, but farther south it diverges again to a distance of 4 miles. 'I'he 
tract across the Ganges is entirely composed of low-lying land subject 
to floods, which cover almost the whole area. The uplands are divided 
into a series of small dodbs by the rivers Bagar, Kali Nadi (East), Isan, 
Arind, and Pandu, which flow roughly parallel to each other and join 
the (ianges. These divisions are generally similar. On each bank of 
the rivers is a small area of alluvial soil, from which rise sandy slopes. 
The soil gradually ini[)roves, becoming less sandy ; and the central 
l)ortion is good loam, with here and there patches of barren land called 
iisar, often covered with saline efflorescences. The most northern 
division, from the old high bank to the Bagar, is the poorest. Besides 
the small rivers already mentioned, the Ramganga flows through part 
of the Aligarh taJisll •. and an old channel of the Ganges, called the 
Biirhganga, lies between the high bank and the present bed of the river 
in the north of the District. Shallow lakes ox J/n/s are conmion in the 
Kaimganj, Aligarh, Chhibramau, and Tirwa tahsl/s. 

The District consists entirely of (iangetic alluvium. Kankar is 
tlie chief mineral product, Init saline efflorescences {trh) are also 

The flora presents no peculiarity. The principal groves, which cover 
55 square miles, are of mango-trees, and the District is uniformly 
though not thickly wooded. The toddy-palm i^Borassits fiabelU/cr) is 
conmioncr than in the neighbt^uring Districts. In the alluvial tract 
habiil is the commonest tree. In the uplands there are considerable 
stretches of dhdk jungle {Bit tea fro/idosa). Some damage has been 
done in the sandy tracts by the spread of a grass called ka/is {Saal/an/iii 

Antelope are still very common, and nilgai are occasionally seen. 
Jackals, hyenas, wolves, and foxes are also found, and wild hog arc 
numerous. Snipe and duck abound in the cold season. Fisli are 
common in the rivers and small tanks, and are largely used as food. 
( "rocodiles are found in the Ganges and Kali Nadi. 

Farrukhabad is one of the healthiest Districts in the iJoab. Its 
general elevation is considerable, the climate is dry, and the country 
is remarkably free from epidemics. 'J"he trans-( iangetic /rt;;-^''«;/f?y are, 
however, damper and more feverish, though they are cool in summer. 
The mean temperature varies from about 58° in January to about 95° 
in June. 

The a+inual rainfall axerages about 33 inches. Variations horn year 


to year are considerable, hut the fall is very uniform throughout the 

The northern i)art of the District was ineludid in the ancient king- 
dom of Panchala mentioned in the Mahabharata, and i)laces are still 
connected by tradition with episodes in the life of 
Draupadi, wife of the Pandava brothers. Numerous 
remains of the Buddhist period point to the importance of several towns 
early in the Christian era. In the fourth and fifth centuries Kanauj 
was included in the domains of the Gupta emperors ; and when the 
power of that dynasty declined, in the sixth century, a petty independent 
line of Maukhari kings ruled here. The Maukharls fell before the 
kings of Malwa, who in turn were defeated by the ruler of Thanesar 
in the Punjab. Harshavardhana of Thanesar, early in the seventh 
century, founded a great empire in Northern India, and Hiuen Tsiang, 
the Chinese pilgrim, describes the magnificence of his court'. The 
empire collapsed on Harshavardhana's death, but inscriptions and 
copperplates tell of other dynasties ruling at Kanauj in later years. At 
the end of 1018, when Mahmud of Ghazni crossed the Jumna, the 
Rajputs were in power at Kanauj, and had to submit to the sudden 
shock of Muslim invasion. Although Kanauj was plundered, the 
expedition was a mere raid, and Rathors ruled it for nearly 200 years 
longer. In 1194, however, Muhammad Ghorl defeated the last great 
Raja, Jai Chand, and Hindu rule in the central parts of the Provinces 
was practically at an end. During the early years of Muhammadan 
rule Kanauj was the seat of a governor, and the District was constantly 
the scene of revolt. At the end of the fourteenth century part of it was 
incorporated in the new kingdom of Jaunpur, while Kanauj became 
the residence of Mahmud Tughlak when he lost the throne of Delhi. 
During the first eighty years of the fifteenth century the District suffered 
much from the struggle between Delhi and Jaunpur, but in 1479 ^^'^^ 
finally restored to the empire. While the Mughal power was gradually 
being consolidated in the sixteenth century, and during the struggle 
with the Pathans which led to the establishment of the short-lived Suri 
dynasty, fighting was frequent, and in 1540 Humayun suffered a 
disastrous defeat near Kanauj. Under the great Mughal emperors the 
District enjoyed comparative peace, but early in the eighteenth century 
it became the nucleus of one of the independent .States which arose 
as the Mughal empire crumbled away. The founder was Muhammad 
Khan, a Bangash Afghan belonging to a village near Kaimganj. He 
brought 12,000 men to Farrukh Siyar in his fight for the throne, and 
was rewarded by a grant in Bundelkhand. In 17 14 he obtained a grant 
near his own home and founded the city of Farrukhabad. Muhammad 

' Beal, Buddhist Kecords of the Western Jl'orld, vol. i, p. io6 ; see also Baiia's 
Harsa Charita. 


Khan was governor of the province of Allahabad for a time, and later 
of Malwa, but his chief services were rendered as a soldier. At his 
death in 1743 he held most of the present Districts of Farrukhabad, 
Mainpuri, and Etah, with parts of Cawnpore, Aligarh, Etawah, Budaun, 
and Shahjahanpur. His son, Kaim Khan, was craftily embroiled with 
the Rohillas by .Safdar Jang, Nawab of Oudh, and lost his life near 
Budaun in 1749. The Farrukhabad domains were formally annexed 
to Oudh, but were recovered in 1750 by Ahmad Khan, another son of 
the first Nawab, who defeated and slew Raja Nawal Rai, the Oudh 
governor. Safdar Jang called in the Marathas, who besieged Ahmad 
Khan in the fort at Fatehgarh near Farrukhabad, and drove off the 
Rohillas who had come to his aid. Ahmad Khan had to fly to the foot 
of the Himalayas, and in 1752 was allowed to return after ceding half 
his possessions to the Marathas. In 1761 he did good service to Ahmad 
Shah Durrani at PanTpat, and regained much of his lost territory. The 
recovery embroiled him with Shuja-ud-daula, ti.e Nawab of Oudh, who 
coveted the tract for himself; but Ahmad Khan was too strong to be 
attacked. In 1771 the Marathas again recovered \.\\q parganas which 
had been granted to them, and shortly afterwards Ahmad Khan died. 
His territory then became tributary to Oudh. In 1777 British troops 
were stationed at Fatehgarh as part of the brigade which guarded Oudh, 
and from 1780 to 1785 a British Resident was posted here. The latter 
act was one of the charges against Warren Hastings, who had engaged 
to withdraw the Resident. In 1801 the Oudh government ceded to the 
British its lands in this District, together with the tribute paid by the 
Nawab of Farrukhabad, and the latter gave up his sovereign rights in 
1802. Two years later Holkar raided the Doab, but was caught by 
Lord Lake after a brilliant night march and his force was cut to pieces 
close to Farrukhabad. 

The District remained free from historical events u[) to the date of 
the Mutiny. News of the outbreak at Meerut reached Fatehgarh on 
May 14, 1857; and another week brought tidings of its spread to 
AlTgarh. The loth Native Infantry showed symptoms of a mutinous 
spirit on May 29 ; but it was not till June 3 that a body of Oudh in- 
surgents crossed the Ganges, and arranged for a rising on the following 
day. The European officials and residents abandoned Fatehgarh the 
same evening ; but several of them returned a few days later and re- 
mained till June 18, when another outbreak occurred, and the rebels 
placed the Nawab of Farrukhabad on the throne. The 41st Native 
Infantry, from Sitapur, marched into Fatehgarh, and the Europeans 
began to strengthen the fort. On June 25 the rebels attacked their 
position, which became untenable by July 4. The fort was then mined, 
and its defenders escaped in boats. The first boat reached Bithiir, and 
its occujmnts were subsequently murdered at Cawnpore by the Nana ; 




the second boat was stopped ten miles down the Ganges, and all in it 
were captured or killed except three. The Nawab governed the District 
unopposed till October 23, when he was defeated by the British at 
Kanauj. The troops, however, passed on, and the Nawab, with Bakht 
Khan of Bareilly, continued in the enjoyment of power until Christmas. 
On January 2, 1858, British forces crossed the Kali Nadi and took 
Fatehgarh next day. The Nawab and Firoz Shah fled to Bareilly. 
Brigadier Hope defeated the Budaun rebels at Shamsabad on January 18, 
and Brigadier Seaton routed another body on April 7. In May a force 
of 3,000 Bundelkhand insurgents crossed the District, and besieged 
Kaimganj ; but they were soon driven off into the last rebel refuge in 
Oudh, and order was not again disturbed. 

The ancient sites in the District are numerous. Sankisa has been 
identified with a great city mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, and from 
Kampil westwards are mounds which contain a buried city. The 
buildings of the Hindu and Buddhist periods have, however, crumbled 
away, or, as at Kanauj, been used as the material for mosques. The 
buildings of the Nawabs of Farrukhabad are not important. 

There are 8 towns and 1,689 villages in the District. Population 
decreased between 1872 and 1881 owing to famine, and in the next 
decade owing to deterioration due to floods ; it has 
risen with the return of more favourable seasons. The 
number of inhabitants at the last four enumerations was as follows : 
(1872) 917,178, (1881) 907,608, (1891) 858,687, and (1901) 925,812. 
There are six tahsils — Kanauj, Tirwa, Chhibramau, Farrukhabad, 
Kaimganj, and Aligarh— the head-quarters of each being at a town 
of the same name, except in the case of Kanauj, of which the head- 
quarters are at Sarai Miran. The principal towns are the municipality 
of FARRUKHABAD-rz^;;^-FATEHGARH and Kanauj. The following table 
gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 


3 . 


Number of 



itage of 
tion in 
tion be- 
n 1891 

ber of 
3 able to 







3 3 











Kanauj . 






- 2.6 








-t- 6.8 


Chhibramau . 




1 26,705 


+ 14-0 


Farrukhabad . 






+ 2-2 








+ 17-4 


Aligarh . 

District total 






+ 17-2 







+ 7-8 


Hindus form 88 per cent, of the total, and Musalmans 12 per cent. 
There are only 1,100 Christians. The density is rather above the 


Provincial average, and between 1891 and 1901 the rate of increase 
was comparatively large. More than 99 per cent, of the population 
speak Western Hindi of the Kanaujia dialect. 

The following are the most numerous Hindu castes : Kisans (cul- 
tivators, akin to the Lodhas of other Districts), 94,000 ; Chamars 
(leather-workers and labourers), 93,000 ; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 
89,000 ; Brahmans, 76,000 ; Rajputs, 73,000 ; and Kachhis (cultivators), 
70^000. Kurmls (28,000) are also important for their skill and industry 
in agriculture. The only caste peculiar to the District is that of the 
Sadhs, most of whom are cotton-printers by trade ; they are distin- 
guished by belonging to a special sect, which does not recognize the 
worship of idols or the supremacy of the Brahman. The District is 
notable for the large number of Muhammadans of foreign origin ; 
Pathans number 34,700; Shaikhs, 29,800; Saiyids, 5,800; the most 
numerous artisan caste is that of the Dhunas or cotton-carders, 7,100. 
As many as 61 per cent, of the population are supported by agriculture, 
which is a high proportion. Rajputs hold two-fifths of the land, and 
Brahmans and Musalmans nearly one-fifth each. Ahlrs, Kisans, Raj- 
puts, Brahmans, Kachhis, and Kurmis occupy the largest areas as 

The American Presbyterian Mission was founded in 1838, and 489 
out of the 699 native Christians in 1901 were Presbyterians. Many of 
them reside in the village of Rakha near Fatehgarh, which was held 
by the mission on lease for sixty years. 

The soil varies from sand to fertile loam and stiff clay, which ordi- 
narily produces rice. Each of the four watersheds between the small 
rivers which divide the uplands is generally composed 
of good loam, with occasional patches of sandy soil, 
and some large Ttsar plains, the soil near which is clay. The slopes to 
the rivers are usually sandy ; and these and the lowlands near the 
Ganges and the Aligarh tahs'tl are precarious tracts, especially liable to 
suffer from excessive rain, which causes a rank growth of coarse grasses. 
On the whole the Ramganga deposits a more fertile silt than the Ganges. 
The District is held on the usual tenures of the United Provinces. 
Out of 3,563 niahdls, 2,432 are zaiin/iddri, 1,046 pattidari, and 85 
bhaiydchdrd. A few estates are lield on talukddri tenure. The main 
agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given in the table on the next page, 
in square miles. 

The principal food-crops, with the areas sown in 1903-4, are: wheat 
(326 square miles), barley (191), Jowdr (140), and gram (93). Less 
important are maize (87), luyra (102), and arhar (72). Rice is grown 
chiefly in the outlying village lands, and is of poor quality except in the 
Tirwa tahsll. Cotton occupied 19 square miles and sugar-cane 21 ; but 
the mo?t valuable miscellaneous crops are poppy (47 square miles), 

F 2 



tobacco (3), and potatoes (7). The tobacco of tlic Kaimganj tahsil has 
a more than local reputation, as it is irrigated with brackish water, 
which improves the flavour. Indian hemp or bhang {Cannabis sativa) 

is cultivated in a few villages. 







Tirwa . 


















Cultivation has slightly decreased in area during the last thirty years, 
but has intensified in quality. The District is noted for its high standard 
of cultivation, chiefly in the hands of the KurmTs and KachhTs. The 
best fields bear three crops in a year : maize in the rains, potatoes in 
the cold season, and tobacco in the spring. The two latter crops 
require rich manuring and plentiful irrigation, and are thus largely 
grown near towns. The cultivation near Farrukhabad and Kaimganj 
can hardly be excelled in the United Provinces. Loans under the 
Agriculturists' Loans Act are taken freely during adverse seasons ; they 
amounted to a total of i'3 lakhs between 1891 and 1900, but have now 
dropped to about R.s. 2,000 a year. The amounts advanced under the 
Land Improvement Loans Act are still smaller. Drainage works have 
been carried out in many parts of the District with good results. 

There is no indigenous breed of cattle, and all the best animals are 
imported. Attempts to improve the breed have had no result so far. 
The ponies likewise are inferior. Sheep and goats are bred locally, and 
are also imported from beyond the Jumna. 

The north and south of the District are fairly well supplied by canal- 
irrigation from branches of the Lower Ganges Canal, and a third branch 
irrigates a small area in the centre. Wells, however, are the principal 
source of irrigation, and in 1903-4 supplied 223 miles, while canals 
served only 105. The jhlls and rivers are used to an appreciable 
extent, serving 38 and 12 square miles respectively. Water is generally 
raised from wells in a leathern bucket worked by bullocks, but in low- 
lying tracts the lever {dhenkli) is used. In the case oi jhils and rivers, 
a closely-woven basket swung on ropes held by two or four men is the 
common form of lift. 

Kankar is the only form of stone found, and it occurs in many parts 
of the District in both block and nodular forms. Saltpetre is manu- 
factured to a considerable extent and exported. 

Farrukhabad and Kanauj are celebrated for cloth printing apjilied to 


curtains, quilts, table-covers, and the like; but the industry is languish- 
ing at Kanauj. A European demand for the articles 

produced at Farrukhabad has recently sprung up. '^^ ^. ^'^. 

^ -11, communications. 

Farrukhabad is also a considerable centre for the 

manufacture of gold lace and of brass and copper vessels. Tents are 

made in the Central jail and by several private lirms, and Kanauj is 

noted for the production of scent. There are a few indigo factories in 

the District, but the manufacture is declining. A flour-mill has recently 

been opened. The Government gun-carriage factory employed 795 

hands in 1903, but has undertaken no new work since the completion 

of the Jubbulpore factory. 

The chief exports are : tobacco, opium, potatoes, fruit, bhang, salt- 
petre, cotton-prints, scent, and brass and copper vessels ; while the 
imports include grain, piece-goods, salt, timber, and metals. Tobacco, 
scent, and mangoes are largely exported to Central India and Rajput- 
ana. The rest of the trade is chiefly local, ard is carried on at small 
markets. Up to 1881 the want of railway communication affected the 
commerce of the District, which has revived considerably since. 

Farrukhabad is fairly well supplied with means of communication, 
except in the Allgarh tahs'il, which is often flooded. The Cawnpore- 
Achhnera Railway passes through the length of the District near the 
Ganges, and a branch of the East Indian Railway from Shikohabad was 
opened in 1906. There are 142 miles of metalled roads, all maintained 
by the Public Works department ; the cost of half of these is, however, 
local, and 868 miles of unmetalled roads are also maintained by the 
District board. Avenues of trees have been planted along 118 miles. 
The grand trunk road passes through the southern half of the District 
with a branch to Farrukhabad city, which is continued to Shahjahan- 
pur and Bareilly. Another road gives communication with the north 
of the District. 

The famine of 1783 doubtless affected this District, though it is not 
specially referred to in the accounts. In subsequent famines Farrukh- 
abad suffered most in 1803-4, 1815-6, 1825-6, and 
1837-8. In the latest of these years^ relief works on famine, 

the modern system were started, especially along the grand trunk road. 
Distress was intense, and Brahmans were seen disputing the possession 
of food with dogs, while mothers sold their children. Expenditure 
from Government funds amounted to i-8 lakhs, and 6 lakhs of revenue 
was remitted. There was not much distress in 1 860-1 or 1868-70, 
but in 1877-8 scarcity was severely felt. The southern part of the 
District was then the most precarious, and this is now the portion best 
protected by canals. In 1896-7 there was some distress; but it was 
not severe, and population increased during the decade, except in the 
Kanauj -tahsll. 


Besides the Collector, the District staff usually includes one member 

of the Indian (jvil Service and four Deputy-Collectors recruited in 

. , . . . India. There is a tahsjMdr at the head-quarters of 
Administration. , . , -, ^ , ,-,- • i • , , t^ 

each talml. Other omciais mclude an Executive 

Engineer of the Canal department, two Opium officers, a Salt officer, and 

the Superintendent of the District and Central jails. 

Civil work is disposed of by three District Munsifs, a Sub-Judge, and 
a District Judge, who also hears Sessions cases. Crime is of the 
ordinary character, but the District is subject to outbreaks of dacoity. 
Female infanticide was formerly very common, but few households are 
now under surveillance. Opium is largely grown in the District, and 
small portions of the drug are often retained by the cultivators for 
personal use or illicit sale. 

The District was acquired in 1801 and 1802, and was at first 
administered by an Agent to the Governor-General, but a Collector 
was appointed in 1806. Early settlements were for short periods, and 
the collection of revenue gave much trouble, owing to the turbulence 
of the people, especially east of the Ganges. The first regular settle- 
ment was made about 1837, the demand being fixed at 12-9 lakhs; 
but this was reduced in 1845 by 1-4 lakhs, owing to the effects of the 
famine of 1838. The next revision was made between 1866 and 1875, 
and is noteworthy for the improvements in procedure introduced by 
Mr. (now Sir Charles) Elliott, whose methods were copied in other 
Districts. The assessment was made on a valuation of the rental 
'assets,' calculated by ascertaining standard rates for different classes 
of soil from rates actually paid. Each village was divided for this 
purpose into tracts of similar soil, instead of each field being separately 
classified. The estimated ' assets ' were also checked by comparison 
with the actual rent-rolls. The revenue assessed was i2'5 lakhs. In 
the precarious tracts liable to flooding the demand broke down, and 
in 1890-2 reductions amounting to Rs. 62,000 were made. The latest 
revision was carried out between 1899 and 1903. Revenue was 
assessed on actual rent-rolls, checked and corrected, where necessary, 
by standard rates, and during settlement rents were enhanced by 
Rs. 63,000. About two-thirds of the tenants' holdings are protected 
by occupancy rights. The new demand amounts to 12-2 lakhs, repre- 
senting 49 per cent, of the net 'assets.' The settlement was thus 
practically a redistribution, and the deteriorated tracts have been 
assessed lightly. The incidence of revenue is Rs. 1-4-0 per acre, vary- 
ing from Rs. 1-5-0 in the high land to 8 annas in the alluvial tract. 

The total collections on account of land revenue and total revenue 
are given in the table on the next page, in thousands of rupees. 

Besides the municipality of FARRUKHABAD-r/^w-FATEHGARH, seven 
towns are administered under Act XX of 1856. Outside these, local 



affairs are managed by the District board, which had an income of 1-3 
lakhs in 1903-4, chiefl}' derived from rates. The expenditure was 
1-5 lakhs, of which Rs. 81,000 was spent on roads and buildings. 


1 890- 1. 



Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 



1 1 '59 


12, iS 

There are 18 police stations and one outpost in the District. 
The Superintendent of police had in 1904 a force of 4 inspectors, 
82 subordinate officers, and 410 constables, besides 230 municipal 
and town police, and 2,100 village and road police. At Fatehgarh 
there is a Central jail, besides the ordinary District jail. 

The District takes a medium position in the Provinces as regards 
literacy, and only 3 per cent. (5-4 males and 0-4 females) of the popu- 
lation could read and write in 1901. The number of public schools fell 
from 184 in 1880-1 to 156 in 1900-1 ; but the number of pupils rose 
from 5,294 to 7,271. In 1903-4 there were 233 public schools with 
9,383 pupils, of whom 672 were girls, besides 41 private schools with 
457 P'-ip'l^- Four schools are managed by Government and 128 by 
the District or municipal boards. The total expenditure on education 
in the same year was Rs. 55,000, of which Rs. 37,000 was met from 
Local funds and Rs. 11,000 from fees. 

There are nine hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
112 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 52,000, of 
v/hom 1,900 were in-patients, and 4,500 operations were performed. 
The total expenditure was Rs. 14,500, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 22,300 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting 24 per 1,000 of the population — a low proportion. Vaccination 
is compulsory only in the municipality and the cantonment. 

[W. Irvine, ' The Bangash Nawabs of Farrukhabad,' Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society (1878, p. 260); District Gazetteer (1884, under 
revision); H. J. Hoare, Settlement Report {k^ot,).] 

Farrukhabad TahsiL — Head-quarters talisll of Farrukhabad Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, comprising ih.e parganas of Bhojpur, Muhammad- 
abad, Pahara, and Shamsabad East, and lying between 27'^ 9' and 27° 
28' N. and 79° 15' and 79° 44' E., with an area of 339 square miles. It 
is bounded on the east by the Ganges and on the south by the Kali Nadi 
(East). Population increased from 244,896 in 1891 to 250,352 in 1901. 
There are 387 villages and one town, Farrukhabad-^/w-Fatehgarh 
(population, 67,338), the District and tahsll head-quarters. The de- 
mand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,55,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 48,000. The density of population, 739 persons per square mile, is 
the hig4iest in the District. Excepting a small tract of alluvial land 


near the Ganges, the whole tahsll\\&?> on the uplands, sloping down on 
the south to the basin of the KalT NadT. 'rhrough the north-east 
corner flows the small river Bagar, whose bed has been deepened and 
straightened to improve the drainage. Immediately above the Ganges, 
and especially round Fatehgarh, some of the finest cultivation in the 
District is to be found. Here a treble crop of maize, potatoes, and 
tobacco is often raised, while fine groves of mango-trees produce a 
plentiful supply of fruit, which is largely exported. In 1903-4 the area 
under cultivation was 223 square miles, of which 81 were irrigated. The 
Fatehgarh branch of the Lower Ganges Canal serves a small area, but 
wells are the chief source of irrigation. 

Farrukhabad City. — Town which gives its name to Farrukhabad 
District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 24" N. and 79° 34' E., 769 
miles by rail from Calcutta and 924 miles from Bombay. It lies near 
the Ganges, at the terminus of a branch of the East Indian Railway from 
Shikohabad, and also on the Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway, and on a 
branch of the grand trunk road. The head-quarters of the District and 
the cantonment are at Fatehgarh, 3 miles east, and the two towns 
form a single municipal area. Population is decreasing. At the last 
four enumerations the number of inhabitants was as follows: (1872) 
79,204, (1881) 79,761, (1891) 78,032, and (1901) 67,338. The popula- 
tion of Farrukhabad alone was 51,060 in 1901. Of the total, Hindus 
numbered 47,041 and Musalmans 19,208. 

Farrukhabad was founded about 17 14 by Nawab Muhammad Khan, 
and named after the emperor Farrukh Siyar. Its history has been re- 
lated in that of the District. The town is surrounded by the remains 
of a wall which encloses a triangular area. The houses and shops are 
well built, and often adorned with beautifully carved wooden balconies. 
Near the northern boundary is situated a high mound on which stood 
the Nawab's palace, but its place has been taken by the town hall and 
tahsill. The streets are fairly broad and often shaded by trees. There 
are, however, few buildings of much pretension, the District school being 
perhaps the finest. North of the city lie the tombs of the Nawabs, 
chiefly in a ruinous state. The town contains a dispensary and a 
female hospital. 

The municipality was constituted in 1864. During the ten years 
ending 1901 the income averaged Rs. 57,000, and the expenditure Rs. 
56,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 70,000, chiefly derived from 
octroi (Rs. 57,000) j and the expenditure was Rs. 93,000, includ- 
ing a drainage scheme (Rs. 38,000), conservancy (Rs. 13,000), public 
safety (Rs. 15,000), and administration and collection (Rs. 8,000). The 
drainage scheme, which has been financed from savings, is to cost 
about a lakh. 

For many years after annexation the trade of Farrukhabad was con- 


siderable, owing to its position near the Cianges and the grand trunk 
road, but the opening of the East Indian Railway diverted commerce. 
At present there is some manufacture of gold lace and of brass and 
copper vessels, and the calico-printing industry is gaining a more than 
local celebrity. The latter is chiefly in the hands of Sadhs, a kind of 
Hindu Quakers. A flour-mill has recently been started. There is 
also a considerable export of potatoes, tobacco, and mangoes. The 
high school contained 164 pupils in 1904; the American Presbyterian 
Mission school, 217 ; and the town or middle school, 113. There are 
also several primary schools. 

Farrukhnagar. — Town in the District and Ai/^ivV of Gurgaon, Pun- 
jab, situated in 28° 27' N. and 76° 50' E., on a branch of the Rajput- 
ana-Malwa Railway, 14 miles from Gurgaon town. Population (1901), 
6,136. It is the depot for the salt extracted from saline springs in the 
neighbourhood, but the industry has greatly declined of late years and 
threatens soon to be extinct altogether. Farrul-hnagar was founded by 
a Baloch chief, Faujdar Khan, afterwards Dalel Khan, who was made 
governor by the emperor Farrukh Siyar. He assumed the title of 
Nawab in 1732, and the Nawabs of Farrukhnagar played an important 
part in the history of the tract for the next seventy years. Farrukhnagar 
was captured by the Jats of Bharatpur in 1757, but recovered in 1764. 
On annexation the Nawabs were confirmed in their principality, but it 
was confiscated in 1858 for the complicity of the reigning chief in the 
Mutiny. The chief buildings are the Delhi Gate, the Nawab's palace, 
and a fine mosque, all dating from the time of Faujdar Khan ; also a 
large octagonal well belonging to the period of Jat occupation. The 
municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 6,400, and the expenditure Rs. 5,900. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,800, chiefly derived from octroi ; and 
the expenditure was Rs. 10,600. It maintains a dispensary. 

Fatahabad l2L\i%\\{Fatehabdd) .— Tahs'il oi Hissar District, Punjab, 
lying between 29° 13' and 29° 48' N. and 75° 13' and 76° o' E., with 
an area of 1,179 square miles. The population in 1901 was 190,921, 
compared with 181,638 in 1891. It contains one town, Fatahabad 
(population, 2,786), the head-quarters ; and 261 villages, among which 
ToHANA and Agroha are places of historical or archaeological interest. 
The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-410 2-3 lakhs. The 
Ghaggar has cut for itself a deep channel in the north of the talisil. 
To the south of this channel lies a broad belt of stiff clay, covered 
with sparse jungle interspersed with stretches of precarious cultivation, 
which depend on occasional floods brought by natural and artificial 
channels from the Ghaggar. The east of the tahs'il lies in Hariana, 
but the centre and south are bare and sandy. A portion is irrigated 
by the Western Jumna Canal. 


Fatahabad Town {Fatehabad). — Head-quarters of the tahfil of the 
same name in Hissar District, Punjab, situated in 29° 31' N. and 75° 
27' E., 30 miles north-west of Hissar. Population (1901), 2,786. The 
town was founded about 1352 by the emperor Firoz Shah, who named 
it after his son Fateh Khan, and had a canal dug to it from the Ghag- 
gar. The fort contains a pillar inscribed with the genealogy of Firoz 
Shah, and a mosque and inscrif)tion of Humayun. The town is of no 
commercial importance. It is administered as a ' notified area,' the 
income of which in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,700. 

Fatahjang {FaicJijang). — Easternmost tahsil of Attock District, 
Punjab, lying between 33° 10' and 33° 45' N. and 72° 23' and 73° 
i' E., with an area of 866 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
114,849, compared with 113,041 in 1891. It contains 203 villages, of 
which Fatahjang (population, 4,825) is the head-quarters. The land 
revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 1-9 lakhs. The tahsil is 
divided into three distinct parts. North of the Kala-Chitta is a small 
plain much cut up by ravines. South of the Khairi-Miirat is the fertile 
Sohan valley, while between the two ranges of hills lies a rough plain, 
narrow in the east and broadening towards the west. 

Fatehabad (i). — South central tahsil of Agra District, United Pro- 
vinces, conterminous with \k\Q. pargana of the same name, lying between 
26° 56" and 27"^ 8'N. and 7 7° 5 5^ and 78° 26' E., with an area of 241 square 
miles. The tahsil is bounded on the north-east by the Jumna, on the 
south by the Utangan, and on the west by the Khari NadT. Population 
increased from 108,446 in 1891 to 114,733 ""^ 1901. There are 161 
villages and one town, Fatehabad (population, 4,673), the tahsil head- 
quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,51,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 30,000. A considerable area is occupied by the 
ravines of the Jumna and Utangan ; but most of the tahs'il is an upland 
tract of average fertility in which well-irrigation is easy, while the Agra 
Canal passes through it. There are two main depressions, one of which 
was probably an old bed of the Jumna. In 1903-4 the area under cul- 
tivation was 169 .square miles, of which 60 were irrigated. The Agra 
Canal serves about one-quarter of the irrigated area, but wells are the 
most important source of supply. 

Fatehabad (2). — Tahsil 0I Hissar District, Punjab. See Fatahabad. 

Fatehgarh Tahsil (or Sirhind). — Head-quarters tahsil of the Amar- 
garh nizd/nat, Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 30° 33'' and 30° 59' N. 
and 76° 17' and 76° 42' E., with an area of 243 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 126,589, compared with 130,741 in 1891. The 
tahsil contains the towns of Basi (population, 13,738) and Sirhind or 
Fatehgarh (5,415), the head-quarters; and 247 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 2-7 lakhs. 

Fatehgarh Town. — Head-quarters of Farrukhabad District, United 


Provinces, situated in 27° 24' N. and 79° 35' E., on a branch of the grand 
trunk road, and on the Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway. Population (1901), 
16,278. The fort was built by Nawab Muhammad Khan about 17 14, 
but first became of importance in 1751, when Nawab Ahmad Khan was 
besieged in it by the Marathas. In 1777 this was chosen as one of the 
stations for the brigade of troops lent to the Nawab of Oudh, but it did 
not pass into the possession of the British till 1S02, when it became the 
head-quarters of an Agent to the Governor-General. In 1804 Holkar 
reached Fatehgarh in his raid through the Doab, but was surprised and 
put to precipitate flight by Lord Lake. When the Mutiny broke out in 
1857, a few of the European residents fled early in June to Cawnpore, 
where they were seized by the Nana and massacred. Those who 
remained behind, after sustaining a siege of upwards of a week, were 
forced to abandon the fort, which had been undermined by the rebels, 
and to betake themselves to boats. On their way down the Ganges, 
they were attacked by the rebels and villagers on both sides of the river. 
One boat reached Bithiir, where it was captured ; the occupants were 
taken prisoners to Cawnpore and subsequently massacred. Another 
boat grounded in the river the day after leaving Fatehgarh, and all the 
passengers but three were shot down or drowned in their attempt to 
reach land. A number of the refugees were brought back to Fatehgarh, 
and, after being kept in confinement Cor nearly three weeks, were shot 
or sabred on the parade-ground ; their remains were cast into a well 
over which has been built a monument, with a memorial church near it. 
The fort lies near the Ganges at the north of the station. From 181 8 
it was used as a gun-carriage factory, but since 1906 it has been con- 
verted into an army clothing depot. Near it stand the barracks of the 
British and Native infantry garrison, partly occupied at present by a 
mounted infantry class. The rest of the cantonment and the civil 
station lie along the high bank of the river separating the native town 
from the Ganges. 

The municipal accounts are kept jointly with those of Farrukh- 
ABAD CiTV, which lies three miles away. The cantonment had a popu- 
lation of 4,060 in 1 90 1, and the annual income and expenditure of 
cantonment funds are each about Rs. 8,000. Trade is almost entirely 
local, but tents are made in three private factories and in the Central 
jail. The gun-carriage factory employed 795 hands in 1903. A middle 
school has 143 pupils, and there are several primary schools, including 
one in the gun-carriage factory, a girls' school, and a school for 
European and Eurasian children. 

Fatehjang. — T^/^jv/ of Attock District, Punjab. ..V^'^? Fatahjang. 

Fatehpur District.— District in the Allahabad Division, United 
Provinces, lying between 25° 26' and 26° 16'' N. and 80° 14' and 
81° 20' -E., with an area of 1,618 square miles. It is bounded on the 


north by the Ganges, dividing it from Rae BarelT District in Oudh ; 

on the west by Cawnjiore; on the south by the Jumna, separating it 

from Hamirpur and Banda Districts ; and on the east by Allahabad. 

The District of Patehpur forms a portion of the 

ysica i:)0AB, or great alluvial tract between the Ganges and 

aspects. 'to ° 

the Jumna, and its mam features do not dmer from 

those common to the whole area enclosed by those two great rivers. 

It consists for the most part of a highly cultivated and fairly well 

wooded plain. A ridge of slightly higher land, forming the watershed 

of the District, runs through it from east to west, at an average distance 

of three to five miles from the Ganges. In the extreme west are three 

small rivers — the Pandu, which flows northward into the Ganges, and 

the Rind and the Non, which swell the waters of the Jumna. The 

tract enclosed between the Jumna and the two last-named streams is 

a tangled mass of ravines, with wild and desolate scenery. Shallow 

lakes (jViI/s) are comuKni in the midland portion of the District, which 

is badly drained, but they ordinarily dry up by January or February. 

As a whole, the western region is much cut up by ravines and covered 

with ^a(^?7/ jungle ; the central tract is more generally cultivated, though 

interspersed with frequent patches of barren usar ; and the eastern part, 

near the Allahabad border, is one unbroken stretch of smiling and 

prosperous tillage. 

The soil consists entirely of Gangetic alluvium, in which kankar is 
the chief mineral product. 

The District is well supplied with cultivated trees, in particular the 
mango in the west and the viahud in the east. Groves are especially 
numerous in the south-east. Shlshaju, nlm, siris, p'lpnh ^rid imll are 
common along roadsides and near the village sites, while babul, ber^ 
and dhdk flourish in the ravines and on waste land. 

Leopards are occasionally found in the ravines along the Jumna and 
Rind, and wolves abound in the same tracts. Wild hog and jackals 
are common everywhere, and the nilgai and antelope are to be seen in 
places. The ' ravine deer ' (gazellef is found wherever there is broken 
ground, and often where the country is undulating. Wild-fowl of all 
kinds are very abundant, and geese, duck, and teal swarm in the 
numerous //^J/y during the cold season. Crocodiles, porpoises, and fish 
of many kinds are common in the large rivers. 

The climate of Fatehpur is that of the Doab generally ; but from its 
easterly position the west winds do not reach it with such force in the 
hot season as in Agra and the western Districts. The surface is some- 
what marshy, and the numerous y'/^J/i- render the atmosphere damp. It 
is, however, not unhealthy. 

The annual rainfall over the whole District averages 34 inches, and 
variations in different parts are small. The amount received from year 


to year, however, fluctuates considerably. Thus in 1894 the fall was 
71 inches, and in 1896 less than 17 inches. 

According to tradition, the Rajas of Argal held a large part of the 
District as tributaries of the Kanauj kingdom before the Musalman 
conquest, and Jai Chand, the last king of Kanauj, is 
said to have deposited his treasure here before his 
final defeat in 11 94. Nothing definite is known of the history of the 
District during the early Muhamniadan period when it formed part of 
the province of Kora, or in the fifteenth century, when it was included 
in the short-lived kingdom of Jaunpur. The iVrgal Rajas supported 
Sher Shah against Humayun, and were finally crushed on the restoration 
of Mughal power. Under Akbar the western half of the District formed 
part of the sarkdroi Kora, while the eastern half was included in Kara, 
It has twice been the scene of battles in which the fate of the Mughal 
empire was at stake. In 1659 Aurangzeb met Shuja between Kora and 
Khajuha, and the battle which resulted was one of the bloodiest ever 
fought in India, Shuja being defeated and his army dispersed. In 171 2 
Farrukh Siyar was unsuccessfully opposed near the same place by his 
cousin, Azz-ud-din, .son of Jahandar, who had seized the throne. During 
the slow decline of the Delhi dynasty Fatehpur was entrusted to the 
governor of Oudh ; but in 1736 it was overrun by the Marathas, on the 
invitation of a disaffected landholder of Kora. The Marathas retained 
possession of the country until 1750, when it was wrested from them by 
the Pathans of Fatehgarh. Three years later Safdar Jang, the practically 
independent Nawab of Oudh, reconquered it for his own benefit. By 
the treaty of 1765 Fatehpur was handed over to the titular emperor. 
Shah Alam ; but when in 1774 he threw himself into the hands of the 
Marathas, his eastern territories were considered to have escheated, 
and the British sold them for 50 lakhs of rupees to the Nawab Wazlr. 
As the Oudh government was in a chronic state of arrears with regard 
to the payment of its stipulated tribute, a new arrangement was 
effected in i8or, by which the Nawab ceded Allahabad and Kora to 
the English, in lieu of all outstanding claims. 

No event of interest occurred after the introduction of British rule, 
until the Mutiny of 1857. On the 6th of June news of the Cawnpore 
outbreak arrived at the station. On the 8th a treasure guard returning 
from Allahabad proved mutinous ; and next day the mob rose, burnt 
the houses and plundered all the property of the European residents. 
The civil officers escaped to Banda, except the Judge, who was mur- 
dered. On the 28th of June fourteen fugitives from Cawnpore landed 
at Shivarajpur in this District, and were all killed but four, who escaped 
by swimming to the Oudh shore. The District remained in the hands 
of rebels throughout the month ; but on the 30th Colonel Neill sent off 
Major R-enaud's column from Allahabad to Cawnpore. On the nth of 



July General Havelock's force joined Renaud's at Khaga, and next 
day they defeated the rebels at Bilanda. They then attacked and 
shelled Fatehpur, drove out the rebels, and took possession of the 
place. On the 15th Havelock advanced to Aung and drove the enemy 
back on the Pandu Nadl. There a second battle was fought the same 
day, and the insurgents were driven in full flight to Cawnpore. British 
authority, however, was confined to the tract along the grand trunk 
road ; and order was not re-established till after the fall of Lucknow 
and the return of Lord Clyde's army to Cawnpore, when the Gwalior 
mutineers were finally driven off. 

Attempts have been made to identify several places in the District 
with sites visited by the Chinese pilgrims ; but no excavations have 
been carried out, and the identifications are uncertain. The Hindu 
remains are generally fragmentary, and even the later Muhammadan 
buildings at Kora and Khajuh.a. are few, and not of striking merit. 

Fatehpur contains 5 towns and 1,403 villages. Population is in- 
creasing, but received a check owing to the vicissitudes of the seasons 
between 1S91 and 1901, when the District suffered 
Population. j^^^j^ ^^^^^ ^^Q^g ^^^ ^j.^j^ drought. The numbers 

at the last four enumerations were as follows: (1872) 663,877, (1881) 
683,745, (1891) 699,157, and (1901) 686,391. There are four tahsils — 
Fatehpur, Khajuha, Gh.^zipur, and Khaga — each named after its 
head-quarters. Fatehpur, the only municipality and the head-quarters 
of the District, is the largest town. The following table gives the chief 
statistics of population in 1901 : — 



Number of 




Percentage of 

variation in 
population be- 
' tween iSgi 
and igoi. 

Number of 
persons able to 
read and 









Khaga . 

District total 












— 2-2 

— '-3 

— O-I 







- 1.8 


About 88 per cent, of the population are Hindus, and less than 
12 per cent. Mu.salmans. Fatehpur is less thickly populated than the 
Districts of the Doab farther west. Eastern Hindi is spoken by 83 
per cent, of the population, and Western Hindi by about 17 per cent. 

The most numerous of the Hindu castes are : Chamars (leather- 
workers and cultivators), 63,000 ; Brahmans, 58,000 ; AhTrs (graziers 
and cultivators), 57,000; Rajputs, 42,000; Kurmis (agriculturists), 
42,000; Pasis (toddy-drawers and labourers), 32,000; and Lodhas 




(cultivators), 30,000. Among Musalnians the largest divisions are : 
Shaikhs, 26,000; Pathans, 16,000; and Behnas (cotton-carders), 6,000. 
The agricultural population forms 70 per cent, of the total, while nearly 
7 per cent, are supported by general labour. Rajputs, Brahmans, and 
Kayasths hold the greater part of the land, while Rajputs, Brahmans, 
Lodhas, KurmTs, and Kachhis are the chief cultivating castes. 

In 1901 there were 113 native Christians, of whom 84 were Presby- 
terians. The American Presbyterian Mission has been established 
here since 1853. 

Three natural divisions exist in the District. Bordering on the 
Ganges is a long narrow tract of alluvial soil, separated from the water- 
shed by a belt of sandy land. South of the watershed, 
which is marked by a distinct ridge, lies the fertile 
central area which extends over more than half of the District. The 
prevailing soil is a good loam, with clay in the depressions, and many 
jhils near which rice is sown. After a series of wet years portions of 
this tract become waterlogged, owing to defective drainage. The most 
southern portion of the District, bordering on the Jumna and forming 
from one-fourth to one-fifth of the total area, resembles the part of 
BuNDELKHAND immediately across the Jumna. A dark heavy soil 
named kdbar, which is unworkable when very dry or very wet, and a 
lighter and less fertile soil called parivd predominate. Ravines are 
extensive and tend to increase, while the spring-level is extremely low. 
On the edge of the Jumna is a little rich alluvial soil. 

The ordinary tenures of the United Provinces are found. Zamindctri 
■mahdls number 3,197, their predominance being due to the large 
number of sales during the early period of British rule, when the 
cultivating communities lost their rights ; 1,163 mahdls are held 
pattldori, and 45 bhaiydchdrd. The main agricultural statistics for 
1903-4 are shown below, in square miles: — 






Fatehpur . 
Ghazipur . 














The commonest food-crop is a mixture of gram and barley. The 
areas under the chief crops in 1903-4 were— gram, 222 square miles ; 
barley, 161 ; Jotvdr, 147 ; wheat, 123 ; rice, 94 ; cotton, 34; and poppy, 
13 square miles. 

The area under cultivation has decreased slightly within the last 
thirty years ; but owing to an increase in the area bearing two crops in 


a year, the gross area cultivated in each of tlie main harvests lias risen, 
especially in the case of the autumn crop. The increase is found in 
the cheaper food-crops, while the area under the more valuable pro- 
ducts, especially cotton and sugar-cane, has decreased. On the other 
hand, poppy is more largely grown than formerly. In adverse seasons 
loans are freely taken under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' 
Loans Acts. The advances amounted to a total of 2-9 lakhs between 
1891 and 1900, of which i'5 lakhs was lent in the famine year, 1896-7. 
^Vith the return of more favourable seasons advances have been 

In the greater part of the District the cattle are of the inferior type 
common to the Doab. Near the Rind and Jumna a smaller and more 
hardy breed is found, resembling the cattle of Bundelkhand. Nothing 
has been done to improve the breeds, and there is practically no horse- 
breeding. The Fatehpur sheep are, however, well-known, and are 
exported in considerable numbers. 

In 1903-4 the area irrigated was 325 square miles, including 
130 square miles from wells, 93 from tanks or jh'ils, and 99 from 
Government canals. Wells are the only source of irrigation in the 
north of the District, and both masonry and unbricked wells are 
common. The Fatehpur branch of the Lower Ganges Canal, which 
was opened in 1898, supplies part of the central and southern tracts. 
It is chiefly used in the spring harvest, and very little canal water is 
taken for the autumn crops. Irrigation from tanks, which comprise 
chiefly the numerous swamps or jhlls, is confined to the central tract. 
Near the Jumna the spring-level is at a depth of 60 to 90 feet, and 
irrigation from wells is almost unknown. 

Kankar is found in all parts of the District, and is the only mineral 
product, except saltpetre which is manufactured from efflorescences 
on the soil. 

The District is largely agricultural, and its manufactures are unim- 
portant. It is, however, celebrated for the ornamental whips made 
at Fatehpur town, and for the artistic bed-covers, 

iradeana curtains, and awnings made at Tafargani. The latter 
communications. , . , ° . , , 

are covered with designs, partly stamped, and partly 

drawn and coloured by hand, inscriptions in Persian being generally 

introduced in the border. Coarser cotton prints are made at Kishanpur 

and playing-cards at Khajuha. 

The trade of the District is mainly in agricultural products, and 

BindkI is the most important commercial town. Grain, cotton, hides, 

and ghi are largely exported ; and piece-goods, metals, and salt are the 

chief imports. Markets are held in many villages, Kishanpur or Ekdala 

on the Jumna being the chief; and an important religious fair takes 

place at Shivarajpur on the Ganges. The railway takes a large propor- 


tion of the traffic, but trade with Bundelkhand on tlie south and with 
Oudh on the north is carried on by road. Tlie great rivers are used 
much less than formerly. 

The main line of the East Indian Railway crosses the District from 
end to end. The road system is fairly good; and 197 miles of 
metalled roads are in charge of the Public Works department, though 
the cost of all but 78 miles is met from Local funds. There are 
341 miles of unmetalled roads. Avenues of trees are maintained on 
122 miles. The main routes are: the grand trunk road, which is 
followed by the line of the railway ; and the metalled road at right 
angles to this, which passes from Rae Barell in Oudh to Bundelkhand. 
The old imperial road from Agra to Allahabad meets the grand trunk 
road near Fatehpur town. 

The District must have suffered in the famines immediately before 
and after the commencement of British rule^ but no separate records 
have been preserved. In 1837-8 distress was not 
so severe as farther west. Fatehpur escaped lightly 
in 1 860- 1, and again in 1868-9, though relief works were opened on 
the latter occasion. In 1877-8 also there was no famine, but the 
labouring classes were distressed. The drought of 1896 followed a 
succession of bad seasons in which the crops had been injured by 
excessive rain, and famine pressed hardly on the southern part of the 
District. Relief works and poorhouses were opened, and the daily 
number of persons in receipt of aid rose to 45,000, the total cost of 
the operations being i\ lakhs. 

The Collector is usually assisted by four Deputy-Collectors recruited 

in India. A tahsildar is posted at the head-quarters ^ , . . ^ . 

, , , , . . . r^ ■ Administration. 

of each tahsii, and there is an Assistant (Jpium 

Agent at P'atehpur. 

There is only one District Munsif, and the District is included in 
the Civil and Sessions Judgeship of Cawnpore. Sessions cases, how- 
ever, are tried by the Judge of Banda as Joint Sessions Judge. Crime 
is light and presents no special features. Female infanticide was 
formerly suspected, but no persons are now under surveillance. 

At the cession in 1801 the present District was included partly in 
Cawnpore and partly in Allahabad. In 181 4 a Joint-Magistracy was 
formed with head-quarters first at Bhitaura and then at Fatehpur, and 
the subdivision became a separate District in 1826. The parga/ias 
constituting Fatehpur had nominally paid 14-4 lakhs under Oudh rule, 
and this demand was retained after the cession, but soon had to be 
reduced. The whole tract was farmed up to 1809 to Nawab Bakar 
All Khan, who received 10 per cent, of the collections. By extortions 
and chicanery he and his family acquired 182 estates, paying a revenue 
of 2-3 lakhs. The early settlements were made for short periods and 




pressed heavily, though tliey were lighter tlian the nominal demand 
under native rule. The fraudulent sales efiected during the early part 
of the nineteenth century were examined by the special commission 
appointed under Regulation I of 182 1, and 176 public sales and 
29 private transactions were cancelled, 'i'he first regular settlement 
under Regulation IX of 1833 was completed during a single cold 
season, 1839-40, and although a survey was made and villages were 
inspected, the methods were very summary. The demand fixed was 
14-5 lakhs, which was reduced a few years later by Rs. 21,000. The 
next settlement was made between 1S71 and 1876. Villages were 
grouped together in blocks according to the classes of soil they con- 
tained, and rates were selected from the rents actually found to be 
paid. The total revenue assessed amounted to 13 lakhs, or less than 
half the assumed 'assets.' In 1900 the question of revision was con- 
sidered, and it was decided to extend the existing settlement for ten 
years. The present demand is 13-1 lakhs, with an incidence of Rs. 1-4 
per acre, varying from Rs. 1-3 to Rs. 2 in different parts of the District. 
Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have 
been, in thousands of rupees \— 

1 880- 1. 




Land revenue 
Total revenue . 





Fatehpur town is the only municipality, but four towns are adminis- 
tered under Act XX of 1856. The local affairs of the District 
beyond the limits of these places are managed by the District board, 
which had an income and expenditure of about a lakh in 1903-4. The 
expenditure includes Rs. 55,000 on roads and buildings. 

There are 20 police stations ; and the District Superintendent of 
police has a force of 3 inspectors, 77 subordinate officers, and 323 con- 
stables, besides 51 municipal and town police, and i,S8o rural and 
road police. The District jail contained a daily average of 223 
prisoners in 1903. 

The District is not distinguished for the literacy of its inhabitants, 
of whom only 3-8 per cent. (7 males and o-i females) could read and 
write in 1901. The number of public schools fell from 132 in 
1880-1 to loi in 1900-1, but the number of pupils rose from 4,046 
to 4,371. In 1903-4 there were 177 such institutions, with 6,795 
pupils, of whom 200 were girls, besides 180 private schools with 
1,737 pupils. Three of the public schools were managed by Govern- 
ment and 115 by the District and municipal boards. In 1903-4 the 
total expenditure on education was Rs. 36,000, of which Rs. 28,000 
was provided by Local funds, and Rs. 6,300 by fees. 


There are six hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
80 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 28,000, 
including 946 in-patients, and 1,300 operations were performed. The 
expenditure was Rs. 7,800, chiefly from Local funds. 

About 22,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, 
representing a proportion of 31 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination 
is compulsory only in the municipality of Fatehpur. 

[A. B. Patterson, Settlement Report (1878) ; H. R. Ncvill, District 
Gazetteer (1906).] 

Fatehpur Tahsil (i). — North-central tahsll of Fatehpur District, 
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Fatehpur and Haswii, 
and lying between 25° 43' and 26° 4' N. and 80° 38' and 81° 4' E., 
with an area of 356 square miles. Population fell from 175,452 in 
1891 to 171,598 in 1901. There are 374 villages and one town, 
Fatehpur (population, 19,281), the District and taJisll head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,87,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 46,000. The density of population, 482 persons per square 
mile, is the highest in the District. The Ganges forms part of the 
northern boundary, but the drainage largely flows south-east through 
a series oi jhils into a channel called the Sasur Khaderl. In 1903-4 
the area under cultivation was 178 square miles, of which 91 were 
irrigated, wells and tanks ox jhils being the chief sources of supply. 

Fatehpur Town (i). — Head-quarters of Fatehpur District and tahsll. 
United Provinces, situated in 25° 56' N. and 80° 50' E., on the grand 
trunk road, and on the East Indian Railway. Population (1901)^ 
19,281. Nothing is known of the early history of the town, but it was 
extended by Nawab Abdus Samad Khan in the reign of Aurangzeb. In 
1825 it became the head-quarters of a subdivision, and in the following 
year of the newly-formed District. The houses are chiefly built of mud, 
the only buildings of historical interest being the tomb of Nawab Abdus 
Samad Khan, and the tomb and mosque of Nawab Bakar All Khan, 
who enjoyed a farm of the District early in the nineteenth century. The 
chief public buildings, besides the ordinary District courts, are the 
municipal hall, male and female dispensaries, and school. Fatehpur 
has been a municipality since 1872. During the ten years ending 
1 901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 13,000. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 20,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 13,000) ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 18,000. Trade is principally local, but grain and 
gJii are exported, and there is a noted manufacture of whips. The 
municipality manages one school and aids another, the two containing 
292 pupils, while the District high school has 144. 

Fatehpur Tahsil (2). — Northern tahsll of Bara Banki District, 
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Ramnagar, Muhammad- 
pur, Bado Sarai, Fatehpur, Bhitaull, and Kursi, and lying between 26° 58' 

G 2 


and 27° 2\' N. and So'' 56' and 8i" 35' E., with an area of 521 square 
miles. Population increased from 315,652 in i8gi to 335,407 in 1901. 
There are 673 villages and two towns, including Fatehpuk (popula- 
tion, 8,180), the tahs'il head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 
1903-4 was Rs. 5,05,000, and for cesses Rs. 82,000. VAxxVaxiXi pargana 
is permanently settled. The density of population, 644 persons per 
square mile, is the lowest in the District. The north-eastern portion of 
the tahsil is a low tract lying between the Chauka and Gogra, which is 
liable to be swept by floods. Elsewhere the land lies high, forming 
a level fertile plain studded with many small tanks or swamps. In 
1903-4 the area under cultivation was 353 square miles, of which 113 
were irrigated. Tanks or swamps supply a larger area than wells. 

Fatehpur Town (2).— Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Bara Banki District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 10' N. and 
81° 14' E., on a metalled road. Population (1901), 8,180. Varying 
traditions assign the foundation of this place to the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. It is full of old masonry buildings, most of which 
are in a state of decay. The finest is an imambd7'a built by an ofificer 
of Naslr-ud-din Haidar. An old mosque is said to have been con- 
structed in the reign of Akbar. Fatehpur contains, besides the usual 
public ofiSces, a dispensary and a school with 130 pupils. It is admin- 
istered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,400. 
Markets are held twice a week, and there is a considerable trade in 
grain. Many weavers reside here, who turn out cotton cloth, rugs, 
and carpets. 

Fatehpur Town (3). — Town belonging to the Slkar chiefship in the 
Shekhawati nizdmat of Jaipur State, Rajputana, situated in 28° N. 
and 74° 58' E., about 95 miles north-west of Jaipur city. The town is 
the third largest in the State, its population in 1901 having been 16,393. 
It contains 14 schools attended by about 420 pupils, and a combined 
post and telegraph ofifice, besides several fine houses belonging to 
wealthy and enterprising bankers and merchants, who have business 
connexions all over India and who, prior to the construction of 
the telegraph in 1896, kept up heliographic communication with 
Jaipur city to record the rise or fall in the price of opium from day 
to day. 

Fatehpur Sikri. — Town in the Kiraoli tahsil of Agra District, 
United Provinces, situated in 27° 5' N. and 77° 40' E., on a metalled 
road 23 miles west of Agra city. Population (1901), 7,147. It was 
close to the village of Sikri that Babar defeated the Rajput confederacy 
in 1527; and here on the ridge of sandstone rocks dwelt the saint 
Salim Chishti, who foretold to Akbar the birth of a son, afterwards the 
emperor Jahanglr. In 1569 Akbar commenced to build a great city 
called Fatehpur, and within fifteen years a magnificent series of 


buildings had been erected. The city was abandoned as a royal 
residence soon after its completion, but was occupied for a short time 
in the eighteenth century by Muhammad Shah ; and Husain All Khan, 
the celebrated Saiyid general, was murdered near here in 1720. The 
site of Fatehpur Slkri is still surrounded on three sides by the great 
wall, about 5 miles long, built by Akbar ; but most of the large space 
enclosed is no longer occupied by buildings. The modern town lies 
near the western end, partly on the level ground and partly on the slope 
of the ridge. It is a small, well-paved place, containing a dispensary 
and a police station. 

From close by the highest houses in the town a flight of steps leads 
up to the magnificent gateway, called the Buland Darwaza or ' lofty 
gate,' which forms the entrance to the great quadrangle of the mosque, 
350 feet by 440. In this stands the marble building containing the 
tomb of the saint Sallm Chishti, the walls of which are elaborately 
carved. The sarcophagus itself is surrounded by a screen of lattice- 
work and a canopy inlaid with mother-of-pearl, which has recently been 
restored. Close by the north wall of the mosque are the houses of 
the brothers, Abul Fazl and Faizi, but the main block of the palace 
buildings lies some distance to the north-east. On the west of this 
block is the large palace called after Jodh Bai, the Rajput wife of 
Akbar. It consists of a spacious courtyard, surrounded by a con- 
tinuous gallery, from which rise rows of buildings on the north and 
south, roofed with slabs of blue enamel. A lofty and richly carved gate 
gives access to a terrace, on which stand the so-called houses of Bubal 
and Miriam, or the ' Christian lady.' The former is noticeable for 
its massive materials and the lavish minuteness of its detail. The 
' Christian lady ' was probably a Hindu wife. Beyond these buildings 
is another great courtyard, divided into two parts. The southern half 
contains the private apartments of Akbar with the Khwabgah, or 
' sleeping-place,' and the lovely palace of the Turkish Sultana. The latter 
is of sandstone, richly carved with geometrical patterns and hunting 
scenes. The Panch Mahal or ' five-storeyed building,' and the Diwan- 
i-khas or ' private audience chamber,' are the principal structures in the 
northern portion. The Panch Mahal consists of five galleries, one 
above another, and appears to have been copied from a Buddhist 
model. The Dlwan-i-khas contains an enormous octagonal pillar, 
crowned by a circular capital, from which four galleries run to the 
corners of the room. According to tradition, Akbar used to hold his 
famous theological discussions in this place. Many of the buildings, 
and especially Miriam's house and the Khwabgah, were adorned with 
paintings. These have largely perished or been destroyed ; but the 
scheme of some has been recovered, and a few restorations have been 
made. "The eastern front of the palace was formed by the Diwan-i-am 


or ' public hall/ close to which lay the baths on the south, and a great 
square called the Mint on the north-east. The palace buildings stand 
on the crest of the ridge, and below them lies a depression which once 
formed a great lake. Beyond the lake stretched the royal park. The 
long descent from the Dlwan-i-am, through tlie Naubat-khana or 
entrance gate to the Agra road, is flanked by confused masses of ruins, 
the remains of the bazars of the old city. 

Fatehpur Sikri was a municipality from 1865 to 1904. During the 
ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged about 
Rs. 5,000, octroi supplying most of the income. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 9,000, and the expenditure Rs. 10,000. The town has now 
been made a 'notified area.' In the time of Akbar it was celebrated 
for its fabrics of hair and silk-spinning, besides the skill of its masons 
and stone-carvers. At present cotton carpets and millstones are the 
chief products. There are two schools with about 100 pupils. 

[E. W. Smith, The Mughal Architecture of Fatehpur Sikri, 4 vols. 
(Allahabad, 1894-8).] 

Fathkhelda. — A^illage in the Mehkar taluk of Buldana District, 
Berar, situated in 20° 13' N. and 76° 27' E., on the small river Bhoga. 
watl, an affluent of the Penganga. Population (1901), 4,198. The 
original name of the village was Shakarkhelda, but it was changed to 
Fathkhelda ('village of victory') by Asaf Jah, to commemorate the 
victory gained here by him in 1724 over Mubariz Khan, governor of 
Malwa, who was slain on the field, a victory which established the virtual 
independence of the Nizam of Hyderabad. The village was sacked by 
Sindhia's troops in 1803 before Assaye, and suffered severely in a famine 
of that year. There is at Fathkhelda a handsome mosque, built by 
Khudawand Khan Mahdavl in 1581, which much resembles that at 

Fatwa. — Village in the Barh subdivision of Patna District, Bengal, 
situated in 25° 30' N. and 85° 19' E., on the East Indian Railway, 
7 miles from Patna city, at the junction of the Punpun with the 
Ganges. Population (1901), 857. Tasar cloth is manufactured, and 
tablecloths, towels, and handkerchiefs are woven by Jolahas. 

Fazilka Tahsil. — Tahsll and subdivision of Ferozepore District, 
Punjab, lying between 29° 55' and 30° 34' N. and 73° 52' and 74° 
43' E., with an area of 1,355 square miles. It is bounded north-west 
by the Sutlej, which divides it from the Dlpalpur tahsll (jf Montgomery 
District, and east by the Patiala State. It is divided into three well- 
marked natural divisions : a narrow low-lying belt along the Sutlej, 
a somewhat broader strip of older alluvium, and a plain broken by 
sandhills, which extends to the borders of Bikaner and is irrigated 
by the Sirhind Canal. The population in 1901 was 197,457, compared 
with 135,634 in 1891. It contains the town of Fazilka (population. 


8,505), the head-quarters, and 319 villages. The land revenue and 
cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 2-2 lakhs. 

Fazilka Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsll of 
the same name, Ferozepore District, Punjab, situated in 30° 33' N. and 
74° 3' E. It is the terminus of the Fazilka extension of the Rajput- 
ana-Malwa Railway, and has been connected with Ludhiana, Feroze- 
pore, and the Southern Punjab Railway by a line recently constructed. 
Population (1901), 8,505. It was founded about 1846 on the ruins 
of a deserted village, named after a Wattu chief, Fazil. It is a con- 
siderable grain mart and contains a wool-press. The municipality was 
created in 1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 21,300, and the expenditure Rs. 22,400. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 16,000, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expendi- 
ture was Rs. 18,500. The town has an Anglo-vernacular middle school 
maintained by the municipality, and a Government dispensary. 

Fenchuganj. — Village in the North Sylhet subdivision of .Sylhet Dis- 
trict, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24° 42' N. and 91° 58' E., 
on the left bank of the Kusiyara river. Population (1901), 285. It 
is the head-quarters of the India General Steam Navigation Company 
in the Surma Valley and an important steamer station. The public 
buildings include a dispensary. 

Fenny River (vernacular Fheni). — River of Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. Rising in 23° 20' N. and 91° 47' E., in Hill Tippera, it flows 
south-west, marking the boundary between Hill Tippera and the 
Chittagong Hill Tracts, which it leaves at Ramghar. Thence it flows 
west and south, dividing Chittagong from Noakhali on the north, and 
ultimately falls into the Sandwip channel, an arm of the Bay of Bengal, 
in 22° 50' N. and 91° 27' E., after a course of 72 miles. During its 
course through the hills it is of little use for navigation, as the banks 
are abrupt and covered with heavy grass jungle and bamboo coppices. 
The Fenny is of considerable depth during the rains, but is rendered 
dangerous by rapid currents, whirling eddies, and sharp turns ; it is 
navigable by large boats throughout the year for a distance of 30 miles. 
It is joined on the right bank by the Muharl river ; and the Little 
Fenny, which flows almost directly south from its s(mrce in Hill 
Tippera, falls into the Bay close to its mouth. 

Fenny Subdivision. — Eastern subdivision of Noakhali District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 22° 43' and 23° 18' N. and 
91° 15' and 91° 35' E., with an area of 343 square miles. It consists 
of low-lying alluvium, with the exception of a narrow strip of land on 
the east adjoining Hill Tippera, where the country is more undulating. 
The population in 1901 was 318,837, compared with 290,530 in 1891, 
the density being 930 persons per square mile. There are 6 78 villages, 
of which- the most important is Fenny, the head-quarters. 


Fenny Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Noakhali District, Eastern IJengul and Assam, situated in 
23° i' N. and 91° 25' li^., on the Assam-Bengal Railway. Population 
(igoi), 5,663. Fenny contains the usual public oflices ; the sub-jail 
has accommodation for 23 prisoners. 

Ferokh. — Village in tlie Ernad taluk of Malabar District, Madras, 
situated in 11° 12" N. and 75° 49' E., 7 miles from Calicut, with 
a station on the Madras Railway. Population (1901), 3,500. It has 
an important weekly market and a tile factory. The chief trade is in 
timber, dried fish, and coco-nuts. In 1788 'Pipfi Sultan of Mysore 
made a determined but ineffectual attempt to raise the town to the 
position of a rival to Calicut. 

Ferozepore District ^Firozpur). — District in the Jullundur Division 
of the Punjab, lying between 29° 55' and 31° 9' N. and 73° 52' and 
75° 26' E., with an area of 4,302 square miles. On the north-east and 
north-west, the Sutlej forms the boundary separating the District from 
Jullundur and the Kapurthala State, and, after its confluence with the 
Beas, from the Districts of I^ahore and Montgomery. On the south- 
west and south, it is bounded by the States of Bahawalpur and Bikaner, 
and by Hissar District ; on the south-east, by the Faridkot State, and 
by detached pieces of territory belonging to Patiala and Nabha ; and on 
the east by the District of Ludhiana. Faridkot State lies across the 
centre of the District, extending from the south-eastern border to within 
a few miles of the Sutlej on the north-west. A detached area forming 
a part of the Moga tahsil lies east of the Faridkot State. The Dis- 
trict consists of a flat, alluvial plain, divided into three broad plateaux 
by two broken and shelving banks which mark ancient courses of the 
Sutlej. The upper bank, which crosses the District 

Physical about 3 s miles east of the present stream, is from 
aspects. . 

15 to 20 feet high ; and the river seems to have run 

beneath it until 350 or 400 years ago, when its junction with the Beas 
lay near Multan. In the second half of the eighteenth century the river 
ran under part of the lower bank, and in its changes from this to its 
present bed has cut out two or three channels, now entirely dry, the 
most important of which, the Sukhar Nai, runs in a tortuous course east 
and west. The volume of water in the Sutlej has sensibly diminished 
since the opening of the Sirhind Canal, and during the cold season it is 
easily fordable everywhere above its confluence with the Beas ; below 
the confluence the stream is about 1,000 yards wide in the cold season, 
swelling to 2 or 3 miles in time of flood. The country is well wooded in 
its northern half, but very bare in the south ; it is absolutely without hill 
or eminence of any description, even rock and stone being unknown. 

There is nothing of geological interest in the District, which is situ- 
ated entirely on the alluvium. In the north the spontaneous vegetation 


is that of the Central Punjab, in the south that of the desert, while in 
the Fazilka subdivision several species of the Western Punjab, more 
particularly saltworts yielding sajji (barilla), are abundant. Trees are 
rare, except where planted ; but the tali or sh'isham {Dalbergia Sissoo) 
is common on islands in the Sutlej. Along the banks of that river 
there are large brakes (locally called helas) of tall grasses {Sacchari/ni, 
A?idropogo/i, &c.) mixed with tamarisk, which are used for thatching, 
brush-making, and basket-weaving ; also iin'/tij (used for cordage) and 
khas-khas (scented roots employed for screens, «Src.). 

Wolves are the only beasts of prey now found, and they are by no 
means common ; but until the middle of the nineteenth century tigers 
were found on the banks of the Sutlej. Hog abound, and 'ravine deer' 
(Indian gazelle) and antelope are fairly plentiful. 

The climate does not differ from that of the Punjab plains generally, 
except that Ferozepore is proverbial for its dust-storms. Owing to the 
dryness of its climate, the city and cantonmen. of Ferozepore and the 
upland plains are exceptionally healthy ; but the riverain tract is mala- 
rious in the extreme. 

The annual rainfall varies from 1 1 inches at Muktsar to 20 at Zira ; 
of the rain at the latter place 17 inches fall in the summer months and 
2 in the winter. The rainfall is very uncertain ; the greatest amount 
received in any year between 1881 and 1903 was 25 inches at Feroze- 
pore in 1882, and in four of the last twenty years one place or another 
has received absolutely no rain. An unusually heavy flood came down 
the .Sutlej in August, 1900, and the level then rose three feet above the 
highest on record, a part of the city of Ferozepore being washed away. 

The earliest known rulers appear to have been the Ponwar Rajputs, 
one of whose capitals may have been Janer, a place apparently 
mentioned by Al Baihaki as Hajnir on the route 
from Meerut to Lahore. About the time of the first 
Muhammadan invasions a colony of Bhatti Rajputs from Jaisalmer 
settled in the neighbourhood of Muktsar, and the Manj, a branch of 
them, ousted the Ponwars and became converts to Islam about 1288. 
The great Jat tribes — Dhaliwals, Gils, and others — which now people 
the District, began to appear 200 years after the Bhattis. About 1370 
the fort of Ferozepore was built by Firoz Shah III, and included in his 
new government of Sirhind. Up to a comparatively recent date it 
seems probable, as tradition avers, that the District was richly culti- 
vated, and deserted sites and ruined wells in the tract bordering on the 
older course of the Sutlej bear witness to the former presence of a 
numerous population. Though no date can be absolutely determined 
for this epoch of prosperity, there are some grounds for the belief that 
the Sutlej flowed east of Ferozepore fort in the time of Akbar ; for the 
Ain-i-Akban describes it as tlie capital of a large tract attached to the 


province of Multan, and not to Sirhind, as would probably have been 
the case had the river then run in its modern course. The shifting of 
the river from which the tract derived its fertility, and the ravages of 
war, were doubtless the chief causes of its decline. This probably 
commenced before the end of the sixteenth century, and in another 
hundred years the country presented the appearance of a desert. About 
the end of the sixteenth century the Sidhu Jats, from whom the 
Phulkian Rajas are descended, made their appearance ; and in the 
middle of the seventeenth century most of the Jat tribes were converted 
to Sikhism by Har Rai, the seventh Guru. In 1705 the tenth Guru, 
Govind Singh, in his flight from Chamkaur, was defeated with great loss 
at Muktsar ; in 17 15 Nawab Isa Khan, a Manj chief, who fifteen years 
before had built the fort of Kot Isa Khan, rebelled against the imperial 
authorities and was defeated and killed ; and about the same time the 
Dogars, a wild, predatory clan which claims descent from the Chauhan 
Rajputs, settled near Pakpattan, and gradually spread up the Sutlej 
valley, finding none to oppose them, as the scattered Bhatti population 
which occupied it retired before the new colonists. At length, in 1 740, 
according to tradition, they reached Ferozepore, which was then in- 
cluded in a district called the Lakha Jungle in charge of an imperial 
officer stationed at Kasur. Three of these officials in succession were 
murdered by the Dogars, who seem to have had matters much their 
own way until the Sikh power arose. 

In 1763 the Bhangi confederacy, one of the great Sikh sections, 
attacked and conquered Ferozepore under their famous leader, Gujar 
Singh, who made over the newly acquired territory to his nephew, 
Gurbakhsh Singh. The young Sikh chieftain rebuilt the fort and con- 
solidated his power on the Sutlej, but spent most of his time in other 
portions of the province. In 1792, when he seems to have divided his 
estates with his family, Ferozepore fell to Dhanna Singh, his second 
son. Attacked by the Dogars, by the Pathans of Kasur, and by the 
neighbouring principality of Raikot, the new ruler lost his territories 
piece by piece, but was still in possession of Ferozepore itself when 
Ranjit Singh crossed the Sutlej in 1808, and threatened to absorb all 
the minor principalities which lay between his domain and the British 
frontier. But the British Government, established at Delhi since 1803^ 
intervened with an offer of protection to all the Cis-Sutlej States ; 
and Dhanna Singh gladly availed himself of the promised aid, being 
one of the first chieftains to accept British protection and control. 
Ranjit Singh, seeing the British ready to support their rights, at once 
ceased to interfere with the minor States, and Dhanna Singh retained 
unmolested the remnant of his dominions until his death in 18 18. He 
left no son, but his widow succeeded to the principality during her life- 
time ; and on her death in 1835, the territory escheated to the British 


Government, under the conditions of the arrangement effected in 1809. 
The political importance of Ferozepore had been already recognized, 
and an officer was at once deputed to take possession of the new post. 
After the boundary had been carefully determined, the District was 
made over for a while to a native official ; but it soon became desirable 
to make Ferozepore the permanent seat of a European Political officer. 
In 1839 Sir Henry (then Captain) Lawrence took charge of the station, 
which formed at that time the advanced outpost of British India in the 
direction of the Sikh power. Early accounts represent the country as a 
dreary and desert plain, where rain seldom fell and dust-storms never 
ceased. The energy of Captain Lawrence, however, combined with the 
unwonted security under British rule, soon attracted new settlers to this 
hitherto desolate region. Cultivation rapidly increased, trees began 
to fringe the water-side, trade collected round the local centres ; and 
Ferozepore, which in 1835 was a deserted village, had in 1841 a popu- 
lation of nearly 5,000 persons. P^our years later, the first Sikh War 
broke out. The enemy crossed the Sutlej opposite Ferozepore on 
December 16, 1845 ; and the battles of Mudki, Ferozeshah, Aliwal, 
and Sobraon, the first two within the limits of the present District, 
followed one another in rapid succession. Broken by their defeats, 
the Sikhs once more retired across the boundary river, pursued by the 
British army, which dictated the terms of peace beneath the walls of 
Lahore. The whole cis-Sutlej possessions of the Punjab kingdom 
passed into the hands of the East India Company, and the little princi- 
pality of Ferozepore became at once the nucleus of an important 
British District. The existing area was increased by subsequent 
additions, the last of which took place in 1884. Since the successful 
close of the first Sikh campaign, the peace of the District has never 
been broken, except during the Mutiny of 1857. In May of that year, 
one of the two Native infantry regiments stationed at Ferozepore broke 
out into revolt, and, in spite of a British regiment and some European 
artillery, plundered and destroyed the buildings of the cantonment. 
The arsenal and magazine, however, which gave the station its principal 
importance, were saved without loss of life to the European garrison. 
The mutineers were subsequently dispersed. The detachment of Native 
infantry at Fazilka was at the same time disarmed ; and the levies 
raised by General Van Cortlandt, and in Fazilka by Mr. Oliver, 
succeeded in preserving the peace of the District, which on any show of 
weakness would have been in revolt from one end to the other. In 
1884, when Sirsa District was broken up, the tahsll of Fazilka was 
added to Ferozepore. 

The population of the District at the last three enumerations was : 
(18S1) 747,329, (1891) 886,676, and (1901) 958,072, dwelling in 8 
towns and 1,503 villages. It increased by 8 per cent, during the 



last decade, the increase being greatest in tlie Fazilka tahsil and least 
in Zira. It is divided into the five tahsils of 
Ferozepore, ZIra, Moga, Mukt.sar, and Fazh.ka, 
the head-quarters of each being at the place from which it is named. 
The chief towns are the municipalities of Ferozepore, the head- 
quarters of the District, Fazilka, Muktsar, Dharmkot, Zira, and 

The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 


w cJ 





Number of 


0) . 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1 89 1 
and 1 90 1. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 







Fazilka . 

District total 




> 97,457 



- 7-7 
+ 1-3 
+ 4-3 
+ 6-8 
+ 45-6 









+ 8.0 


Note.— The figures for the areas of tahsils are taken from revenue returns. The 
total District area is that given in the Census Report. 

JVIuhammadans number 447,615, or 47 per cent, of the total ; Hin- 
dus, 279,099, or more than 29 per cent.; and Sikhs, 228,355, "^^i" nearly 
24 per cent. The language generally spoken is Punjabi of the Malwai 
type, but on the borders of Bikaner Bagri is spoken. 

By far the largest tribe are the Jats or Jats (248,000). They are of 
the Mahva type, described under Ludhiana District. The Arains 
(65,000) appear to be recent immigrants from JuUundur and Lahore. 
Small to begin with, their holdings in this District have become so sub- 
divided, and their recent extravagance has plunged them so heavily 
into debt, that they present a complete contrast to their brethren in 
Ludhiana. Rajputs number 82,000. The Dogars (16,000) are still 
mainly a pastoral tribe ; they are noted cattle-thieves, and have been 
described as feeble-minded, vain, careless, thriftless, very self-indulgent, 
and incapable of serious effort. Gujars number 14,000. The chief 
commercial tribes are the Aroras (24,000), Banias (18,000), and 
Khattrls (11,000). Of the artisan and menial tribes, the most impor- 
tant are the Chhimbas (washermen, 15,000), Chamars (leather-workers, 
32,000), Chuhras (scavengers, 95,000), Julahas (weavers, 23,000), 
Kumhars (potters, 35,000), ALachhis (fishermen, 20,000), Mochis 
(cobblers, 23,000), Sonars (goldsmiths, 8,000), Tarkhans (carpenters, 
31,000), Telis (oil-pressers, 16,000), and Lobars (ironsmiths, 10,000). 
There are 14,000 barbers and 11,000 village minstrels. Ascetics in- 
clude the Muhammadan Bodlas (1,200), whose powers of healing by 



incantation are as highly esteemed by the people, both Muhammadan 
and Hindu, as their curse is dreaded. Brahmans number 18,000. 
The Bawaris (11,000), Harnis, and Sansis (500) have been proclaimed 
as criminal tribes. Mahtams number 14,000. About 61 per cent, of 
the population are supported by agriculture. 

The Ludhiana American Presbyterian Mission has a station, occupied 
in 187 1, at Ferozepore. The mission of the Presbyterian Church of 
the United States of America started work in 1881. The District in 
1 90 1 contained 240 native Christians. 

The conditions of the District vary with the distance from the hills, 
the annual rainfall decreasing by about 4 inches every 20 miles, while 
in every part the light soils of the uplands can resist 
drought much better than the clays of the riverain 
tract. In the north-east the rainfall is sufficient for ordinary tillage. 
In the centre the hard clay soils of the riverain require water to grow 
even ordinary crops in dry years, but the light upland soils do very 
well with the quantity of rain they usually receive. In the south there 
is no unirrigated cultivation in the riverain, and in the uplands the 
cultivation is extremely precarious. 

The District is held mostly on the bhaiyachard and pattldari tenures, 
za?nmddri lands covering only 474 square miles. 

The area for which details are available from the revenue records of 
1903-4 is 4,078 square miles, as shown below: — 








Zira .... 


Muktsar . 



















Wheat and gram are the most important crops of the spring harvest, 
occupying 784 and 841 square miles respectively in 1903-4; barley 
covered 213 square miles. In the autumn harvest, the great and 
spiked millets occupied 193 and 128 square miles respectively. Some 
rice (21 square miles) is grown on the inundation canals, and maize 
(117 square miles) in the riverain. The pulse moth is the autumn crop 
of the sandy tracts beneath the great bank. Little sugar-cane or cotton 
is grown. 

The cultivated area increased by 6 per cent, during the twelve years 
ending 1903-4, the increase being chiefly due to the extension of 
canal-irrigation. Little has been done towards improving the quality of 
the crops, experiments tending to show that foreign seeds deteriorate 


after a year or two. The chief improvement in agricultunil practice is 
the substitution t)f the spring cultivation for the less valuable autumn 
crops ; forty years ago the autumn harvest occupied twice the area of 
the spring, and even now spring cultivation in the south of the District 
is insignificant. Loans under the Agriculturists' Loans Act are popular, 
and as a rule faithfully applied. During the five years ending 1904 
Rs. 86,000 was advanced under this Act, and Rs. 1,600 under the 
Land Improvement Loans Act. 

The cattle of the riverain are greatly inferior to the upland breed, 
which is an extremely fine one. Before the introduction of British 
rule, the jungles round Muktsar were inhabited by an essentially 
pastoral population. Camels are much used in the sandy parts and 
the local breed is good. Ferozepore is an important horse-breeding 
District. There are two breeds of horses — a small wiry animal bred 
chiefly by the Dogars of the riverain, and a larger one bred inland. An 
important horse and cattle fair is held at Jalalabad in the Mamdot 
estate in February. Nine horse and eighteen donkey stallions are kept 
by the Army Remount department, and two pony stallions by the 
District board. Sheep are fairly numerous, and the wool of the 
country between Fazilka and Bikaner is much esteemed. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 1,611 square miles, or 47 per 
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 170 square miles were 
irrigated from wells, 79 from wells and canals, 1,361 from canals, and 
519 acres from streams and tanks. In addition, 68 square miles, or 
2 per cent., were subject to inundation from the Sutlej. The high lands 
of the south-east are irrigated by the Abohar branch of the Sirhind 
Canal, while the riverain is watered by the Grey Inundation Canals. 
In the riverain wells are worked by Persian wheels, in the high 
lands by the rope and bucket. In both cases bullocks are used. 
There were 8,604 wells in use in 1904, besides 808 temporary wells, 
lever wells, and water-lifts. 

Forests covering an area of 6 square miles are managed by the 
Deputy-Commissioner. Small groves of trees are generally found 
round wells ; but there are no large plantations, and the scarcity of 
wood is felt to a considerable extent. Kankar is the only mineral 
product of value. 

The manufactures are confined almost entirely to the supply of 

local wants. Coarse cloths and blankets are woven from home-grown 

cotton and wool, and the carts made locally are of 

communications exceptional excellence. Mats are woven of Indian 

hemp and false hemp. Excellent lacquer-work on 

wood is produced. The arsenal at Ferozepore town employed 1,199 

hands in 1904. 

The District exports wheat and other articles of agricultural produce, 


which are to a great extent carried by the producers direct to markets in 
Ludhiana, Amritsar, Bahawalpur, Lahore, Jullundur, and Hoshiarpur. 
The chief imports are sugar, cotton, sesamum, metals, piece-goods, 
indigo, tobacco, sah, rice, and spices. Ferozepore town is the chief 
trade centre. 

Ferozepore town lies on the North-Western Railway from Lahore to 
Bhatinda, and the Fazilka tahs'il is traversed by the Southern Punjab 
Railway. Fazilka town is also connected with Bhatinda by a branch of 
the Rajputana-Malwa (narrow gauge) Railway, which runs parallel to 
the North-\\'estern Railway from Bhatinda to Kot Kapura. A railway 
running from Ludhiana through Ferozepore and Fazilka to join the 
Southern Punjab Railway at McLeodganj has recently been opened. 
Ferozepore town lies on the important metalled road from Lahore to 
Ludhiana. The total length of metalled roads in the District is 
81 miles and of unmetalled roads 828 miles. Of the former, 57 miles 
are under the Public Works department, and the rest under the 
District board. The Abohar branch of the Sirhind Canal and the 
Sutlej Navigation Canal form a waterway connecting Ferozepore 
town with Rupar. Below its junction with the Beas, the Sutlej 
is navigable all the year round. Little use, however, is made of 
these means of water communication. There are twenty ferries on 
the Sutlej. 

The District was visited by famine in 1759-60, and again in 1783-4, 
the year of the terrible chdlisa famine, when rain failed for three suc- 
cessive seasons and wheat sold at a seer and a quarter 
per rupee. Famine again occurred in 1803-4, 181 7-8, 
1833-4, 1842-3, 1848-9, 1856-7, and 1860-1. In 1868-9 there was 
famine, and Rs. 16,739 ^^^•'' ^pe^t i" relief. The next famine was 
in 1896—7, by which time the extension of canal-irrigation and 
the improvement of communications had to a great extent pre- 
vented distress becoming really acute. Food for human beings was 
not scarce, as the stocks of grain were ample, but a good deal of 
suffering was caused by high prices. The total amount spent on relief 
was Rs. 33,952, and the greatest number relieved in any week was 
4,149. In 1899-1900 scarcity was again felt. The greatest number on 
test works was 2,296, and the expenditure was Rs. 75,470, of which 
Rs. 61,435 ^^'^s for works of permanent utility on canals. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by six 
Assistant or Extra- Assistant Commissioners, of whom one is in charge 
of the Fazilka subdivision and one in charge of the . . 

District treasury. It is divided into the five taksils of 
Ferozepore, Zira, Moga, Muktsar, and Fazilka, each under a 
tahs'ildar and a nail>-fahs'ilddr, the Fazilka tahs'il forming a subdivision. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 


criminal justice, (.'ivil judicial work is under u District Judge, and both 
officers are suliordinute to the Divisional Judge of the Ferozepore Civil 
Division, who is also Sessions Judge. There are four Munsifs, one at 
head-quarters and one at each outlying tahsll, except Fa/ilka. Dacoity 
and murder are especially common in the District. The most frequent 
forms of crime are cattle-theft and burglary. 

Practically nothing is known of the revenue systems which obtained 
in Ferozepore previous to annexation. The Ain-i-Akbari mentions 
Ferozepore as the capital of a large pargana in the Multan Subah. The 
Lahore and Kapurthala governments seem to have taken their revenue 
in cash. They fixed the amount for short periods only, and sometimes 
collected in kind. From annexation onwards the revenue history has to 
be considered in three parts. The District proper is divided into two 
portions by the State of Faridkot, while the revenue history of the 
Fazilka tahsil, which was added to the District in 1884, is distinct from 
either of those portions and possesses different natural features. Several 
summary assessments were made from annexation to 1852, when the 
regular settlement was commenced. This assessment, which increased 
the demand of the summary settlement by only i per cent., was 
sanctioned for a term of thirty years. The Muktsar tahsll was annexed 
in 1855 and settled summarily. This settlement ran on till 1868, when 
(together with the Mamdot territory annexed in 1864) the iahsil was 
regularly settled. The northern part of the District, including the 
Moga, Zira, and Ferozepore tahslls, was resettled between 1884 and 
1888. Besides raising the demand from Rs. 4,80,000 to Rs. 7,30,000, 
a water rate was imposed of 6 and 1 2 annas per ghumao (five-sixths of 
an acre) on crops irrigated by the Grey Inundation Canals. This rate 
brings in about Rs. 30,000 a year. The Muktsar ta/isll was reassessed 
immediately afterwards, and the revenue raised from Rs. 1,76,000 to 
Rs. 2,65,000, excluding the canal rate, which was calculated to bring 
in a further Rs. 20,000. 

The Fazilka tahsll was summarily settled after annexation, and the 
regular settlement was made in 1852-64. The revised settlement made 
in 1 88 1 increased the revenue from Rs. 55,000 to Rs. 94,000. At 
the same time 51 villages on the Sutlej were placed under a fluctuating 
assessment, based on crop rates varying from Rs. 1-8-0 to 8 annas 
per acre. The tahsU came again under assessment in February, 1900, 
when the revenue was increased by Rs. 71,000, excluding a large en- 
hancement of occupiers' rates on canal-irrigated lands. 

The rates of the present settlement range from R. 0-14-3 to 
Rs. 1-6-3 O'"' 'wet' land, and from 7 annas to R. 0-13-10 on 
' dry ' land. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are 
shown in the following table : — 



1 880-1. 

1 890- 1. 



Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 





For the District as tlicii constituted, excluding the Fazilka tahsiL 

The District possesses six municipalities : Fekozefork, Fazilka, 
MuKTSAR, Dharmkot, Zira, and Makhu. Outside these, local 
affairs are managed by the District board, which had in 1903-4 an 
income of Rs. 1,73,000. The expenditure was Rs. i,6r,ooo, public 
works being the largest item. 

The regular police force consists of 679 of all ranks, including 59 
cantonment and 91 municipal police, under a Superintendent \vh(j 
usually has four inspectors to assist him. The village and town watch- 
men number 1,528. There are 18 police stations, 4 outposts, and 13 
road-posts. The District jail at head-quarters has acconmiodation for 
434 prisoners. 

Ferozepore stands fourteenth among the twenty-eight Districts of the 
Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 the propor- 
tion of literate persons was 3-8 per cent. (6-7 males and 0-3 females). 
The number of pupils under instruction was 2,942 in 1 880-1, 5,446 in 
1890-1, 6,113 ii'' 1900-1, and 6,387 in 1903-4. In the last year there 
were ro secondary and 93 primary (public) schools, and 7 advanced 
and 90 elementary (private) schc^ols, with 473 girls in the public and 
289 in the j)rivate schools. The District possesses an Anglo-vernacular 
high school maintained by the Ferozepore nmnicipality, the manage- 
ment of which was taken over by the Educational department in 1904, 
and two unaided high schools — the Har Bhagwan Das Memorial high 
school at Ferozepore and the Dev Dharm high school at Moga. It 
also has 7 middle and 93 primary schools under the department, and 
2 middle and 95 primary schools supported mainly by private enterprise. 
Indigenous education, however, is on the decline. 'J'he girls' schools, 
though few, show more signs of life than they did ten years ago, and 
there is healthy competition between the small mission school for girls 
and that of the Dev Samaj. The total expenditure on education 
in 1903-4 was Rs. 72,000, of which the District board contributed 
Rs. 25,300 ; the Government grant was Rs. 5,000. 

Besides the civil hospital and a mission hospital at Ferozepore, the 
District contains seven outlying dispensaries. These institutions in 
1904 treated a tolal of 97,612 out-patients and 3,067 in-patients, and 
7,781 operations were performed. The expenditure was nearly 
Rs. 23,000, of which Rs. 10,000 was derived from municipal and 
Rs. 1^2,000 from Local funds. 



The number of successful vaccinations in 1903 4 was 24,321, rejnc- 
senting 26 per 1,000 of the population. 

[E. B. Francis, District Gazetteer (1888-9), Settlement Report of the 
N'orthern Part of the District (1893), Settlement Report of Miiktsar and 
Ildka Mamdot (1892), and Customary Law of the Tahslls of Aloga, 
Zlra, and Ferozeporc (1890) ; J. Wilson, General Code of Tribal Custom 
in the Sirsa District (1883); C. M. King, Settlement Report of Sirsa 
and Fdzilka Tahslls (1905).] 

Ferozepore Tahsil. — Tahsll of Ferozepore District, I'unjab, lying 
between 30° 44' and 31° 7' N. and 74° 25' and 74° 57' E., with an 
area of 486 square miles. It is bounded on the north-west by the 
Sutlej, which divides it from Lahore District. The lowlands along the 
river are irrigated by the Grey Canals, but the greater part of the tahsil 
lies in an upland plateau of sandy loam. The population in 1901 was 
165,851, compared with 179,606 in 1891. Ferozepore Town (popu- 
lation, 49,341) is the head-quarters of the tahsil, which also contains 
the town of Mudki (2,977) and 320 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 2-1 lakhs. The battle-fields of 
Ferozeshah and Mudk! are in this tahsll. 

Ferozepore Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsll of 
Ferozepore, Punjab, situated in 30° 58' N. and 74° 37' E., on the old 
high bank of the Sutlej, on the North-Western Railway ; distant by rail 
from Calcutta 1,198 miles, from Bombay 1,080, and from Karachi 788. 
Population (1901), with cantonment, 49)34 1> including 24,314 Muham- 
madans, 21,304 Hindus, 1,665 Sikhs, and 1,753 Christians. The town 
was founded, according to tradition, in the time of Firoz Shah HI, but 
was in a declining state at the period of British annexation, the popula- 
tion in 1838 being only 2,732. It was occupied by the in 1835, 
on the death of Sardarni Lachhman Kunwar. It is now the seat of a 
thriving commerce, due principally to the exertions of Sir H. Lawrence, 
who induced many native traders to settle in the town, and more lately 
to the enterprise of an English merchant, who has erected a powerful 
cotton-press in the vicinity. The main streets are wide and well paved, 
while a circular road which girdles the wall is lined by the gardens of 
wealthy residents. The memorial church, in honour of those who fell in 
the Sutlej campaign of 1845-6, was destroyed during the Mutiny, but 
since restored. A Sikh temple in honour of the men of the 36th Sikhs 
who fell holding Fort Saragarhi and in the sortie from Fort Gulistan in 
1897, erected by private subscriptions collected by the Pioneer news- 
paper, and opened in 1903 by the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, 
testifies to the loyalty and valour of our former foes. 

Ferozepore has a large and prosperous grain market, but is chiefly 
important for its cantonment, the population of which in 1901 was 
25,866. One of the two arsenals in the Province is situated at Feroze- 



pore, which in 1904 employed 1,199 liands. The garrison includes 
a battery of field artillery and a company of garrison artillery, a British 
infantry regiment, one regiment of Native cavalry, and two battalions of 
Native infantry. The income and expenditure of the cantonment 
funds during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 47,000. 

The municipality was created in 1867. The municipal receipts during 
the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 50,900, and the expenditure 
Rs. 49,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 52,700, chiefly derived 
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 45,100, including conservancy 
(Rs. 7,700), education (Rs. 11,700), medical (Rs. 8,400), public safety 
(Rs. 7,200), and administration (Rs. 5,500). The chief educational 
institutions are two Anglo-vernacular high schools, one of which, main- 
tained by the municipality, was taken over by the Educational depart- 
ment in 1904, and an aided Anglo-vernacular middle school in canton- 
ments. There is a civil hospital. The Ludhiana American Presbyterian 
Mission maintains a hospital for males and a small school for girls. 

Ferozeshah (/y/rt'r/7y/?(?//r).— Battle-field in the District and tahsll 
of Ferozepore, Punjab, situated in 30° 53' N. and 74° 50' p]., about 
I 2 miles from the left bank of the Sutlej. It is famous for the attack 
made upon the formidably entrenched Sikh camp, on December 21, 
1845, by the British forces under Sir Hugh Gough and Sir Henry 
Hardinge. After two days' severe fighting, the entrenchments were 
carried and the enemy completely routed, but not without heavy losses 
on the part of the conquerors. No traces of the earthworks now remain, 
but a monument erected upon the spot perpetuates the memory of the 
officers and men who fell in the engagement. The real name of the 
place, as called by the people, is Pharushahr, corrupted into the his- 
torical name Ferozeshah. 

Fife, Lake. — Lake in Poona District, Bombay. See Lake Fife. 

Firingipet. — Town in South Arcot District,Madras. See Porto Novo. 

Firozabad Tahsil. — North-eastern tahs'il of Agra District, United 
Provinces, conterminous with the pargaim of the same name, lying 
between 26° 59' and 27° 22' N. and 78° 19' and 78° 32' E., with an 
area of 203 square miles. Population increased from 112,153 in 1891 
to 119,775 in 1901. There are 186 villages and one town, Firozai;ad 
(population, 16,849), the tahs'il head-quarters. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,25,000, and for cesses Rs. 27,000. The 
density of population, 590 persons per square mile, is slightly above 
the District average. The tahs'il lies north of the Jumna, and is crossed 
by two small streams, the Sirsa and Sengar. About one-sixth of the 
total area consists of the Jumna ravines, which produce only thatching- 
grass and a little stunted timber. The rest is a fertile tract of upland 
soil, with a few patches of usar, dhdk jungle {Butea frondosa), and here 
and there sandy ridges. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 

ti 3 

loo /'IRO/.AnAD TAllSlf. 

141 stiiuirc miles, of whicli 60 were irrigated. AN'ells sui)[)ly over 90 
])er cent, of the irrigated area, and the Upper Ganges Canal serves 
about 5 s(]uare miles. 

Firozabad Town. — Head-cjuarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Agra District, United Provinces, situated in 27° 9' N. and 78° 23' E., 
on the road from Agra city to Mainpuri, and on the East Indian 
Raihva}'. Population (1901), 16,849. 'l'""*^ town is ancient, but is said 
to have been destroyed and rebuilt in the sixteenth century by 
a eunuch, named Malik Eiroz, under the orders of Akbar, because 
Todar Mai was insulted by the inhabitants. It contains an old 
mosque and some temples, besides a dispensary, and branches of the 
American Methodist Mission and the Church Missionary Society. 
A municipality was constituted in 1869. During the ten years ending 
1 901 the income and expenditure averaged about Rs. 14,000. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 16,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. 12,000); 
and the expenditure was Rs. 20,000. The trade of the place is mainly 
local, but there is a cotton-ginning fcxctory employing about 100 hands. 
The municipality maintains a school and aids four others with 190 
pupils, besides the tahslli school with about 80 pupils. 

Firozpur. — District, tahsil, and town in the Punjab. See Feroze- 


Firozpur Tahsil. — Tahs'il of Gurgaon District, Punjab, lying 
between 27° 39' and 28° \' N. and 76° 53' and 77° 20' PI, with an area 
of 317 square miles. It is bounded on the north-east by the Nuh and 
Palwal tahsl/s, on the south-east by the Muttra District of the United 
Provinces and the State of Bharatpur, and on the west by the State 
of Alwar. The population in 1901 was 132,287, compared with 
113,874 in 1891. It contains the town of Firozpur-Jhirka (popula- 
tion, 7,278), the head-quarters, and 230 villages. The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-7 lakhs. The parganas of 
Firozpur and Punahana, which make up the present tahsil, were 
assigned for go(xl service to Ahmad Bakhsh Khan, but w'^re forfeited 
by his son for complicity in the murder of Mr. AN'illiam Eraser in 1836. 
Of the two ranges of bare and rocky hills which extend northwards into 
the tahs'il, one forms the western boundary and the other runs north- 
east for 25 miles and then sinks into the plain. I'he soil in the low- 
lying parts of the tahsil, which are liable to be flooded after heavy 
rains, is a sandy loam. 

Firozpur-Jhirka. — Head-quarters of the Plrozpur tahsil in Gurgaon 
District, Punjab, situated in 27° 47' N. and 76° 58' E., 50 miles due 
south of Gurgaon town. Population (1901), 7,278. Formerly a 
trade centre for cotton, it has been ruined by the absence of railway 
communications. It has an out still for the distillation of spirit. It 
is said to have been founded by Eiroz Shah III as a military post 


to control the MewatTs. From 1803 to 1836 it was the seat of the 
Nawabs of Firozpur, to whom the present tahsll had been granted 
on annexation. The municipality was created in 1867. The income 
and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 7,400 
and Rs. 7,100 respectively. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 6,600, 
chiefly derived from octroi : and the expenditure was Rs. 7,800. It 
maintains a vernacular middle school and a dispensary. 

Flrviz Shah.— rnittle-lield in Fero/.epore District, Punjal). See 


Forbesganj. — \'illage in the Araria subdivision of Purnea District, 
Bengal, situated in 26° 19' N. and 87° 16' E. Population (rgoi), 
2,029. Forbesganj lies on the Eastern Bengal State Railway and is 
a market of growing importance, the chief articles of coiumerce being 
jute, grain, and piece-goods ; there are two steam jute-presses. The 
place contains a number of Marwari merchants, some of whom conduct 
a trans-frontier trade with Nepal. 

Fort Dufferin.- Part of Mandalay cantonment, Upper Burma. 
See Mandalay City. 

Fort Lockhart. — Military outpost on the Samana range, in the 
Hangu tahs'il of Kohat District, North-VVest Frontier Province, and 
summer head-quarters of the general commanding the Kohat military 
district, situated in t^-^ 33' N. and 70° 55' E., 6,743 feet above sea- 
level. The garrison consists of a Native infantry regiment, and in 
summer a mountain battery. 

Fort Mackeson. — Formerly a considerable frontier fort in Pesh- 
awar District, North-West Frontier Province, built to command the 
north entrance to the Kohat Pass, from which it is 3! miles distant. 
It consisted of a pentagon, an inner keep, and a hornwork, with 
accommodation for 500 troops ; but, with the exception of the keep, 
it was dismantled in 1887, and is now held by 29 men of the border 
military police. 

Fort Munro.— Hill station in the District and tahsll of Dera 
Ghazi Khan, Punjab, situated in 30° N. and 70° 3' E., on a peak of 
the Sulaiman Hills, 6,300 feet above sea-level. 

Fort St. David. ^ A ruined fortress in the C'uddalore tiiliik of 
South Arcot District, Madras, situated in 11° 45' N. and 79° 47' E., 
on the bank of the Gadilam river near the point where it falls into the 
Bay of Bengal, about \\ miles east of ('uddalore New Town. The 
place is now included within the limits of the municipality of Cudda- 
LORE, and several European bungalows have been erected within its 
crumbling lines. It has as stirring a history as almost any spot in 
the Presidency. The Dutch and the French both had settlements 
here at one time. There was a small fort, which had been built by 
a Hindu merchant named ("hinnia Chetti, and after the cai)ture of 


Gingee by Sivaji in 1^)77 this passed into the possession of the 
Marathas. From them it was purchased by the EngHsh in 1690, the 
sale including- all the land round to the distance of a ' randome shott 
of a great gun.' The great gun was carefully loaded and fired to the 
different points of the compass, and wherever its shot fell a boundary 
mark was set up. The villages so obtained are called the ' cannon- 
ball villages ' to this day. The place was originally known in those 
days as Tegnapatam or Devipatam ; and it has been conjectured with 
much probability that it was named Fort St. David by Elihu Yale, then 
Governor of Fort St. George, who was a Welshman, in honour of his 
country's patron saint. From 1725 onwards thefortifications were greatly 
improved and the place became of considerable strength. Upon the 
capitulation of Madras to the French under La Eourdonnais in 1746, 
Fort St. David became the British head-quarters on the coast, and the 
Company's agents there assumed the general administration of affairs 
in the South of India. They successfully resisted an attack made in 
the same year by Dupleix. Clive received his first commission here 
in 1747 and was appointed its Governor in 1756. In 1758 the French 
under Lally (see the graphic account of the affair in Orme's History) 
captured and dismantled the fort, but abandoned it in 1760 when 
Eyre Coote marched on Pondicherry. In 17S2 they again took it, 
and restored its defences in 1783 sufficiently to withstand an attack by 
General Stuart. It was given back to the English in 1785. A curious 
feature of the fortifications was the subterranean passages under the 
glacis. These appear to have run completely round the fort, thus 
forming a safe means of communication for the garrison. At short 
intervals other galleries, striking off at right angles and terminating in 
powder chambers, served as mines. At the south-east corner the 
gallery ran down to the edge of the sea. Some of these passages are 
still to be seen. 

Fort St. George. — The citadel of Madras. See Madras City. 

Fort Sandeman Subdivision. — Subdivision and /ahsll of the 
Zhob District, Baluchistan, forming the north-eastern corner of the 
District, and lying between 30° 39' and 32° 4' N. and 68° 58' and 
70° 3' E., with an area of 3,583 square miles. Population (1901), 
34,712. The land revenue, including grazing tax and royalty levied 
on wood, amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 40,000. The head-quarters 
station is Fort Sandeman (population, 3,552). The tahs'il possesses 
190 villages. The country is hilly, and intersected by the valley of 
the Zhob and many minor valleys. Cultivation is sparse and back- 
ward. The Girdao plain is covered with rich pasture in years of good 
rainfall. The Shinghar spurs of the Sulaiman range contain fine 
forests of edible pine. 

Fort Sandeman Town. — Head-quarters station of the Zliob 


District, Baluchistan, situated in 31° 21' N. and 69° 27' E. It was 
first occupied in December, 1889. To the natives the locahty is 
known as Apozai ; it received its present name from its founder, 
Sir Robert Sandeman. The station stands about 6^ miles east of the 
Zhob river, in an open plain 4,700 feet above sea-level. A ridge 
rises 150 feet above the surface of the plain to the north, on which 
stands the residence of the Political Agent, known as the Castle. The 
military lines, bazar, dispensaries, and school lie below. The nearest 
railway station in Baluchistan is Harnai, 168 miles ; Bhakkar, the 
railway station for Dera Ismail Khan, is 122 miles. The population 
numbered 3,552 in 1901. The garrison includes a Native cavalry 
and a Native infantry regiment, and Fort Sandeman is also the head- 
quarters of the Zhob Levy Corps. A supply of water for drinking 
purposes, carried by a pipe nine miles from the Saliaza valley, was 
inaugurated in 1894, at a cost of a little over a lakh of rupees. Water 
for irrigation is also obtained from the .same source, and by this means 
many fruit and other trees have been planted. A Local fund has 
existed since 1890; the income during 1903-4 was Rs. 18,000 and 
the expenditure Rs. 1 7,000. One-third of the net receipts from octroi 
is paid over to the military authorities. A small sanitarium, about 
8,500 ft. above sea-level, exists about 30 miles away at Shlnghar on the 
Sulaiman range, to which resort is made in the summer months. 

Fort Victoria. — Fort in the Dapoli taluka of Ratnagiri District, 
Bombay. See BankOt. 

Fort William. — The citadel of Calcutta, Bengal. See Calcutta. 

French Possessions. — The head-quarters of the Governor of 
French India are at Pondicherry ; and the French Possessions com- 
prise five Settlements, with certain dependent loges or plots. They 
aggregate 203 square miles, and had a total population in 1891 of 
286,347 persons and in 1901 of 273,185. These totals were made 
up as follows: Pondicherry, area 115 square miles, population (1901) 
174,456; Karikal, 53 square miles, population 56,595; Mahe, 26 
square miles, population 10,298 ; Yanam, 5 square miles, po[)ulation 
5,005 ; and Chandernagore, 4 square miles, population 26,831. 
Except the last, these possessions are all located within the Madras 
Presidency. The greater part of the decline in the [)opulation during 
the decade ending 1901 occurred at Karikal. 

The first French expedition into Indian waters, with a view to open 
up commercial relations, dates as far back as 1603. It was under- 
taken by private merchants at Rouen; but it failed, as also did several 
similar attempts which followed. In 1642 Cardinal Richelieu Ibunded 
the first Compagnie d'Orient, but its efforts met witli no success. 
Colbert reconstituted the Company on a larger basis in 1664, granting 
exemption from taxes and a monopoly of the Indian trade ior fifty 


years. After liaving twice atteni[)ted, without success, to establish 
itself in Madagascar, Colbert's Company again took up the idea of 
direct trade with India, and its President, Caron, founded in 1668 the 
Coniptoir or agency at Surat. But on finding that cit\- unsuited for 
a head establishment, he seized the harbour of Trincomalee in Ceylon 
from the Dutch. The Dutch, however, speedily retook Trincomalee; 
and Caron, passing over to the Coromandcl coast, in 1672 seized 
St. Thome, a Portuguese town adjoining Madras which had for twelve 
years been in the possession of Holland. He was, however, compelled 
to restore it to the Dutch in 1674. 

The ruin of the Company seemed impending, when one of its agents, 
the celebrated Fran^'ois Martin, suddenly restored it. Rallying under 
him a handful of sixty Frenchmen, saved out of the wreck of the 
settlements at Trincomalee and St. Thome, he took up his abode at 
Pondicherry, then a small village, which he purchased in 1683 from the 
Raja of Gingee. He built fortifications, and a trade began to spring 
up ; but he was unable to hold the town against the Dutch, who 
wrested it from him in 1693, ^^'^^ held it until it was restored to the 
French by the Peace of Ryswick in 1697. 

Pondicherry became in this year, and has ever since remained, the 
most important of the French Settlements in India. Its foundation 
was contemporaneous with that of Calcutta ; like Calcutta, its site was 
purchased by a European Company from a iiative prince ; and what 
Job Charnock was to Calcutta, Fran9ois Martin proved to Pondicherry. 
On its restitution to the French by the Peace of Ryswick in 1697, 
Martin was appointed governor, and under his able management 
Pondicherry became an entrepot of trade. Chandernagore, in Lower 
Bengal, had been acquired by the French Company in 1688, by grant 
from the Delhi emperor; Mahe, on the Malabar coast, was obtained in 
1725-6, under the government of M. Lenoir; Karikal, on the Coro- 
mandel coast, under that of M. Dumas in 1739. Yanam, on the coast 
of the Northern Circars, was taken possession of in 1750, and formally 
ceded to the French two years later. 

The war of 1741 between France and I'^ngland led to the attack alike 
of Madras and of Pondicherry, the capitals of the English and French 
Companies in Southern India. La liourdonnais equipped at his own 
expense a fleet, and laid siege to Madras, which capitulated on Septem- 
ber 21, 1746, and was ransomed for £400,000. The English in due 
time made reprisals. On April 26, 1748, they appeared before Pondi- 
cherry, but eventually retired after a most skilful defence of the town 
conducted by the famous Dupleix during forty-two days. The Peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle put a stop to further hostilities, and left Dupleix free to 
further his dream of an Indian empire for France. IkHween 1746 and 
1756, by a happy mingling of clever diplomacy and fearless daring, 


Dupleix and his lieutenants passed from success to success until the 
French reached the height of their power in the South. He obtained 
from the Mughal emperor at 1 )elhi the title of Nawab ; established 
a protectorate over the Suhah of Arcot and other parts of Southern 
India ; made large additions to the French territory around Pondi- 
cherry, Karikal, and Masulipatam ; and extended the French authority 
over the four Sarkars of Mustafanagar, Ellore, Rajahmundry, and 
Chicacole, and the island of Srirangam, formed by two arms of the 
Cauvery. These various annexations opened up to French commerce 
200 leagues of seaboard, and yielded a revenue of £800,000 (20 
million francs). 

This period of power proved of short duration. Dupleix, feebly 
supported by the Court of Versailles, met with a series of reverses from 
the English Company, and was recalled to Paris in 1753. A certain 
extent of the territory still remained to his successor ; but during the 
Seven Years' War the Government of France could afford no reinforce- 
ments for its Indian possessions. The English Company overran them, 
defeated the French at Wandiwash, and seized Arcot. Eally-Tollendal, 
after a chivalrous defence, surrendered Pondicherry on January 6, 1761. 
The English demolished the town ; the walls, the forts, the public 
buildings, were all destroyed. The captured troops and all Europeans 
in the French Company's service were deported to France. 

Two years later, the peace of 1763 restored Pondicherry and the 
other Indian factories to the French, but with their former territories 
greatly curtailed. The abolition of the monopoly of the French Com- 
pany in 1769 threw open the trade, and Pondicherry began to show 
signs of new vitality. But in 1778 it again fell into the hands of the 
English East India Company. In 1782 the Bailli de Suffren made 
a brilliant effort on behalf of his countrymen, fighting four naval battles 
with the English in seven months, and retaking the fort of Trincomalee. 
Next year, the Treaty of Versailles restored Pondicherry and the other 
factories to the French, January 20, 1783. But the English Company 
took advantage, as usual, of the breaking (nit of the next war in Europe 
to seize the French possessions in India, and again compelled their 
rivals to evacuate their settlements in 1793. The Peace of Amiens 
once more restored them to the French in 1802; on the renewal of 
hostilities, the English Company again seized them, September 11, 
1803. Pondicherry thus passed for the fourth time under British rule; 
and, during the long Napolecmic wars, the French power ceased to 
exist in India. 

Pondicherry and the other factories were restored to the French by 
the treaties of 1814 and 181 5, the territories being finally reduced to 
their present limits. The French had to begin the whole work of their 
Indian settlements de novo; and an exijcdition arrived at Pondicherry 


on September i6, 1816, to re-enter on possession. On December 4, 
1816, Pondicherry and Chandernagore were delivered over to them; 
Kiirikal on January 14, 1817; Mahe, on February 22, 1817 ; and 
Vanam, on April 12, 1817. A convention between the Governments 
of France and Fngland, dated March 7, 1815, regulated the conditions 
of their restoration. The French renounced their former right, under 
the convention of August 30, 1787, to claim annually from the English 
East India ('ompany 300 chests of opium at cost price, and agreed to 
pay henceforth the average rates realized at the Calcutta sales. They 
also bound themselves to make over to the English Company, at 
a fixed price, all surplus salt manufactured within their restored terri- 
tories over and above the requirements of the local population. In 
compensation for these concessions, the English agreed to pay 4 lakhs 
of sicca rupees (one million francs, or, say, £40,000) annually to the 
French Government. As it was found that the right to make salt at 
all in the French Settlements led to the smuggling of that article into 
the surrounding British Districts, the French Government was induced, 
on May 13, 181 8, to surrender it altogether for an annual payment of 
4,000 pagodas (33,600 francs, or, say, £1,344). This second treaty, 
although at first made for only fifteen years, has been indefinitely pro- 
longed ; the British Government supplying the French authorities with 
salt at cost price, and allowing the latter to sell it to their own subjects 
at their own rates. Difficulties still continue regarding the supply of 
arrack, or country liquor, that made in Pondicherry being cheaper than 
the British product after it has paid the heavy excise duty, and special 
arrangements are required along the Pondicherry border. The cost of 
manufacture of toddy (palm-juice liquor) is about equal in the tw^o 
territories, and no complications ensue. The tariff on imports into 
British India also necessitates the maintenance of a special land 
customs establishment all along the intricate frontier of the Pondi- 
cherry Settlement. 

The military command and administration-in-chief of the French 
possessions in India are vested in a Governor, whose residence is at 
Pondicherry. He is assisted by a minister of the interior, secretaries in 
the different administrative departments, and a principal judicial officer. 
In 1879 local councils and a council-general were established, the 
members being chosen by a sort of universal suffrage within the French 
territories. Ten municipalities or communal boards were erected under 
a decree issued in 1880: namely, at Pondicherry, Oulgaret, Villenour, 
Bahur, Karikal, La Grande Aldee, Nedungadu, ("handernagore, Mahe, 
and Yanam. On municipal boards natives are entitled to a proportion 
of the seats. Civil and criminal courts, courts of first instance, and 
a court of appeal compose the judicial machinery. The army and 
establishments connected with the Governor and his staff at Pondi- 


cherry, and those of tlie local governors or chefs de service at Chander- 
nagore, Yanam, Mahe, and Karikal, together with other head-quar- 
ters charges, necessarily engross a large proportion of the revenue. 
All the state and dignity of an independent Government, with four 
dependent ones, have to be maintained. This is effected by rigid 
economy, and the prestige of the French Government is worthily 
maintained in the East. Pondicherry is also the scene of considerable 
religious pomp and missionary activity. It forms the seat of a Pre- 
fecture Apostolique, founded in 1828, consisting of a Prefet Apostolique 
and a body of priests for all French India ; and of the Missions 
Etrangeres, the successors of the Mission du Carnatic founded by the 
Jesuits in 1776. But the cliief field of this mission lies f)utside the 
French Settlements ; a large proportion of its Christians are British 
subjects and many of the churches are in British territory. The British 
rupee is the only legal tender within French territories. The system of 
education is progressive to a satisftictory extent. A line of railway 
running via Villenour, from Pondicherry to Villupuram on the South 
Indian Railway, maintains communication with Madras and the rest of 
British India, and Karikal is linked to the same railway by the branch 
from Peralam. The telegraph is working throughout the Settlements. 
A Chamber of Commerce consisting of fourteen members, nine of them 
Europeans or persons of European descent, was reorganized in 1879. 
The capital, Pondicherry, is a very handsome town, and presents, 
especially from the sea, a striking appearance of French civilization. It 
forms the head-quarters of the French national line of steam communi- 
cation with the East, the Messageries Maritimes. The total sea-borne 
exports from French India in 1904 were returned at £1,209,000, of 
which £409,000 was with France, £113,000 with French colonies, and 
the remainder with other countries, chiefly British. The imports by sea 
in the same year were valued at £232,000, of which £202,000 came 
from foreign countries and the remainder from France and her colo- 
nies. The number of ships entering ports in the French Settlements 
in the same year was 413, with an aggregate burden of 683,727 tons. 

French Rock. — A small rock in Trichinopoly District and taluk, 
Madras, situated in 10'' 49' N. and 78° 43' E., about a mile to the east 
of Trichinopoly City, and to the north of the Tanjore road at the 
point where it is crossed by the Uyyakondan channel. It has two 
prominences with a saddle between. In the siege of Trichinopoly by 
Chanda Sahib and the French in 1751, the latter occupied the rock and 
mounted on it two i8-pounders; hence its name. The guns were, 
however, at too great a distance to make any impression on the walls of 
the fort. Some time after (April, 1752) the French abandoned for a 
time all their posts to the south of the Cauvery, except Tiruvarambur 
(Erumblswaram). In 1753 Stringer Lawrence pitched his camp a little 


to the south-east of the French Rock, in order to facilitate a junction 
with the reinforcements expected from Madras. The remains of the 
redoubt which protected the left of his camp are still to he seen, about 
300 yards north of the railway and \\ miles north-east of the Golden 
(or Sugar-loaf) Rock. After the arrival of these reinforcements the 
battle of the Sugar-loaf Rock was fought (September 21, 1753), in 
which the F'rench and Mysore forces were utterly defeated. In the 
Central jail at Trichinopoly are two old battered guns, one still spiked, 
which are supposed to have been taken in this fight. 

Fuleli Canal. — A canal in Sind, Bombay, and one of the largest in 
India. It used to be fed by a winding channel taking off from the 
Indus about 9 miles north of Hyderabad. In 1S56 a new moutli 
at Jamshora, 4 miles from Hyderabad, was excavated by Government 
at a cost of Rs. 1,05,000, and has proved to be the most profitable work 
in Sind. For about 20 miles south of Hyderabad the Fuleli was really 
a river channel, which flowed back into the Indus ; but it was cut off 
from the river, and extended southwards by Mian Nur Muhammad 
Kalhora and the Mirs, to irrigate their lands, and has now become 
a very large canal. In March, 1900, it was made perennial by the 
excavation of an escape, which connects it with an old river channel, 
called the Puran, and so carries the excess water to the sea. The result 
is that the flooding of immense areas at the tail has been stopped, 
and about 1,000 boats and 5 steam launches ply on it almost con- 
tinuously throughout the year. The length of the main canal is 98 
miles and of its branches 914 miles. The maximum discharge, which 
has been limited on account of breaches in its banks and conse- 
quent flooding of large tracts, is 10,000 cubic feet per second ; but 
when another escape is made, it will be possible to admit as much as 
12,000 cubic feet. 

In 1903-4 the gross revenue was 7^ lakhs, representing a return 
of 21-8 per cent, on the capital outlay. If the jdgir land on the canal, 
which pays only about one-fifth of the ordinary assessment, had paid 
the full amount, the return on the capital outlay would have been 
31-7 per cent. The greatest area cultivated in one year on this canal 
was 650 square miles in 1900-1 ; but when more scientific means of 
distribution are provided, this area will be increased. 

Fulta. — -Village in the Twenty-four Parganas District, Bengal. See 

Fyzabad Division {Faizabad). — Eastern Division of Oudh, United 
Provinces, lying between 25° 34' and 28° 24' N. and 80° 56' and 
83° 8' E., with an area of 12,113 square miles. The Division extends 
from the low hills on the Nepal frontier to the Ganges, and is bounded 
on the east by the Gorakhpur and Benares Divisions and on the west 
by the Lucknow Division. The head-quarters of the Commissioner art^ 



al FvzABAD CiTV. Population is increasing steadily. The numbers at 
the last four enumerations were as follows: (1869) 5,905,367, (1881) 
6,062,140, (1891) 6,794,272, and (1901) 6,855,991. The density of 
population, 566 persons per square mile, is considerably above the 
Provincial average, and the Districts lying between the Gogra and the 
C.anges are congested. Although third in size in the United Provinces, 
this Division has the largest population. In 1901 Hindus formed 86 per 
cent, of the total and Musalmans nearly 14 per cent. There were also 
2,437 Christians (including 951 natives). The Division contains six 
Districts, as shown below : — • 

Land revenue and 


Area in square 


cesses, 1903-4, 



in thousands 

of rupees. 



',225 374 


Gonda . 
















Bara Bank! 








Bahraich and Gonda lie north and east of the Kauriala or Gogra 
and border on Nepal. Fyzabad and Bara Banki are situated along the 
south bank of the Gogra, and Partabgarh along the north bank of the 
Ganges. Sultanpur lies between Fyzabad and Partabgarh. The habi- 
tations of the people are scattered in small hamlets; and while the 
P)ivision contains 13,979 villages, it has only 35 towns. Fyzabad with 
AjODHYA (population, 75,085 with cantonment) and Bahraich (27,304) 
are the only towns with more than 20,000 inhabiants. The chief places of 
commercial importance are Fyzabad, Bahraich, Bela, Gonda, Nawau- 
GANj (Bara Banki), Nawadganj (Gonda), Tanda, Akbarpur, Jalal- 
pur, Sultanpur, and Bara Banki. Ajodhya is to the Hindu one of 
the most sacred places in India, as it was the capital of Kosala, at 
which Rama was born, while the Jains visit it as the birthplace of 
several of their Tirthankaras or hierarchs. The ruins of Set Mahet 
are interesting, and the site is identified by some Orientalists with 

Fyzabad District {Faizdbdd). — District in the Fyzabad Division of 
the United Provinces, lying between 26° 9' and 26° 50' N. and 81° 41' 
and 83° 8' E., south of the Gogra river, with an area of 1,740 square 
miles. In shape the District is an irregular parallelogram, running 
from west to east with a slight tendency southwards. It is bounded 
on the. north-east by the Gogra, which divides it from Gonda, Basti, 
and Gorakhpur; on the south-east and south by Azamgarh and 


Sultanpui" ; and on the west by Bara Banki. The chief river is the 

Gogra, which flows along the wliole nortliern frontier for a distance of 

95 miles, being navigable throughout by large 

^^^^* cargo-boats and river steamers. The high banks 

of the river are about 25 feet above cold-season 

water-level. While this is the largest river, it receives very little of the 

drainage of the District. For a short distance at the south-west angle 

the Gumti forms the boundary. Two small streams, the Marha 

and Biswl, unite about the centre of the District to form the Tons 

(Eastern). The Majhoi, Tirwa, Pikia, TonrI, and Chhoti Sarju are of 

minor importance. In addition to many isolated jhils or swamps, 

there are collections of these at two or three places ; but Fyzabad 

contains no lakes of any size. 

The District exposes nothing but alluvium, in which kankar or 
calcareous limestone occurs both in block form and in nodules. 

The flora presents no peculiarity. The whole area is well wooded, 
but there is no forest, though patches of dliak ]v\x\'^q {Butea frondosa) 
occur in many places. Fine mango groves and clumps of bamboos 
adorn the landscape. 

There are few wild animals. Nilgai are found along the Gogra and in 
small patches of dlidk jungle. Antelope are very scarce. A large herd 
of domestic cattle has run wild in the lowlands, but the numbers are 
being reduced by capture. Game-birds, including water-fowl and snipe, 
are common, and the rivers and tanks contain an abundance of fish. 

The climate is good, though cholera is endemic, and the Ajodhya 
fiiirs are frequently sources of epidemics. Extreme heat is unusual, and 
the mean monthly temperature ranges from about 65° to 88°. 

The annual rainfall averages 41 inches, and it is evenly distributed, 
though the north receives the heaviest fall. Considerable fluctuations 
take place from year to year. 

The early history of the District is purely legendary. It is regarded 

by the Hindus with special veneration as containing Ajodhya, the 

capital of Kosala, which was the birthplace of Rama. 

ory. Ajodhya is also a place of pilgrimage for the Jains, 

owin!.'^ to the birth of several of their saints there. From numismatic 


evidence it is certain tliat shortly before the Christian era a line of 
kings ruled here for some considerable time ; but details of the history 
during the rise and decline of Buddhism, the short but brilliant rule of 
the Gupta kings, and the rise of the later kingdom of Kanauj, are alike 
wanting. The first approach to more accurate records is reached in 
the eleventh century, when the half-mythical raid of Saiyid Salar took 
place. A portion of the high road is still pointed out along which the 
country people will not pass after dark, for they say that at night the 
road is thronged with headless horsemen of Saiyid Salar's army. After 

rOPULA TION 1 1 1 

the fall of Kaiiauj, nearly 200 \ears later, the Musalmans uvenan 
Oudh, and Ajodhya became the capital of a province. In the fifteenth 
century the kings of Jaunpur held the District, and after their fall it 
lapsed again to Delhi. The Muhaniniadan historians relate little of 
interest, though the governorship of Oudh was of some importance. 
Babar entered the District, and early in Akbar's reign the governor 
rebelled. In the eighteenth century the importance of Ajodhya in- 
creased, as it became the capital of the new line of Nawabs who made 
Oudh an independent State. Saadat Khan and Safdar Jang spent little 
time at their head-quarters ; but after his defeat at Buxar Shuja-ud-daula 
made the new town of Fyzabad his permanent residence. Shortly after 
his death in 1775 the capital was moved to Lucknow, and Fyzabad 

The only important event in the history of the District since the 
annexation of Oudh in 1859 was the Mutiny of 1857. In the early part 
of that year the tnjops in cantonments consisted of the 22nd Bengal 
Native Infiintry, the 6th Irregular Oudh Cavalry, a company of the 7th 
Bengal Artillery, and a horse battery of light field-guns. The troops 
revolted on the night of June 8, but the outbreak was not accompanied 
by the scenes of massacre which occurred at other military stations. 
The European officers with their wives and families were allowed to 
leave unmolested ; and although some of them were attacked in their 
flight by mutineers of other regiments, nearly all succeeded after more 
or less hardship in reaching places of safety. A Muhammadan land- 
holder, j\llr IMuhammad Husain Khan, sheltered one party in his small 
fort for several clays until the road was open and they could reach 
Gorakhpur in safety. 

Ancient mounds exist at many places, but have not been explored. 
Local tradition ascribes them to the Bhars, but some at least are 
probably Buddhist. A copperplate grant of Jai Chand and a frag- 
mentary inscription of the same king have been found. Besides the 
coins of the local rulers referred to above, coins of the Guptas are not 
uncommon, and an important hoard of silver coins of the sixth or 
seventh century a. D. Avas unearthed in 1904. The temples of Ajodhya 
are chiefly modern. The only Muhammadan buildings of more than 
local interest are at Ajodhya, Akharpur, and Fyzabad. 

The District contains 9 towns and 2,661 villages. Its population is 
increasing. The numbers at the last four enumerations were as follows : 
(1869) 1,024,652, (1881) 1,081,419, (1891) 1,216,959, Population, 
and (1901) 1,225,374. There are four tahslls — 
Fyzabad, Akbarpur, Bikapur, and Tanda — each named from its 
head-quarters. The principal towns are the municipalities of Fyzabap 
with Ajodhya, and Tanda. The table on the next page gives the 
chief statistics of population in 1901. 





Tanda . 

District total 





Number of 






















^ OJ 


i5 b 
^ 3 












o c 


Coc o 

3 J* c 

CS (3 
O ■>-' 

+ 5-6 
+ 0.9 

+ 2.7 
- 5-3 

+ 0.7 

5 5 '^ ? 

3 O 1) 




The figures include 20,407 persons belonging to other Districts, who 
were enumerated at a fair in Ajodhya in 1901. In 1904 pargaiia 
Surhurpur, containing two towns and an area of 144 square miles with 
a population of 100,930, was transferred from Tanda to Akbarpur. 
Nearly 89 per cent, of the total population are Hindus and 1 1 per cent. 
Musalmans. During the last decade the normal increase of popula- 
tion was arrested by the effects of both excessive rain and drought. 
This District supplies a considerable number of emigrants to the West 
Indian colonies and also to Assam. About 70 per cent, of the people 
speak the Awadhi dialect of Eastern Hindi, and 26 per cent, speak 

Chamars (tanners and cultivators), 172,000, are the most numerous 
Hindu caste, forming 16 per cent, of the total. The other castes of 
importance are Brahmans, 165,000 ; Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 
139,000 ; Kurmis (agriculturists), 74,000 ; Rajputs or Chhattrls, 68,000 ; 
Kewats (cultivators), 41,000 ; Pasis (toddy-drawers and cultivators), 
39,000 ; Muraos (market-gardeners), 36,000 ; Banias, 35,000 ; KorJs 
(weavers), 33,000 ; and Bhars (labourers), 25,000. The Kurmis, 
Kewats, PasIs, Muraos, and Bhars are chiefly found in the centre and 
east of the Provinces. Musalmans include Julahas (weavers), 29,000 ; 
Shaikhs, 20,000 ; Pathans, 14,000 • and Behnas (cotton-carders), 12,000. 
Agriculture supports 64 per cent, of the total po})ulation, and general 
labour 4 per cent. Rajputs or Chhattrls hold more than half of 
the land. 

There were 341 native Christians in 1901, of whom 141 belonged to 
the Anglican communion and 113 were Methodists. The Church 
IVIissionary Society has laboured in the District since 1862, and the 
Wesleyan Mission was opened in 1875. 

The District is chiefly situated on the upland above the Gogra ; but 

along the bed of that river lie stretches of alluvial soil, in places 

producing magnificent spring crops, and in others 

being merely sand in which tamarisk and grasses are 

the only vegetation. The natin-al soils on the ui)land are sand, loam, and 



clay. Sand is found on the high banks of the Gogra and the other 
streams, and passes into fertile loam, which stiffens into clay in the 
swamps and depressions. The heavy clay soil, which covers a large 
area, produces excellent rice. Owing to the density of population, 
agriculture has become intensive. 

The ordinary tenures of Oudh are found in Fyzabad. Tahikddrs 
own 73 per cent, of the total area. Subordinate tenures are found 
to a larger extent, both in ialukdari estates and in other //la/id/s^ 
than in any other District of Oudh. Thus sub-settlement holders or 
piikhtaddrs have rights in about a quarter of the District, and owners 
of specific plots have rights in an additional 1 1 per cent. A few of 
the sub-settled mahd/s are further sub-settled with a second grade of 
piikhtaddrs, and some of these with still a third grade. There are 
also complex ma/id/s, or revenue units, which extend to a number of 
villages. The main agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, 
in square miles : — 




Ii [ igatecj. 


Tanda . 











Rice is the principal food-crop, covering 421 square miles or 39 per 
cent, of the total. Gram (261), wheat (206), peas and masur (170), 
barley (93), arhar (64), pulses (52), and kodon (47) are also important. 
The chief non-food crops are sugar-cane (67 square miles), poppy (22), 
oilseeds (13), and indigo (9). 

The cultivated area is now about 12 per cent, greater than it was 
forty years ago, this increase being due mainly to the clearance of the 
jungle and the breaking up of inferior land which formerly could not 
be cultivated with profit. The increase has been attended by few 
changes in methods ; but there is a tendency to extend the area under 
the more valuable crops, such as wheat, sugar-cane, and poppy, and 
the area double cropped has increased. The cultivation of indigo 
is not of much importance, but it has maintained its position better 
than in other Districts. There is a small but constant demand for 
advances under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts. 
During the ten years ending 1900 the total loans amounted to 1-2 lakhs, 
of which Rs. 70,000 was lent in the famine year, 1897. In the next 
four years about Rs. 3,000 was advanced annually. 

The .cattle bred locally are of an inferior type, and better animals are 
largely imported. Attempts to improve the breed have failed owing 

VOf-. XI 1. I 


lo the unsuitability of the bulls. 'I'hc ponies are also of poor ciualit)'. 
Sheep and goats are kept, hut in suiuller numbers than in the adjoining 

Fyzabad is one of the few l^istricts in the United Provinces in which 
the area irrigated from tanks and jh'ils in normal years exceeds that 
supplied from wells. In 1903-4, out of 568 scjuare miles irrigated, 
tanks and jhils supplied 289 square miles and wells 264. The pro- 
portions vary according to the season, but tank-irrigation is always 
important. Unfortunately the tanks and jliJ/s are shallow, and fail in 
dry seasons when they are most needed, the result being a failure 
of the rice crop. The number of wells is, however, increasing, and 
temporary wells can be made in most parts when required. Water 
is raised by a wheel and pulley from wells, and from jh'ils in a swing- 
basket. It is usually sprinkled over the land with a wooden shovel. 

The chief mineral product is kankar or calcareous limestone, which 
is used for making lime and for metalling roads. Saline efflorescences 
are collected in several places, and used for the manufacture of coarse 
glass for bangles. 

The chief manufacturing industry is cotton-weaving. Coarse cloth 

is produced in many places ; but Tanda, Akbarpur, and Jalalpur 

are noted for muslins and other fine materials, and 

_ . .. during the eighteenth and the early part of the nine- 
communications. & » J y 

teenth century several Europeans had factories at 
Tanda. Cotton-dyeing and printing are carried on i^i a few places, 
and sugar-refining is also of some importance. Many houses are 
adorned with finely carved doors, but wood-carving is now a declining 

The chief exports are grain (especially rice), sugar, cloth, oilseeds, 
opium, hides, and tobacco ; while the imports include piece-goods, 
metals, and salt. The recent extension of railways north of the Gogra 
has affected the trade of Fyzabad, which was formerly a commercial 
centre for Eastern Oudh. There is still a considerable traffic in sailing 
boats and in steamers along the Gogra ; but the bulk of the trade 
is carried by rail, and places situated on or near the railway are rising 
in importance, especially Gosainganj and Akbarpur. 

The loop-line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway from Benares 
to Lucknow passes through the District. It enters at the south-east 
and passes north-west to Fyzabad city, from which place it turns west. 
A branch of the same railway runs south, from I'yzabad to Allahabad. 
A short length connects Fyzabad with the bank of the Gogra at 
Ajodhya, opposite which, in Gonda District, is the terminus of a branch 
of the Bengal and North-Western Railway. There are 760 miles of 
road, but only 93 miles are metalled. The latter are in charge of the 
Public Works departmcnl, but the cost of all but 4<S miles is charged 


to Local funds. The chief roads are those from Fyzabad city to 
Lucknow, Rae BareU, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, and Allahabad. Avenues 
of trees are maintained on 193 miles, the fine tamarind avenue on the 
Lucknow road, which was originally planted in the time of the Navvahs 
of Oudh, being specially noticeable. 

Fyzabad suffered severely from famine in 1783-4, and in 17S6 
further damage was caused by excessive rain. In 1837 there was 
distress owing to high prices caused by scarcity else- 
where, and in i860, 1866, and 1874 the lower classes ^ ^' 
sufiered from a similar cause. The scarcity of 1877-8 was mon; 
serious, and relief works were opened in 1878. In i8y6 the monsoon 
ceased prematurely, and towards the close of the year relief works and 
poorhouses were opened. Distress was, however, less felt than else- 
where and ceased with the rains of 1897. Severe floods have done 
much damage from time to time, especially i:i 1S71, 1894, and 1903. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is usually assisted by one or two members 

of the Indian Civil Service, and by four Deputy- 

^. ,, ^ -^ 1 ■ T J- \ ^ 7 -,j- Administration. 

Collectors recruited m India. A ta/isildar is 

stationed at the head-quarters of each tahsil. Two officers of the 

Opium department reside in the District. 

The ordinary civil courts are those of two District Munsifs and 
a Subordinate Judge. A system of village Munsifs has recently been 
introduced. The District and Sessions Judge of Fyzabad is also 
District Judge of Bara Banki and Sessions Judge of Sultanpur. 'I'he 
District is fairly free from serious crime, even in the cities of Fyzabad 
and Ajodhya. The kidnapping of girls for marriage to Rajputs and 
Brahmans is, however, not uncommon. 

The District of Fyzabad, as formed at annexation in 1856, included 
also the northern parts of the present District of .Sultanpur as far south 
as the Gumtl. This area was removed in 1869. A summary settle- 
ment was made in 1856, followed after the restoration of order by 
a second summary settlement, which fixed the demand at 8-7 lakhs. 
'l"he first regular settlement, preceded by a survey, was commenced in 
1862. Assessment was mainly based on conjectural data, such as the 
estimated yield of crops and rates suggested by committees of talukddrs 
and zamlnddrs. Rent-rolls were hardly examined at all, and a very 
large area of waste land was assessed. The revenue proposed amounted 
to 12-4 lakhs, and the enhancement was not relieved by being made 
progressive where it was large. The working of the assessment was 
affected by bad seasons in 1870 and 187 1, and by other causes. 
Revisions were, therefore, undertaken which were not completed until 
1879, by which time many of the defects of the settlement had been 
remedifed. The revised demand was 11 -6 lakhs, and was only reached 
by degrees where exceptionally large enhancements were made. Owing 

I 2 


to the enormous number of claims to rights in land, the settlement 
courts had an unusual amount of work. The latest revision, made 
between 1893 and 1899, was carried out without a complete resurvey 
and revision of records. The assessment was made on the basis of 
recorded rents, corrected where necessary. The revenue fixed was 
14-6 lakhs, representing 44 per cent, of the estimated net 'assets.' The 
incidence is Rs. 1-2 per acre, varying from Rs. i-i to Rs. 1-3 in different 
parganas. Enhancements were largely made progressive, and the full 
demand will not be in force till 1910. 

Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have been, 
in thousands of rupees : — 

1880-1. 1890-1. 

i(>(j<)-i. 1903-4 

Land revenue 
Total revenue 

11,13 1 11,27 

13.77 17.S7 

21,42 23,79 

There are two municipalities, Fyzabad with AJODH^ a and Tanda, 
and eight towns are administered under xVct XX of 1856. Beyond 
the limits of these, local affairs are managed by the District board, 
which in 1903 4 had an income and expenditure of 1-3 lakhs. About 
half of the income is derived from local rates, and the expenditure 
includes Rs. 58,000 on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police has under him a force of 4 in- 
spectors, 112 subordinate officers, and 427 constables, distributed in 
16 police stations, besides 208 municipal and town police, and 2,229 
rural and road police. The District jail contained a daily average of 
396 pri.soners in 1903. 

A high proportion of the population of Fyzabad is literate, and 
4-1 per cent. (6-3 males and 0-2 females) could read and write in 
1901. The number of public institutions increased from 97 with 3,941 
pupils in 1 880-1 to 150 with 9,351 pupils in 1 900-1. In 1903-4 there 
were 198 public schools with 11,314 pupils, of whom 282 were 
girls, besides 75 private schools with 1,273 pupils. Only 1,648 of the 
pupils had advanced beyond the primary stage. Government manages 
3 of the schools and the District and municipal boards manage 99. 
The total expenditure on education was Rs. 55,000, of which Rs. 38,000 
was provided from Local funds and Rs. 11,000 by fees. 

There are 11 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
160 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 75,000, in- 
cluding 1,982 in-patients, and 6,673 operations were performed. The 
expenditure amounted to Rs. 16,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 33,000 persons were vaccinated in 1903-4, representing the 
low proportion of 27 per 1,000 of population, ^'accination is compul- 
sory only in the municipalities and in the cantonment of Fyzabad. 


[H. Y. House, Settlement Report (1900); H. R. Nevill, District 
Gazetteer (1905).] 

Fyzabad Tahsil. — North-western tahsil of Fyzabad District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Mangalsl, Haveli Awadh, and 
Amsin, and lying between 26° 32' and 26° 50' N. and 81° 48'' and 
82° 29' E., along the right bank of the Gogra, with an area of 371 
square miles. Population increased from 316,586 in 1891 to 334,327 
in 1901 ; but the apparent increase was due to a large concourse of pil- 
grims at a fair. Excluding these, the population in 1901 was 313,920. 
There are 449 villages and four towns, including Fyzadad Citv 
(population, 75,085), the District and /a^sv/ head-quarters. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,93,000, and for cesses Rs. 49,000. 
The high density of population, 846 persons per square mile, is due to 
the inclusion of the city. The tahsil is a long and narrow strip of land 
lying above the Gogra, with rich alluvial deposits in the bed of the 
river. The uplands are generally fertile near the high bank, but 
towards the south heavy clay soil is found, with patches of dhdk jungle 
{Biitea frondosa) and many swamps. In 1903-4 the area under cultiva- 
tion was 225 square miles, of which 99 were irrigated, tanks ox Jh'ils 
supplying rather more than wells in ordinary years. 

Fyzabad City {Faizdl'tld). — Administrative head-quarters, with can- 
tonment, of Fyzabad District, United Provinces, situated in 26° 47'' N. 
and 82° 10' E., near the Gogra, on roads from Lucknow and Allahabad, 
and at the junction of three branches of the Oudh and Rohilkhand 
Railway ; distance by rail from Calcutta 599 miles, and from Bombay 
965. Population, including cantonment and Ajodhya : (1881) 71,405, 
(1891), 78,921, and (1901) 75,085. The population in 1901 included 
55,406 Hindus and 17,674 Musalmans. Fyzabad alone contained 
53,501 inhabitants, of whom 6,097 resided in the cantonment. 

When Saadat Khan was appointed governor of Oudh he built a 
hunting lodge 4 miles west of Ajodhya, then the head-t^uarters of the 
province. Gardens were laid out and shops sprang up in the neigh- 
bourhood, and during the time of his successor Safdar Jang the name 
Faizabad was first applied. Shuja-ud-daula, the third Nawab, lived 
chiefly at Lucknow during the early part of his reign ; but after his 
defeat at Buxar in 1764 he made Fyzabad his residence, and during the 
remainder of his life added largely to its defences and also laid out 
a large town. Shuja-ud-daula died early in 1775, and before the close 
of the year Asaf-ud-daula moved permanently to Lucknow. The im- 
portance of Fyzabad declined, but it still remained the home of Asaf- 
ud-daula's grandmother and mother, the Nawab Begam and Bahu 
Begam, whose treatment was the subject of charges against Warren 
Hastings. After the death of the Bahu Begam in 181 6 Fyzabad de- 
cayed still farther, but its position has improved since annexation. 


The cantonment lies north-west of the city, extending to the bank of 
the Gogra, along which stretches a beautiful jxirk containing some 
temples at a place known as the Guptar (ihat. South of the canton- 
ment is the civil station, which contains the usual offices of the head- 
quarters of a Division, and a fine building used as a museum and public 
library. There are also male and female dispensaries, and the chief 
stations of the Church Missionary Society, the Wcsleyan Mission, and 
the Zanana Bible and Medical Mission. The city is a well-kept place, 
with fairly wide roads. Most of the large buildings date from the time 
of Shuja-ud-daula, and are of brick covered with ])laster. Two fine 
gateways give access to a beautiful garden known as the Gulab-barT. In 
the centre of this is a lofty and handsome building which was con- 
structed by Shuja-ud-daula and in which he lies buried. The toml) of 
the Bahu Begam is a fine domed building lying south of the town. 
Three lakhs of rupees from the Begam's property were set aside for the 
construction of the tomb, and provision was made for its maintenance. 
The tomb was not completed till after the Mutiny, and its maintenance 
and the disbursement of the proceeds of the endowment are now super- 
vised by the Deputy-Commissioner. The earthwork of the fort, called 
Chhota ('the lesser') Calcutta, constructed by Shuja-ud-daula, still 
remains, and portions of the various palaces built by the Nawabs and 
their nobles have survived. 

Fyzabad is administered jointly with Ajodhya as a municipality, the 
introduction of local self-government dating from 1865. During the ten 
years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 75,000 
and Rs. 74,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 88,000, 
octroi (Rs. 65,000) being the chief item ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 83,000, including conservancy (Rs. 2 1,000), public safety (Rs. i t,ooo), 
public works (Rs. 16,000), and administration and collection (Rs. 8,000). 
A large scheme for drainage works has recently been sanctioned. The 
cantonment is usually garrisoned by British infantry and artillery and 
Native cavalry and infantry. During the ten years ending 1901 the 
income and expenditure o( the cantonment fund averaged about 
Rs. 19,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,000, and the expenditure 
Rs. 30,000. 

The city is an important centre of the sugar-refining industry, and 
has a considerable trade in agricultural produce and imported goods, 
partly carried by river, but chiefly by rail. There are 16 schools fijr 
boys,'attended by 1,200 pupils, and 4 schools for girls with 162. 

Fyzabad.— Town in Badakhshan, Afghanistan. See Faizabad. 

Gabat. — Petty State in MahT Kantha, Bombay. 

Gadag Taluka. — Eastern ialuka of l^harwar District, Bombay, 
lying between 15° 2' and 15° 38' N. and 75° 26' and 75° 57' E., with 
an area of 699 square miles. It includes the petty subdivision {pet/ia) 

GAD. IRW AR, [ TAHSIL i r (j 

of Mundargi. There are two towns, (Iaoac; (population, 30,652 \ the 
head-quarters, and Mulgund (7,523) : and 98 villages, including Kurt- 
KOTi (5,247). The population in 1901 was 137,573, compared with 
124,713 in 1 89 1. The density, 197 persons per square mile, is much 
below the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 
was 2-73 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 20,000. In the south the village 
sites are small and lie close together, but they become more scattered 
in other parts. The chief hills are the Kappat range. They are of 
strongly iron-charged clay slate, which in the west shows traces of gold. 
The climate is temperate and healthy. The Dambal tanks, made at 
a cost of Rs. 64,000, irrigate 40 square miles in the District. The 
annual rainfall averages about 25 inches. 

Gadag Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in 
Dharwar District, Bombay, situated in 15° 25' N. and 75° 38' E., on 
the Southern Mahratta Railway. Population (190 1), 30,652. Hindus 
number 23,297, Muhammadans 6,213, '^-^d Christians 933. Gadag 
with Bettigeri was constituted a municipality in 1859. During the 
decade ending 1901 the income averaged Rs. 33,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 47,000. Cladag is a flourishing town with a consider- 
able trade in raw cotton and cotton and silk fabrics, and contains 
a cotton spinning-mill with 14,000 spindles and 9 cotton-ginning fiic- 
tories. The mill, owned by a private company, annually produces 
about 1,000,000 pounds of yarn valued at 5 lakhs, and employs daily 
an average of 444 hands. Gadag has the remains of some of the most 
richly carved temples in the District. The chief of these are dedicated 
to Trikuteshwar, Saraswatl, Narayan, Someshwar, and Rameshwar. 
Inscriptions in some of these describe Gadag under the name of Kratuka ; 
and it appears from them that the town was at different times under 
the Western Chalukya (973-1170), Kalachuri (i 161-83), Hoysala Ballal 
(1047-1310), Deogiri Yadava (1170-1310), and Vijayanagar kings 
(1336-1565). About 1673 Gadag was included with Nusratabad or 
Dharwar as one of the chief districts of the Bankapur sarkar. In 1818 
(reneral Munro invested Gadag. The town contains a Subordinate 
Judge's court, two dispensaries (of which one belongs to the railway 
company), a school for European and Eurasian girls, a munici|)al middle 
school, and 8 other schools. 

GadarwaraTahsIl. — Western Av/wVof Narsinghpur District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 22"^ 38' and 23° 15' N. and 78° 27' and 79^^ 
4' E., with an area of 870 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
165,213, compared with 194,225 in 1891. The density is 190 persons 
per square mile. The falis'il contains one town, Gadarw.^ra (popula- 
tion, 8,198), the head quarters ; and 430 inhabited villages. Excluding 
63 square miles of Government forest, 69 per cent, of the available area 
is occupied for cultivation. The cultivated area in 1903-4 was 515 


square miles. The demand for land revenue in tlie same year was 
Rs. 3.03,000, and for cesses Rs. 27,000. The A/ /w/ occupies a tract 
in the Narbada valley, consisting of a fertile plain of l)lack soil, cut up 
into ravines near the river and flanked by a narrow belt of the 
Satpura hill country. 

Gadar'wara Tcwn. — Head-quarters of the Ar/w/of the same name 
in Narsinghpur District, Central Provinces, situated in 22° 55' N. and 
78° 48' E., on the left bank of the Shakkar and on the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway to Jubbulpore, 536 miles from Bombay. The town 
was the capital of the District in the time of the Marathas. Population 
(1901), 8,198. Gadarwara was created a municipality in 1867. The 
municipal receipts during the decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 19,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 33,000, derived principally from octroi. 
Gadarwara is the largest exporting station in the District for the local 
products oi ghi and grain. Various handicrafts, such as weaving, dyeing, 
shoe-making, and pottery, are also carried on in the town, but are in 
a depressed condition. A cotton-ginning factory has recently been 
erected with a capital of Rs. 32,000, which disposed of cotton to the 
value of a lakh of rupees in 1902-3. Gadarwara contains an English 
middle school and a dispensary. 

Gad Boriad. — Petty State in Rewa K.\ntha, Bombay. 

Gadhada. — Town in the State of Bhaunagar, Kathiawar, Bombay, 
42 miles from Bhaunagar town. Population (1901), 5,375. This is 
one of the principal centres of the sect of Swami Narayan, founded in 
1804 by a Hindu reformer, Sahajanand, from the United Provinces {see 
Chhapia), who died here in 1830 after converting many of the Kathis, 
Kolls, and Bhils. Necklaces of sandal-wood beads worn by followers of 
the sect are made in considerable quantities. The sect possesses a fine 
temple at Gadhada. The town is the head-quarters of the revenue 
officer, and the criminal court of the Gadhada district is held here. 

Gadhali.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Gadhia. — Petty State in Kathi.\war, Bombay. 

Gad-Hinglaj. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name in 
Kolhapur State, Bombay, situated in 16° 12' N. and 74° 25' E., on the 
left bank of the Hiranyakeshi river, close to the Sankeshwar-Parpoli 
pass road, 45 miles south-east of Kolhapur city. Population (1901), 
6,373. About three hundred years ago, want of water is said to have 
forced the people to move the town to the river bank from an older 
site about 4,600 feet to the north-west. Every Sunday a market is 
held, when large quantities of rice and other grain are brought for sale. 
The chief temple in honour of Kaleshwar in the centre of the town 
is built of rubble and mortar. About three miles north of Gad-Hinglaj 
is a temple of Bahiri, where every March a fair is held, attended by about 
2,000 peo[)le. 

GAG R A UN 12 1 

Gadhka. — Petty State in Kathiawak, Bombay. 

Gadhoola. — l^etty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Gadwal Samasthan (or Keshavnagar). — A saiiias/hdn or tribu- 
tary estate in the east of Raichur District, Hyderabad State. It 
contains one town, Gadwal (population, 10,195), ^^"d 214 villages, and 
has an area of 864 square miles, with a population (1901) of 968,491. 
The total revenue is 3 lakhs, and the tribute paid to the Nizam 
is Rs. 86,840. Gadwal existed long before the foundation of the 
Hyderabad State. It formerly issued its own coin, which is still cur- 
rent in Raichur District. Nothing is known regarding the early history 
of the samast/idn. The fort at Gadwal town, the residence of the 
present Raja, was commenced about 1703, and completed in 17 10 by 
Raja Somtadari. The present Raja is a minor, and the estate has 
been under the control of the Court of Wards since 1902. The 
Kistna and Tungabhadra water the northern and southern portions of 
the sai/iasfh'ui, and the land bordering on these rivers, being alluvial, 
is very fertile. The remaining portion consists of masab land and 
uncultivable waste. Most of the cultivation is of the ' dry-crop ' 
description. There being very few tanks, little 'wet' cultivation is 
possible, and well-irrigation is carried on only to a limited extent. Silk 
sdr'is, scarfs, turbans, and dhotis \\\\\\ gold borders of a superior kind are 
manufactured at Gadwal town. Ten factories are at work, and about 
2 lakhs' worth of these articles is exported annually to Hyderabad, 
Secunderabad, Raichur, and other places in the neighbourhood. 

Gadwal Town. — Head-quarters of the samasfhdn of the .same 
name in Raichur District, Hyderabad State, situated in 16° 14' N. and 
77" 13' E., 35 miles east of Raichur town. Population (1901), 10,195. 

Gagar. — A range of mountains in NainI Tal and Almora Districts, 
United Provinces, forming a portion of the Outer Himalayan range, 
lying between 29° 14' and 29° 30' N. and 79° 7' and 79° 37' E. 'I'his 
range is also known as Gargachal, from the legend that the rishi Garg 
once dwelt on it. The chain runs along the southern border of the 
two Districts, parallel to the plains, from the Kosi river to the Kali, 
and presents a line of higher elevation than any ranges between it and 
the main ridge of the Central Himalayas. The loftiest peak is 
Badhantola, 8,612 feet, while the steep cliff of China, which towers 
above the lake and town of Naini Tal, reaches a height of 8,568 feet. 
The average elevation is from 6,000 to 8,000 feet. Forests of cypress, 
tun {Cedrela Toona\ fir, and other timber trees clothe the steep hill- 
sides, except where they have been cleared for potato cultivation. 

Gagraun. — Fort and village in the Kan was district of the State of 
Kotah, Rajputana, situated in 24° 38' N. and 76" 12' E., at the 
junction of the Ahu and Kali Sind rivers, about 2\ miles north-east 
of the chhaoni of Jhalrapatan and 45 miles south-east of Kotah city. 

122 Cr AGRA UN 

The iDrt. wliich is one of the strongest in Rajputana, is said to have 
been built liy the Dor or Doda Rajputs, who held it till about the end 
of the twelfth century, when they were dispossessed by the Khichl 
Chauhans. The latter, under their Raja, Jet Singh, successfully resisted 
a siege b\- Ala-ud-din in 1300; but in the time of Raja Achaldas 
(about 1428) the place was either taken by, or surrendered to, Hoshang 
Shah of Malwa. In 15 19 one Bhim Karan is mentioned by the 
Musalman historians as being in possession, but he was attacked by 
Mahmud KhiljT, and was taken prisoner and put to death. Shortly 
after this Mahmud was defeated by Rana Sangrani Singh of Mewar, 
and the Rajputs continued to hold Gagraun till 1532, when Bahadur 
Shah of Gujarat took the place. About thirty years later, Akbar, on 
his way to Malwa, reached the fort, and gave orders for its reduction, 
but the commandant hastened to surrender and presented his tribute, 
which greatly pleased the emperor. In the Ain-i-Akban Gagraun is 
mentioned as one of the sarkars or districts of the Subah or province 
of Malwa : and it remained in the possession of the Mughals till the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, when Maharao Bhim Singh of 
Kotah obtained it by grant from the emperor. Subsequently the fort 
was repaired, strengthened, and added to by the regent Zalim Singh. 

The fort is separated from the village by a strong high wall, and by a 
deep ditch cut in the solid rock and crossed by a stone bridge. The 
principal entrance is from the village ; and, after crossing the ditch, the 
passage lies between two large bastions, without any gateway, ascending 
with high walls on either side till the great gate is reached. Inside the 
fort, the path skirts a large excavation in the rock, intended to hold 
water but often quite dry, and then zigzags into the inner work through 
a large gateway. The exit is to the south-east by a simple doorway in 
the wall, from which a descent leads to the end wall immediately over 
the river. Hence there is a path which, going back towards the village 
but outside the citadel, crosses a small precipice protected by ramparts 
60 or 70 feet above the ground, and leads to the two bastions already 
mentioned. On the north-east face there is but one wall, the pre- 
cipitous nature of the hill here rendering a second and lower wall 
unnecessary. The hills and valleys to the north across the Kali Sind 
are thickly wooded, and the gorge by which that river finds its way out 
into the open plains is very fine, high precipices alternating with wooded 
slopes on either side. One precipice, absolutely vertical, has been 
plumbed and found to be 307 feet in height. It is known as the Gidh- 
karai or 'vulture's cliff,' and, it is said, was formerly used as a place of 
execution by the Kotah chiefs, the victims being hurled on to the rocks 
below. The tops of these ridges are the culminating points of the 
range, the slope to the open country beyond being gradual. Wild 
animals abound, and the parrots are celebrated for their beauty and 


llie comparative ease with whicli they can be taught to imitate tlie 
human voice. The village is believed to be very ancient, and to have 
been called Gargasashtar, after Gargachari, the purohii of Sri Krishna, 
who lived here ; others identify it with the Gargaratpur of ancient 
writings from which the Hindu astronomer Garga calculated longitude. 
The Kotah Darbar formerly had a mint here, but it was abolished 
many years ago. The population has greatly decreased since the time 
when the place was an important military outpost, and in 1901 
numbered only 601. 

About II miles to the south-east is the village of Mau, once a large 
town which Tod called the first capital of the Khichis, and which, in 
General Cunningham's opinion, probably ' succeeded Chandravati as 
the capital of all the country on the lower course of the Kali Sind 
shortly after the beginning of the thirteenth century.' The remains of 
the old town extend for a quarter of a mile from east to west, and 
about the same distance from north to south. To the west is a large 
ruined palace attributed locally to the great Prithwl Raj Chauhan, but 
this assignment is most ccjmpletely refuted by its cusped Muhammadan 
arches and by a Nagari inscription over the entrance which gives the 
date as a. d. 1711. 

\^ArchaeoIoi:;iia/ Sunny of Northern India, vol. ii.] 

Gaibanda Subdivision. — South-eastern subdivision of Rangpur 
])istrict. Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 25° 3' and 25° 39' 
N. and 89'' 12' and 89° 42' E., along the right bank of the Brahma- 
putra, with an area of 762 square miles. The subdivision is a flat 
unbroken plain, containing numercjus /7ii/s and marshes. The popu- 
lation in 1 90 1 was 520,184, compared with 463,601 in 1891, and the 
density was 683 persons per square mile. This is the most progres- 
sive part of the District, the population having increased by 12-2 per 
cent, during the last decade, owing to the opening of the Brahniaputra- 
Sultanpur Branch Railway and to the extension of jute cultivation, 
which has attracted settlers from the unhealthy north-western thdnas, 
and also from Pabna and Myniensingh. Gaibanda (1,635), t^""*^ head- 
(juarters, is the only town, and there are 1,427 villages. 

Gaibanda Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Rangpur District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25"^ 
21' N. and 89'" 34' E., on the Ghaghat river. Population (1901), 1,635. 
The town contains the usual public offices ; the sub-jail has accommo- 
dation for iS ])risoners. 

Gaighata Bakshi Khal. — An improved natural waterway, 7^ miles 
in length, forming a connecting link between the Damodar and Rup- 
NARAYAN rivcrs in the Howrah District of Bengal. The channel was 
taken over by the Irrigation department from the District board of 
Howrah in 1S94, and no capital account is kept, 'i'he right of col- 


lecting tolls was leased out for tlic five years ending March, 1901, at 
an annual rental of Rs. 4,500, and the lease has since been renewed 
for another five years on the same terms. The expenditure in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 538 and the receipts to Rs. 2,300. 

Gajapatinagaram. — Ta/isil in Vizagapatam District, Madras, lying 
near the Ghats, between 18° ir' and iS° 30' N. and 83° 3' and 83° 
32' E., with an area of 333 square miles. The population in 1901 was 
134,553, compared with 124,057 in 1891. The /dt/wJ/ contains 228 vil- 
lages, the head-quarters being at the village of the same name. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 14,600. 

Gajendragarh. — Town in the Ron taluka of Dharwar District, 
Bombay, situated in 15" 44' N. and 75° 58' E., 51 miles south-east of 
Kaladgi. Population (1901), 8,853. The town contains five schools, 
including one for girls. 

Galna. — Fort in the Malegaon tdluka of Nasik District, Bombay, 
situated in 20° 46' N. and 74° 32' E. It is built on a circular detached 
hill, with fairly flat top affording an area of 20 or 30 acres. The top 
is 2,316 feet above mean sea-level, or about 800 feet above the plain, 
and is accessible only by a broad flight of steps cut into the northern 
face. These steps cross the hill from east to west, and then, reversing 
the line, climb again to the eastward, and pass under four gateways. 
The upper walls are perfect and contain magazines of various sizes in 
each of the bastions, which are semicircles and must have commanded 
the approach in every direction on the south and west, while the face 
of the hill being almost perpendicular for nearly r,ooo feet below the 
wall, the lines are as straight as the outlines of the rock allow, and have 
been defended by large wall pieces, which were moved on iron pivots ; 
many of these may still be seen on the round bastions at every 80 or 100 
yards on the west and north faces. The south side of the hill is 
a bare scarp for many feet from the wall ; and, at about two-thirds of 
the length from the east, there is a bastion in which are arches of Sara- 
cenic form, between the central two of which was a slab containing a 
Persian inscription dated 1569. There was a second slab in a niche 
between the battlements, fronting the north and surmounting a row of 
cellars furnished with moderate-sized windows and probably intended 
for residences. This slab contained a Devanagari inscription dated 
A.D. 1580. Other antiquities include the idols of Galneshwar Mahadeo, 
five cisterns, a series of rock-cut caves, and a handsome mosque. Close 
to the mosque are the ruins of a palace called the Rang Mahal or 
'pleasure palace.' The view from Galna is magnificent. 

Galna was an important place from the end of the fifteenth century, 
being held alternately by Musalmans and Marathas. In 1634 Muham- 
mad Khan, the Musalman commandant of Galna, intended to deliver the 
fort to Shahji, who had possessed himself of Nasik, Trimbak, Sangam- 


ner, and Junnar as far as the country of the Konkan. But after pro- 
mises of imperial favour and of a great reward, Muhammad Khan 
deHvered the fort to the representative of the emperor. In 1679 SivajT 
plundered Galna, and in the wars between the Marathas and the Mu- 
ghals, at the close of the seventeenth century, the fort more than once 
changed hands. It was attacked by Aurangzeb in 1704 and taken after 
a long siege in 1705. In December, 1804, after a slight resistance, 
Galna was taken by Colonel Wallace. In March, 18 18, it was evacuated 
by the commandant and garrison, and occupied by a company of Native 
infantry. In 1862 it was found to be ruinous. Galna fort seems at 
one time to have been used as a sanitarium for Dhillia. There are the 
ruins of one or two houses on the top, and the tomb of a young Euro- 
pean officer who is said to have committed suicide from grief at having 
killed an old woman while he was shooting bears. There are also seven 
Musalman tombs. Immediately below and to the north-east of the fort 
lies the village of Galna. It appears to have been of great size and 
importance, and was protected by a double line of defences, traces of 
which remain. The present population of the village is about 500, 
including some well-to-do money-lenders. For a few years after 18 18 
a mamlatdar held his office in Galna village. 

Gamanpura. — Petty State in MahI Kantha, Bombay. 

Gandak, Great. — A river of Northern India. Rising in the 
central mountain basin of Nepal, in 27° 27' N. and 83° 56' I*]., where 
its sources are known as the Sapt GandakT, or ' country of the seven 
Gandaks,' it drains the tract between the Dhaulagiri and Gosainthan 
mountains. The most important of these contributory streams is the 
Trisulganga, and they all unite before breaking through the mountains 
at Tribenl. The river is also known in Nepal as the Salgrami, and 
in the United Provinces as the Narayani ; it is the Kondochates of the 
Greek geographers, and according to Lassen the Sadaulra (' ever- 
flowing ') of the epics. Crossing the British frontier at Tribenl, it 
forms the boundary between Champaran District of Bengal and 
Gorakhpur District of the United Provinces for about 20 miles, after 
which it flows for 40 miles within Champaran, and then once more 
separates the Provinces for 12 miles of its course. Thenceforward it 
forms the boundary between Saran District of Bengal on the south- 
west and Champaran and Muzaffarpur Districts on the north-east, 
and it finally joins the Ganges opposite Patna, in 25° 41' N. and 
85° 12' E., after a course of 192 miles. At first a snow-fed torrent, 
the Gandak, soon after its entry into British territory, acquires the 
character of a deltaic river, its banks being above the level of the 
surrounding country, which is protected by embankments from in- 
undatiQn. The river is navigable throughout the year by country 
boats below Bagaha in Champaran District. Rafts of timber pass 


down it from Nepal and from the (iorakhpur forests, and grain and 
sugar are exported hy the same route. Navigation is, however, 
ditihcult, as the channel during the dry season is narrow and winding, 
while in the rains it becomes a torrent. In the hot season the river 
is rarely more than a (juarter of a mile across, hut in the rains it 
widens to 2 or 3 miles. It is nowhere fordable, and is continually 
changing its course. The Tribeni Canal, now under construction, 
will carry its waters eastward to within 10 miles of Adapur in Cham- 
paran District, and will irrigate the portion of that District most liable 
to famine. The Saran Canals are fed from a side-channel on the 
right bank of the river. The Burhi ('old ') Gandak, or Sikrana, an 
old channel of the river, is described in the article on ('hamparan 
District. A fine railway bridge on the Bengal and North-Western 
Railway spans the Gandak near its mouth. The most important 
place on its bank is HajTpur on the left bank, and a great bathing 
festival takes place annually at .Sonpur at its confluence with the 

Gandak, Little. — A river which rises in the lower Nepal hills, and 
enters Gorakhpur District of the United Provinces a few miles west of 
the Great Gandak. It flows from north to south through the whole 
length of Gorakhpur, and joins the Gogra just within Saran District 
of Bengal. Except in the rains it has a small stream, not exceeding 
60 feet in breadth, and is generally fordable. In 1859 it was proposed 
to turn it into a navigable canal, but the scheme was never carried 
out. Boats ply during the rains as high as Ragarganj in the Padrauna 

Gandevi. — Head-quarters of the tdliika of the same name in Navsari 
prant, Baroda State, situated in 20° 49' N. and 73° 2' E., 3 miles from 
Amalsar on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, and 
28 miles south-east of Surat. Population (1901), 5,927. The town 
possesses a magistrate's court, a dispensary, a high school aided by 
the State, vernacular schools, and public offices. A municipality, 
constituted in 1905, receives an allotment of Rs. 3,500 from customs, 
excise, and tolls. There is a considerable trade in grain, molasses, ,i,V//, 
and castor-oil. A large sugar factory, which was worked for some time 
by the State, has now been purchased by a private firm. The chiet 
industry is hand-loom weaving. 

Gandhara (the Gandaria of the Greeks). — The ancient name for 
the tract on the north-west frontier of India which comprised the whole 
lower valley of the Kabul river, the ancient Kophene or Kubha, from 
the Kau or Alingar river near 70° E. to the Indus, and from the Safed 
Koh and Kohat range on the south to the borders of the Swat valley 
on the north. It thus included the modern District of Peshawar, with 
part of Kohat, the Mohmand country. Swat, liajaur, and Buner, and 

GAA^DIKOT.l 127 

at one period even embraced within its limits the great city of Taksh- 
asila, east of the Indus. Its length was 170 miles from west to east 
at its greatest, and 100 miles from north to south. Its people were 
known to Herodotus, Hekataeus, Ptolemy, and Strabo as Gandarioi 
or Gandarae, and furnished a contingent to Darius in his invasion of 
Greece. Gandhara was included in the Arachosian satrapy of the 
Achaemenid kings of Persia. At different times Pushkalavati (the 
Peukelaotis of the Greeks), Purushapura (Peshawar), and Udabhanda- 
pura (Und) formed its capital. The province between the Swat and 
Indus rivers, corresponding to the modern Vusufzai country, was 
known as Udyana or Ujjana, and to the Greeks as Suastene. At times 
it formed a separate principality. Ciandhara was a great seat of the 
Buddhist religion and Graeco-Bactrian culture in the centuries after 
Alexander's invasion until about a. d. 515, when Mihirakula, the Hun, 
overran Udyana and Kashmir and oppressed the Buddhists. Of the 
Chinese pilgrims who visited Gandhara, Fa Hian fcjund {c. 404) 500 
monasteries and the people devoted to the Buddhist faith ; in the 
seventh century Hiuen Tsiang laments its decline ; while fully 100 
years later (757-64) U-K'ong still found 300 monasteries and princes 
who were zealous patrons of the monks. Gandhara has given its 
name to the Graeco-Buddhist sculpture found so abundantly in this 

Gandhol. — Petty State in K.^THIA\v.^R, Bombay. 

Gandikota (' Gorge-fort '). — Ancient fortress in the Jammalamadugu 
fd/uk of Cuddapah District, Madras, perched on a hill overlooking the 
gorge of the Penner river, 1,670 feet above the sea, in 14° 47' N. und 
78° 16' E. 

This narrow and deep gorge is the finest river pass in the District, 
and indeed in Southern India, with the exception of the wild bed of 
the Kistna where that river cuts its way through the Nallamalais 
between Kurnool 1 )istrict and the Nizam's Dominions. For a mile or 
more the Penner rushes through a gap barely 200 yards wide, on either 
side of which rise, sheer from its foaming waters, dark cliffs 200 or 
300 feet in height. Those on the right bank are crowned by the 
Gandikota fort. 

According to an ancient grant in the fort, a king called Ka|)a, of 
Bommanapalle, a village close by, founded the village of Gandikota, 
and built its f(^rtress. Harihara, the fust of the Vijayanagar kings, is 
said to have constructed a temple in it. According to Firishta, how- 
ever, the fort was not built until 1589. It was captured by the Golcondu 
Sultan and held by Mir Jumla ; later, it was the capital of one of the 
five sarkdrs of the Carnatic Balaghat, until it was absorbed by the 
Pathaa Nawab of Cuddapah. It was here that Fateh Naik, the father 
of the great Haidar Ali, first distinguished himself. Haidar imi)rovcd 


and garrisoned the tort, hvit it was captured by Captain Little in the 
war with Tipu in i 791. Properly defended, it should, in the conditions 
of warfare then existing, have been impregnable. It was always one 
of the most important strongholds in the Cuddapah country, being 
the key to the valley of the Penner, and its name occurs frequently 
in the accounts of the ancient struggles. 

Gangadhar. — River in Goalpara District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See Sankosh. 

Gangaikoiidapuram. — Village in the Udaiyarpalaiyam taluk of 
Trichinopoly District, Madras, situated in 11° 12' N. and 79° 28' E., 
ai:)()Ut 6 miles east of Jeyamkondacholapuram, the head-quarters of the 
iahik^dLwA I mile west of the trunk road from Madras to Kumbakonam. 
It is now an unimportant agricultural village with a population (1901) 
of only 2,702, but historically and archaeologically it is one of the 
most interesting places in the District. The name as now spelt means 
literally the 'city visited by the CJanges,' and is popularly derived from 
a well in the temple which according to tradition is connected by 
underground ways with the Ganges. The story is that Banasura having 
been disabled from going to the Ganges for his bath, Siva made the 
river appear in this well and thus enabled the demon to obtain salva- 
tion. The name, however, is quite certainly a contraction of Gangai- 
kondacholapuram, the city founded by (iangaikonda-Chola ('the Chola 
who conquered the country round the Ganges '), this surname having 
been borne by Rajendra Chola I. The city, of which the remains still 
lie scattered in the neighbourhood, was the residence of the Chola 
kings from Rajendra Chola I to Kulottunga I, a.d. 101 1-2 to 11 18. 

The most prominent object in the ruins is the great temple, which 
resembles in many respects the famous shrine of Tanjore. Bishop 
( Caldwell thought this latter was probably copied from it ; but the 
present belief is that it was founded by Rajaraja, the father of Rajendra 
Chola I, who was also the founder of the Tanjore temple, and that 
therefore the two buildings were both erected about the same time. 
The temple consists of one large enclosure, measuring 584 feet by 372. 
This was evidently once well fortified by a strong surrounding wall, with 
a two-storeyed colonnade all round and bastions at each corner. In 
1836, however, the bastions were almost entirely destroyed and most 
of the wall removed, to provide materials for the Lower Anicut across 
the Coleroon, which was then under construction. The wall is being 
gradually rebuilt, and there are traces of three bastions, one at each end 
of the eastern wall and another in the centre of the west wall. The 
remains of two other bastions in front of the temple are said to be 
buried in the debris of the gopurarn (tower) over the eastern entrance, 
which is now almost completely in ruins. This gopurarn was evidently 
once a very fine structure, being built entirely of stone except at the 



very top, whereas in almost every other case all but the lowest storey 
of such towers consists of brick and plaster. The ruins of six other 
gopjirams are said to have once existed, but there is now no trace of 
them. The viinana or shrine in the centre of the courtyard strikes the 
eye from a great distance. The pyramidal tower above it reaches the 
great height of 174 feet. All the lower part is covered with inscriptions. 
They relate chiefly to grants to the temple made in the reigns of Ko 
Raja-kesari-varma Udaiyar, Sri Vira Rajendra Deva, Kulottunga Chola 
Deva, Kulasekhara Deva, and Vikrama Pandya Deva. One g-rant was 
made by Sundara Pandya in the second year of his reign, and another 
inscription, which is imperfect, probably refers to the Vijayanagar 
dynasty. There were a large number of vianiapams (halls) and small 
buildings all round the inner side of the enclosing wall ; but most of 
these have been pulled down and the materials carried off, and the rest 
are in ruins. Among them is a round well abcit 27 feet in diameter, down 
to which leads a flight of steps surmounted by a figure of a huge dragon 
(jv7//), put up, as a tablet shows, by the zanniiddr of Udaiyarpalaiyam. 
This dragon is perhaps the most striking figure in the temple precincts. 
It may be described as a cat-like sphinx. The steps to the well pass 
between its fore-legs. There is also a bull, much resembling the 
famous one in the Tanjore temple. It is so placed that, when the 
doors of the shrine are open, it can contemplate the idol at the end of 
a long dark corridor. The carving on the viiiuuia is very fine, and 
includes all the principal Saivite deities, &:c. The boldness and the 
spirit of the chief figures and the absence of grossness in the represen- 
tations bring to mind the old Jain temple, said to be of the fifth or 
sixth century, at Conjeeveram. These two buildings and the celebrated 
shrine at Tanjore are perhaps the only important instances in the 
Presidency in which the design culminates in the tower over the central 
shrine. The architectural superiority of this method of design over the 
later temples, of which that at Madura may be taken as a type, is obvious. 
About a mile to the west of the temple an embankment of great 
strength runs north and south for 16 miles. It is provided with several 
substantial sluices, and in former times must have formed one of the 
largest reservoirs in India, This huge tank or lake, called Ponneri, 
was partly filled by a channel from the Coleroon, upwards of 60 miles 
in length, which entered it at its southern end ; and partly by a smaller 
channel from the Vellar, which entered it on the north. Traces of both 
these still remain. The tank is now in ruins and has been useless for 
many years, and the bed is almost wholly overgrown with high and 
thick jungle, except in portions of the foreshore which have been 
assigned for cultivation. A scheme for the restoration of this gigantic 
work and for supplying it by a channel from the Upper Anicut across 
the Cauvery has been recently investigated and abandoned. 

vol.. XII. K. 


Traces of many ancient ])uilding.s still exist round about Gangai- 
koiidapurani, and their foundations are often quarried for bricks, some 
of which are 15 inches long by 8 wide and 4 dee]). In a quarry now 
open have been found ashes, bricks, and concrete with burnt iron nails 
imbedded in the mass, showing that the buildings they once formed 
must have been destroyed by fire. The destruction of the city and 
tank was probably the act of an invading army. Local names still 
indicate the disposition of the several parts of the city : such as 
Maligaimedu, the site of the * royal residence ' ; Edaikattu, the ' middle 
structure ' ; Ulkottai, the ' hindmost structure ' ; Yuddhapallam, " battle- 
field ' ; Ayudakalavan, ' arsenal ' ; Pallivadai, the ' suburb occupied by 
the cultivators ' ; Pakalmedu, ' vegetable garden ' ; Meykavalteru, the 
' street occupied by kdvalgdrs ' (watchmen) ; Chunnambukuli, ' lime- 
kilns ' ; Tottikulam, a ' pond where cattle were watered ' ; Kalanikulam, 
a ' pond in which rice-washings were allowed to stagnate to be drunk by 
the cattle'; and Vannankuli, the 'washerman's pond.' 

Gangakher. — Head-quarters of a jdgir in Parbhani District, Hyder- 
abad State, situated in iS"^' 58' N. and 76° 45' E., on the south bank of 
the Godavari, 14 miles north-east of Pingli on the Hyderabad-Godavari 
Valley Railway. Population (1901), 5,007. It contains two schools, 
a State post office, and a British sub-post office, the police inspector's 
and sub-registrar's offices. The ghat, or steps leading to the river, is 
built of masonry; and during the rains and part of the cold season 
a ferry of boats plies across the river, 

Gangapur (i). — South-western taluk of Aurangabad District, Hyder- 
abad State, with an area of 518 square miles. The population in 
1901, \Vi<z\w^\x\g jdgirs, was 51,413, compared with 59,638 in 1891, the 
decrease being due to the famines of 1897 and 1899-1900. The taluk 
has 190 villages, of which 15 are jdglr, and Gangapur (population, 
3,122) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 3-2 lakhs. 
Regar is the predominant soil. 

Gangapur (2).— Headquarters of the iiizamnt d.nd tahsil oi the same 
name in the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 26° 29' N. and 
76° 44" E., about 70 miles south-east of Jaipur city, and close to the 
Karauli border. Population (1901), 5,155. The town possesses 3 
schools attended by about 200 pupils, and a hospital with accommo- 
dation for 4 in-patients. 

Gangapur (3).— Western taksi/of Benares District, United Provinces, 
included in the Benares Estate, conterminous with J>argaua Kaswar 
Raja, and lying between 25'^' 10' and 25° 24' N. and 82° 42' and 83° E., 
with an area of 118 square miles. Population fell from 89,934 in 1891 
to 86,703 in 1901. There are 280 villages, but no town. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,25,000, and for cesses Rs. 3,000. 
The density of population, 735 persons per square mile, is high. This 


is a fertile tract lying south f)f the Barna river. In 1903-4 the area 
under cultivation was 85 square miles, of which 45 were irrigated. 

Ganga-Sagar. — Island in the Twenty-four Targanas District, Bengal. 
See Sagar. 

Gangavadi. — The territory of the Ganga kings in Mysore, who ruled 
from the second to the eleventh century. It was a ' ninety-six thousand ' 
province \ the boundaries of which are given as — north, Marandale (not 
identified) ; east, Tondanad (the Madras country east from Mysore) ; 
west, the ocean in the direction of Chera (Cochin and Travancore) ; 
south, Kongu (Salem and Coimbatore). The inhabitants of Gangavadi 
are represented by the existing Gangadikaras, a contraction of Ganga- 
vadi karas. 

Gangaw Subdivision. — North-western subdivision of Pakokku 
District, Upper Burma, comprising the Gangaw and Tilin townships. 

Gangaw Township. — Northernmost tcwnship of Pakokku District, 
Upper Burma, lying between 21° 49** and 22° 50' N. and 93° 59' and 
94° 2 7' E., with an area of 698 square miles. It comprises, with the 
Tilin township, the whole of that part of the District which drains into 
the Upper Chindwin and is watered by the Myittha. Gangaw is a 
narrow valley shut in by the Chin Hills on the west and by the 
Pondaung range on the east, and is to a great extent cut off from the 
rest of the District. Its population was 22,648 in 1891, and 24,200 in 
1901 (including 1,989 Chins), distributed in 118 villages. The head- 
quarters are at Gangaw (population, 1,300), on the Myittha river. The 
area cultivated in 1903-4 was 22 square miles, and the land revenue 
and thathameda amounted to Rs. 52,000. 

Gangawati Taluk. — Taluk in Raichur District, Hyderabad State, 
with an area of 517 square miles, including yJ^'vrj". The population in 
1901 was 65,010, compared with 55,097 in 1891. The taluk contains 
one town, Gangawati (population, 6,245), the head-quarters ; and 140 
villages, of which 37 axtjaglr. The jr(zwai-///j« of Anegundi, comprising 
12 villages with a population of 4,295, is included in this taluk. The 
Tungabhadra river separates it from the Madras District of Bellary on 
the south-east. The land revenue in 1901 was i-8 lakhs. The soil 
includes alluvial, black cotton, and sandy varieties. 'Vhe Jdglr taluk of 
Koppal, belonging to the Salar Jang family, is situated to the west 
of this taluk. It has an area of 513 square miles, and a population 
of 85,033, and 152 villages, besides one town, Kopi'al (population, 
8,903), the head-quarters. 

Gangawati Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Raichur District, Hyderabad State, situated in 15° 26' N. and 

' These numerical designations, almost invariably attached to the names of ancient 
divisione in Mysore, apparently refer to their revenue capacity or to the number of 
their naJs. 

K 2 


76^32'E., 5 miles nortli of Anegundi. 'I'wo miles east of it flows the 
Tungabhadra river. Population (1901), 6,245. '1'''*^ town eontains 
a school, a dispensary, a post office, and two old temples. It is a 
commercial centre, largely exporting grain and jaggery. A weekly 
market is held on Sundays. 

Ganges {Ga/iga).—T\\c great river of Norlhcrn India which (-arries 
off the drainage of the Southern Himalayas, and also a smaller volume 
received from the northern and eastern slopes of the Vindhyas. It rises 
in the TehrT State, in 30° 55'' N. and 79° 7' E., where it issues under 
the name of Bhagirathi from an ice cave at the foot of a Himalayan 
snow-bed near Gangotri, 13,800 feet above the level of the sea. During 
its earlier course it receives the JahnavT from the north-west, and sub- 
sequently the Alaknanda, after which the united stream is called Ganges. 
It pierces the Himalayas at Sukhi, and turns south-west to Hardwar. 
From this point it flows south and south-east between the Meerut and 
Rohilkhand Divisions of the United Provinces, and then separates the 
latter from the Agra Division, and flows through the eastern part of 
Farrukhabad District. It next forms the south-western boundary of 
Oudh, and then crosses the Districts of Allahabad, Mirzapur, Benares, 
and GhazTpur, after which it divides the Districts of Ghazlpur and Ballia 
from Bengal. The (ianges is a considerable river even at Hardwar, 
where the Upper Ganges Canal starts, and it is tapped again at Naraura 
for the Lower Ganges Canal. It thus supplies the largest irrigation 
works in the United Provinces, and is also the source of the water- 
supply of the cities of Meerut (by a canal), Cawnpore, and Benares. 
Its chief tributaries are : the Ramganga (Farrukhabad), Jumna and 
Tons (Allahabad), Gumti (GhazTpur), and Gogra (Ballia), while smaller 
affluents are the Malin (Bijnor), Burhganga (Meerut), Mahawa (Budaun), 
Sot or Yar-i-Wafadar (Shahjahanpur), Burhganga and Kali Nadi (Far- 
rukhabad), Isan (Cawnpore), Pandu (Fatehpur), Jirgo (Mirzapur), Barna 
(Benares), Gang! and Besu (GhazTpur), and ChhotT Sarju (Ballia), which 
is called the Tons in its upper portion. The principal towns on or 
near its banks in the United Provinces are : Srinagar (on the Alaknanda), 
Hardwar, Garhmuktesar, Anupshahr, Soron, Farrukhabad (now left some 
miles away), Kanauj, Bilhaur, Bithur, Cawnpore, Dalmau, Manikpur, 
Kara, Allahabad, Sirsa, Mirzapur, Chunar, Benares, GhazTpur, and Ballia. 

Impinging on the Shahabad District of Bengal, in 25° 31' N. and 
83° 52' E., the (7anges forms the boundary of this District, separating 
it from the United Provinces, till it receives as a tributary the Gogra 
on the north bank. It shortly afterwards receives another important 
tributary, the Son, from the south, then passes Patna, and obtains 
another accession to its volume from the Gandak, which rises in Nepal, 
I'arther to the east, it receives the KosT, and then, skirting the Raj- 
mahal Hills, turns shar[)ly to the south, passing near the site of the 


ruined city of Gaur. About 20 miles farther on, the Ganges begins to 
brancli out over the level country ; and this spot marks the commence- 
ment of its delta, being 220 miles in a straight line, or nearly 300 by 
the windings of the river, from the Bay of Bengal. The present main 
channel, assuming the name of the Pauma, proceeds in a south-easterly 
direction past Pabna to Goalundo, where it is joined by the Jamuna, 
the main stream of the Brahmaputra. The bed is here several miles 
wide, and the river is split up into several channels, flowing between 
constantly shifting sandbanks and islands. During the rains the 
current is very strong, and even steamers find difficulty in making 
headway against it. This vast confluence of water rushes towards the 
sea, joining the great Meghna estuary in 23° 13' N. and 90° 33' E., 
after the Ganges has had a course of 540 miles in Bengal, and 1,557 
miles from its source. 

The Meghna estuary, however, is only the largest and most easterly 
of a great number of Ganges mouths, among which may be mentioned 
the HooGHLv, Matla, Raimangal, Malancha, and Haringhata. The 
most westerly and the most important for navigation is the Hooghly, 
on which stands Calcutta. This receives the water of the three western- 
most distributary channels that start from the parent Ganges in 
Murshidabad District (generally known as the Nadia Rivers, one of 
which takes again the name of Bhaglrathi), and it is to this exit that 
the sanctity of the river clings. Between the Hooghly on the west 
and the Meghna on the east lies the Ganges delta. The upper angle 
of this consists of the Districts of Murshidabad, Nadia, Jessore, and the 
Twenty-four Parganas. These Districts have for the most part been 
raised above the level of periodical inundation by the silt deposits of 
the Ganges and its offshoots ; and deltaic conditions now exist only 
in the eastern Districts of Khulna, Earldpur, and Hackergunge, and 
towards the southern base of the delta, where the country sinks into 
a series of great swamps, intersected by a network of innumerable 
channels, and known as the Sundarbans. 

In its course through Bengal, the Ganges rolls majestically down to 
the sea in a bountiful stream, which never becomes a merely destructive 
torrent in the rains and never dwindles away in the hottest summer. 
Embankments are seldom required to restrain its inundations, for the 
alluvial silt which it spills over its banks, year by year, affords to the 
fields a top-dressing of inexhaustible fertility. If one crop be drowned by 
the flood, the cultivator calculates that his second crop will abundantly 
requite him. In Eastern Bengal, in fact, the periodic inundations of 
the Ganges and its distributaries render the country immune from the 
results of a scanty rainfall and make artificial irrigation unnecessary. 

Until some 400 years ago the course of the Ganges, after entering 
Bengal proper, was by the channel of the Bhagirathi and Hooghly as 


far as the modern Calcutta, whence it branched south-eastwards to the 
sea, down what is still known as the Adi Ganga, which corresponds for 
part of its course with Tolly's Nullah. By degrees this channel silted 
up and became unecjual to its task, and the main stream of the Ganges 
was thus obliged to seek another outlet. In this way the lcH.\^L\TI, the 
Jalangi, and the Matabhanga became in turn the main stream. The 
river tended ever to the east ; and at last, aided perhaps by one of the 
periodic subsidences of the unstable surface of the country, it broke 
eastwards right across the old drainage channels, until it was met and 
stopped by the Brahmaputra. Great changes still take place from time 
to time in the river-bed, and alter the face of the country. Extensive 
islands are thrown up and attach themselves to the bank ; while the 
river deserts its old bed and seeks a new channel, it may be many 
miles off. Such changes are so rapid and on so vast a scale, and the 
eroding power of the current upon the bank is so irresistible, that it is 
considered perilous to build any structure of a large or permanent 
character on the margin. 

The junction of two or more rivers, called Prayag, is usually con- 
sidered sacred ; but that of the Ganges and Jumna at Allahabad, where 
according to popular belief a third river, the SaraswatI, which sinks 
into the sands at Bhatner in Rajputana, reappears from its subterranean 
course, is one of the most holy places in India. Here, on the spit of 
land below the fort, a large bathing festival is held annually in the 
month of Magh (January). Every twelve years the fair is called the 
Kumbh meld, as it is held when Jupiter is in Aquarius {kumbh) and 
the sun in Aries, and the efficacy of bathing is increased, large numbers 
of pilgrims from every part of India flocking to the junction. At the 
Kumbh meld in 1894 the attendance was estimated at a million to a 
million and a half. 

The holiest places upon the banks of the Ganges in Bengal are Sonpur 
at its confluence with the Ciandak, and Sagar Island at the mouth of 
the Hooghly. Both places are the scene of annual bathing festivals, 
which are frequented by thousands of pilgrims from all parts of India. 
Even at the present day, the six years' pilgrimage from the source of 
the Ganges to its mouth, and back again, known as pradakshitia, is 
performed by many ; and a few fanatical devotees may be seen wearily 
accomplishing this meritorious penance by measuring their length. 

Most rivers in India have sanctity attached to them, but the Ganges 
is especially sacred. Its importance in Vedic literature is slight, but in 
the epics and Puranas it receives much attention. Sagar, the thirty- 
eighth king of the Solar Dynasty, had performed the great horse-sacrifice 
{Asvatnedha) ninety-nine times. In this ceremony the horse wandered 
over the world, unhaltered and never guided or driven. Every country 
it entered was conquered by the following army, and on its return it 

GANGES ■ 135 

was sacrificed to the gods. When Sagar drove out a horse for the 
hundredth time, the god Indra stole it and tied it up in Fatal (the under- 
world) near the place where a sage, Kapila Muni, was meditating. Sagar 
had two wives, one of whom bore Asmanjas, and the other had sixty 
thousand sons who were following the horse. The sons found it, and 
believing Kapila to be the thief abused him, and were consumed to 
ashes in consequence of the sage's curse. Ansman, son of Asmanjas, 
had gone in search of his uncles, and finding the horse took it home. 
Garuda, the mythical half-man, half-bird, king of the snakes, told him 
that the sin of those who had abused Kapila could best be removed by 
bringing to earth the Ganges, which then flowed in heaven (Brahma 
Lok). In spite of much prayer and the practice of austerities by Ansman 
and his son, Dalip, this could not be brought about ; but Bhagirath, 
son of Dalip, persuaded Brahma to grant him a boon, and he chose 
the long-sought permission to allow the Ganges to flow on this world. 
Brahma agreed, but told Bhagirath that the earth could not sustain the 
shock, and advised him to consult Siva, who consented to break the 
force of the river by allowing it to fall on his head. The ice-cavern 
beneath the glacier, from which the stream descends, is represented as 
the tangled hair of Siva. One branch, the MandakinT, still flows 
through Brahma Lok ; a second, which passes through Fatal, washed 
away the sin of the sixty thousand ; and the third branch is the Ganges ^ 
Besides the places which have already been referred to, Gangotri, near 
the source, Devaprayag, Garhmuktesar, Soron, Dalmau, and Benares 
are the principal bathing resorts. The sanctity of the river still exists 
everywhere, though according to prophecy it should have passed away 
to the Narbada a few years ago. Dying persons are taken to expire 
on its banks, corpses are carried to be burned there, and the ashes of 
the dead arc brought from long distances to be thrown into its holy 
stream, in the hope of attaining eternal bliss for the deceased. About 
the time of the regular festivals the roads to the river are crowded 
with pilgrims, who keep up an incessant cry of salutation to the great 
goddess {Ga>igd Ji ki Jai). On their return they carry away bottles of 
the sacred water to their less fortunate relations. 

Till within the last forty years of the nineteenth century, after which 
the extension of railways provided a quicker means of transport, the 
magnificent stream of the Ganges formed almost the sole channel of 
traffic between Upper India and the seaboard, and high masonry landing- 
places for steamers still exist at Allahabad and other places lower down, 
though they are no longer used. The products of the Gangetic plain, 
and the cotton of the Central Frovinces and Central India, used 
formerly to be conveyed by this route to Calcutta. At present it is 

' A sariant of ihc legend represents the as-hes of the sixty thousand as having been 
purified by the BuagIratih. a branch of the Ganges. 


chiefly used for the carriage of wood and grain in many parts oi its 
course, and also of oilseeds, saltpetre, stone, and sugar in the eastern 
portion of the United Provinces. The principal import to these 
Provinces is rice, but manufactured goods and metals are also carried 
in considerable quantities. The canal dam at Naraura in Bulandshahr 
District has stopped through traffic between the upper and lower courses 
of the Ganges. 

In Bengal, however, the Ganges may yet rank as one of the most- 
frequented waterways in the world. 'Phe downward traffic is most brisk 
in the rainy season, when the river comes down in flood. During the 
rest of the year the boats make their way back up stream, often without 
cargoes, either helped by a favourable wind or laboriously towed along 
the bank. 'Phe most important traffic in Bengal is in food-grains and 
oilseeds ; and, though no complete statistics are available, it appears 
probable that the actual amount of traffic on the Ganges by native craft 
has not at all diminished since the opening of the railway, to which the 
river is not only a rival, but a feeder. Railway stations situated on the 
banks form centres of collection and distribution for the surrounding 
country, and fishing villages like Goalundo have by this means been 
raised into river marts of the first magnitude. Steamer services ply 
along its whole course within Bengal, and many towns lie on its banks, 
the most important being Patna and Monghvr. 

Six railway bridges cross the Ganges : near Roorkee, at Garhmuktesar 
(2,332 feet), Rajghat, Cawnpore (2,900 feet), and Benares (3,518 feet), 
while the sixth, measuring 3,000 feet, was completed near Allahabad in 
1905. There is no bridge below Benares, though the construction of 
a railway bridge near Sara Ghat in Bengal is contemplated. The normal 
flood discharge varies from 207,000 cubic feet per second at Hardwar, 
where the bed is steep and only 2,500 feet wide, to 300,000 at Garh- 
muktesar and 150,000 at Naraura (width at canal weir and about a mile 
above it, 3,880 feet). The bridge at Allahabad is designed to allow the 
discharge of a million cubic feet per second. The normal flood-level 
falls from 942 feet above the sea at Hardwar to 287 at Allahabad. 

Ganges Canal, Lower. — An important irrigation work designed to 
water the southern and eastern portion of the Doab in the United 
Provinces. The canal owes its origin to the recommendations of the 
committee appointed in 1866 to examine the various projects for 
improving the Upper Ganges Canal. It takes off from the Ganges at 
Naraura in Bulandshahr District, where a solid wall 3,800 feet long, with 
a section of 10 feet by 9, having forty-two weir-sluices, has been thrown 
across the river. At mile 25 the P^itehgarh branch, 61 miles long, is 
given off, and soon after, at mile 34, the canal is carried on a fine 
aqueduct across the Kali Nadi at Nadrai. The Bewar branch, 65 miles 
long, takes off 6 miles lower down, and at mile 55 the main canal meets 


the old Cawnpore branch of the Upper Ganges Canal at Gopalpur, and 
provides most of its supply. It then passes on to the Etavvah branch of 
the Upper Ganges Canal and supplies it also, the main channel taking 
the name of the Bhognipur branch and terminating in Cawnpore 
District. The canal was first opened for irrigation in 1878; in 1895 
the Fatehpur branch, which is a continuation of the Cawnpore branch, 
extending into Allahabad District, was commenced, and it was opened 
for irrigation in 1898. The total capital outlay on this canal to the end 
of 1903-4 was more than 4 crores. The system commands an area 
of 5,300,000 acres in the Districts of Etah, MainpurT, Farrukhabad, 
Etawah, Cawnpore, Fatehpur, and Allahabad, of which 831,000 acres 
were irrigated in 1903-4. 'I'he gross revenue has exceeded the work- 
ing, expenses since i88o~i, but the net revenue still falls, in some 
years, below the interest charges. In 1903-4 the canal earned 28 lakhs 
gross and 15 lakhs net, giving a return of 3 8 per cent, on the capital 
outlay. The main channel of 62 miles and 137 miles of branches are 
navigable. Navigation accounts are kept jointly with those of the 
Upper Ganges Canal. 

Ganges Canal, Upper. — The largest and most important irrigation 
work in the United Provinces, taking off from the right bank of the 
Ganges river and watering the Upper 1 )oab. Two miles above Hard- 
war the Ganges divides into several channels, the most westerly of 
which contains a large volume (jf water and, after passing Hardwar, 
rejoins the main stream at Kankhal. This channel is held up by 
a temporary dam which diverts the water into the canal head-works, 
where the amount admitted is regulated at the Mayapur bridge. During 
the first 20 miles of its course four large torrents liable to sudden floods 
of extreme violence have to be crossed. Two of these are carried over 
the canal, the third is passed through it by a level crossing provided 
with flood-gates, and the canal itself flows on a magnificent aqueduct 
over the bed of the Soi.ani. At mile 22 the canal throws off the Deo- 
band branch (52 miles long); at mile 50 the Anupshahr branch (107 
miles); and at mile 181 (at Nanu in Aligarh District) it divides into 
what were originally called the Cawnpore and Etawah branches of the 
Ganges Canal. The Lower Ganges Canal now crosses these in their 
32nd and 39th miles respectively, and from the points of junction they 
are considered to belong to it. The Upper Ganges Canal, on March 
31, 1904, had 213 miles of main line, 227 miles of branches, and 
2,694 miles of distributaries. 

In 1827 Captain De Bude proposed a scheme for utilizing the waters 
of the West Kali NadT, along a drainage line constructed under native 
rule, to irrigate Meerut, Bulandshahr, and Aligarh Districts. The 
supply- would, however, have been deficient and uncertain, and in 
1836, at the suggestion of Colonel Colvin, the Ganges was examined 


near Hardwar. I'lie next year a terrible faniirie, which devastated the 
Doab, increased the anxiety of Government to provide a satisfactory 
scheme. Major (afterwards Sir) Proby Cautley commenced a survey in 
1839, and prepared a project which was warmly apprcned by the Court 
of Directors in 1841, the estimated cost being over a million sterling. 
In April, 1842, the actual works were commenced by opening the 
excavation between Kankhal and Hardwar. The work had, however, 
hardly begun when Lord Ellenborough abruptly stopped it, on the 
grounds that money could not be spared and that the project was 
unsound from an engineering point of view. Subsequently the totally 
inadequate grant of 2 lakhs a year was made. In 1844 Mr. Thomason, 
shortly after assuming office as Lieutenant-Governor, made a strong 
representation on the subject, and was informed that the main object 
of the canal was to be navigation, not irrigation. The grant was, how- 
ever, increased by a lakh a year, and surveys were pressed on. A com- 
mittee considered the arguments raised, and in 1847 reported favourably 
on the scheme. Lord Hardinge visited the head-works in the same 
year, and reversed the decision of his predecessor : an annual grant of 
20 lakhs a year was sanctioned, with a promise of more if it could be 
usefully spent. The revised estimate of i^ million sterling was passed 
by the Directors in 1850, and the canal was opened in April, 1854. 
The works were, however, not complete ; in particular, those at the 
Solani river gave way, and irrigation really commenced from May, 
1855. Although the canal had been extraordinarily successful, owing 
to the genius of its projector. Sir Proby Cautley, ten years' experience 
pointed out defects in the system, and in 1866 a committee sat to 
examine the proposals which had been made. The result of their 
report was the expenditure of large sums on improvements and re- 
modelling, the chief objects of which were to increase the supply, and 
to reduce the excessive slope of the chaimel by providing more falls. 
They also recommended a site near Rajghat in AlTgarh as a point from 
which a supplementary supply might be drawn, and this was carried out 
later in the Lower Ganges Canal. 

The expenditure on capital account up to 1904 has been about 3 
crores (£2,000,000 at present rate of exchange). The total area com- 
manded by the canal at the end of 1903-4 was 3,800,000 acres in the 
Districts of Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bulandshahr, Aligarh, 
Muttra, Agra, Etah, and Mainpurl, of which 978,000 acres were 
irrigated. There is not much room for further increase. The canal 
also supplements the supply available in the Lower Ganges and Agra 
Canals (by means of the Hindan cut). The gross revenue first 
exceeded the working expenses in 1 860-1. The net revenue has been 
larger than the interest charges on the capital expended since 1873-4. 
The most successful year of working was 1 900-1, when the net 


revenue amounted to ti^ per cent, on the capital outlay. In 1903-4 
the gross and net revenue amounted respectively to 42 and 31 lakhs, 
the latter representing 10-3 per cent, on the capital outlay. 

Special expenditure has been undertaken to facilitate navigation by 
constructing locked channels round falls, and by raising bridges ; and 
boats can pass from Roorkee to C'awnpore. The portion of the Cawn- 
pore branch from Nanu to Gopalpur, where it meets the Lower Ganges 
Canal, is kept open chiefly for navigation ; and both the Ganges 
Canals are, in this respect, considered a single system. Operations are 
carried on at a loss; the receipts in 1903-4 were Rs. 11,000, while 
the expenditure was Rs. 19,000. Grain, cotton, oilseeds, and timber 
are the most important commodities carried ; the rafting of timber is, 
however, decreasing. A small income is derived from mills worked by 
water-power at the falls, and the water-supply of Meerut city is raised 
by turbines worked by the canal. 

Gangoh. — Town in the Nakur tahsll of Saharanpur Distr ct, United 
Provinces, situated in 29° 47' N. and 77° 17' E. It is the chief town 
in the/rt;-^'-(7/'/rt of the same name. Population (190 1), 12,971. Hindus 
numbered 5,741 and Musalmans 7,172. The town consists of an old 
and new quarter, the former founded by a legendary hero. Raja Gang, 
from whom its name is derived, and the latter by the famous saint. 
Shaikh Abdul Kuddus, who gives his title to the western suburb, 
where his mausoleum stands, built by Humayun in 1537. During the 
Mutiny Gangoh was frequently threatened by the rebel Giijars under 
the self-styled Raja Fathua ; but Mr. H. D. Robertson and Lieutenant 
Boisragon attacked and utterly defeated them towards the end of June, 
1857. There are three old mosques, two of which were built by Akbar 
and Jahangir, besides a school and a dispensary. The town is liable to 
be flooded from a large swamp south of the site, but a scheme has been 
prepared to drain this. The streets are paved and most of them have 
brickwork drains. Gangoh is administered under Act XX of 1856, the 
income raised being about Rs. 3,000 a year. It is the cleanest and 
best kept of all the towns under Act XX in the District. 

Gangotri. — Mountain temple in the State of Tehrl, United Provinces, 
situated in 31° N. and 78° 57' E. It stands at an elevation of 10,319 
feet above the sea on the right bank of the Bhaglrathi, the chief feeder 
of the Ganges, eight miles from its source in the Gaumukh glacier. 
The temple is a square building, about 20 feet high, containing small 
statues of Ganga, Bhaglrathi, and other mythological personages con- 
nected with the spot. It was erected by Amar Singh, Thappa, the 
chief of the Gurkha commanders in Garhwal, early in the eighteenth 
century. During the summer large numbers of pilgrims visit this 
place, -iind several dliannsdlas have been built for their accommodation. 
Flasks filled at (langotri with the sacred water arc sealed up by the 


officiating Brahmans and conveyed to the plains as valuable lieasurLS. 
In the winter the temple is closed and the i)riests migrate to Mukhba, 
a village lo miles away. 

Gangpur. — A 'I'ributary State of Orissa, Ik'ngal, lying between 
2 1° 47' and 22° 32' N. and 83° 2,z' ^^'id 85° 11' E., with an area of 
2,492 * scjuare miles. It is bounded on the north by the State of 
Jashpur and Ranch! District ; on the east by Singhbhuni ; on the south 
by the States of Bonai, Sambalpur, and Bamra ; and on the west by the 
State of Raigarh in the Central Provinces. Gangpur consists of a long 
undulating table-land about 700 feet above the sea, dotted here and 
there with hill ranges and isolated peaks which rise to a height of 
2,240 feet. In the north the descent from the higher plateau of Chota 
Nagpur is gradual ; but (jn the south the Mahavira range springs 
abruptly from the plain in an irregular wall of tilted and disrupted rock 
with two flanking peaks, forming the boundary between Gangpur and 
the State of Bamra. The principal rivers are the lb, which enters the 
State from Jashpur and passes through it from north to south to join 
the Mahanadi in Sambalpur, the Sankh from RanchI, and the South 
Koel from Singhbhum. 'J'he two latter meet in the east of Gangpur, 
and the united stream, under the name of the Brahman!, flows south 
into the plains of Orissa. The confluence of the Koel and Sankh is 
one of the prettiest spots in Gangpur ; and it is said by local tradition 
to be the scene of the amour of the sage Parasara with the fisherman's 
daughter Matsya Gandha, the offspring of which was Vyasa, the 
reputed compiler of the Vedas and the Mahabharata. These rivers 
are practically dry from the end of the cold season till the rains, 
and there is no systematic navigation on them. Tigers, leopards, 
wolves, hyenas, bison, -and many kinds of deer abound, and peafowl 
are numerous. 

The State was once under the suzerainty of Sambalpur, which 
formed part cjf the dominions of the Maratha Rajas of Nagpur. It was 
ceded in 1803 to the British (Government by the Treaty of Deogaon, 
but was restored to the Maratha Raja in 1806. It reverted under the 
provisional engagement with Madhuj! Bhonsla in 181 8, and was finally 
ceded in 1826. In 1821 the feudal supremacy of Sambalpur over 
Gangpur was cancelled by the British Government, and a fresh sanad 
granted to the chief. In 1827, after the permanent cession, another 
sanad was granted for a period of five years, but this was allowed to 
run till 1875 before it was renewed. The last sanad was granted to the 
chief in 1899. The State was transferred from Chota Nagpur to Orissa 
in 1905. 

The total revenue is Rs. 2,40,000, and the tribute payable to the 

' This figure, which difleis fruiu ihc area bliown in ihc Census Report uf 190J, was 
siiiiplicil Ly the Sur\eyor-Ck'neial. 


British Government is Rs. 1,250. The relations of the chief with the 
British Ciovernment are regulated by the sanad granted in 1899, which 
was reissued in 1905 with a few verbal changes due to the transfer of 
the State to Orissa. Under this sanad the chief was formally recog- 
nized and ])ermitted to administer his territory subject to prescribed 
conditions, and the tribute was fixed for a further period of twenty 
years, at the end of which it is liable to revision. The chief is under 
the general control of the Commissioner of Orissa, who is Super- 
intendent of the Tributary Mahals, as regards all important matters 
of administration, including the settlement and collection of land 
revenue, the imposition of taxes, the administration of justice, arrange- 
ments connected with excise, salt, and opium, and disputes in which 
other States are concerned ; and he cannot levy import and export 
duties or transit dues, unless they are especially authorized by the 
Lieutenant-Governor. He is permitted to kvy rents and certain other 
customary dues from his subjects, and is empowered to pass sentences 
of imprisonment up to five years and of fine to the extent of Rs. 200, 
but sentences of imprisonment for more than two years and of fine 
exceeding Rs. 50 require the confirmation of the Commissioner. 

The recorded population increased from 191,440 in iSgr to 238,896 
in 1 901, the development being due partly to a more accurate enumera- 
tion and partly to the State having been opened out by the Bengal- 
Nagpur Railway, which runs through the south-east corner for about 
70 miles. The number of villages is 806, one of which, Suadi, 
contains the residence of the Raja. The density is 96 persons per 
square mile. Hindus number 146,549, Animists 88,949, Muham- 
madans 1,640, and Christians 1,758. The most numerous tribes are 
the Oraons (47,000), Gonds (37,000), Kharias (26,000), Bhuiyas 
(24,000), and Mundas (19,000). The Agarias (7,000) a cultivating 
caste, claim to be descendants of Kshattriya immigrants from Agra. 
A branch of the German Evangelical Mission, with its head-quarters 
at Kumarkela, has been at work since 1S99 and has made several 
converts. The Roman Catholic Jesuit Mission established in the Biru 
fargaua of Ranch! claims many converts in the State, chiefly among 
the Oraons. 

The soil of the lb valley towards the south is extremely productive, 
and here the skiltul and industrious Agarias make the most of their 
land : in the north the soil is less fertile, and the cultivators are 
ignorant and lazy. The principal crops are rice, sugar-cane, and 
oilseeds. Irrigation from rivers and streams is extensively resorted to, 
but large works are not numerous. The estates of Hinglr and Nagra 
and certain portions of the khdisa, or chiefs own domain, contain 
stretches of sal {S/iotra rohusta), which have been worked since the 
opening of the ]>engal-Nagpur line through the State. The chief 


jungle products are lac, resin, and cateclni. Tlic forests also contain 
a large number of edible roots and indigenous drugs. Stil>ai grass 
l^lschaemum august if oliuvi) grows plentifully throughout the State and 
is exported in large (juantities. Diamonds have occasionally been 
found in the sands of the lb river, and gold-washing is carried on in 
most of the rivers and streams by Jhora Gonds, who thus gain a pre- 
carious livelihood. An extensive coal-field is situated in the HingTr 
estate, and negotiations for its working are now in progress. Limestone 
and iron occur throughout the State in great abundance, especially in 
the north-east, where a concession of loo square miles has been made 
to a European prospector ; the industry is developing rapidly and 
promises to be important. Work has also been commenced in the 
dolomite deposit in the same concession, where the stone procurable 
is said to be extremely rich and extensive. Villages in Gangpur are 
held either on feudal tenures or on farming leases. The feudal tenures 
date back to the early times when the vassals of the chief received 
grants of land in consideration of rendering military service and making 
certain payments in kind. These payments and the service conditions 
also have been gradually commuted to a quit-rent in money. The 
other villages are leased out to small farmers, called gdontids or 
ganjhiis, who pay a fixed annual rent and are remunerated by lands, 
called I'ogrd, which are held rent-free. Rents are paid only for rice 
lands, but the cultivators are bound to work gratuitously for the chief 
in return for the uplands which they hold rent-free. The police force 
was reorganized in 1900, and is now managed by the chiefs eldest son 
as District Superintendent on the lines followed in British Districts. 
The State contains altogether 13 police stations and outposts, and 
the force consists of 24 officers and 134 constables, maintained at a 
cost of Rs. 20,000 ; there is in addition a chaiikiddr in each village, 
who is remunerated by a grant of land. The State jail at Suadi has 
accommodation for 50 prisoners, and there is a dispensary at the same 
place, at which in- and out- patients are treated. The State maintains 
a middle English school, and 7 upper primary and 8 lower primary 

Gangtok. — Capital of Sikkim State, Bengal, situated in 27° 20' N. 
and 88° 38' E. Population (1901), 749. Gangtok contains the 
residence of the Maharaja and other public buildings. It is connected 
with the Tista valley by a cart-road. 

Ganjam District. — Northernmost District of the Madras Presidency, 
lying along the shore of the Bay of Bengal between 18° 12' and 20° 
26' N. and 83° 30' and 85° 12' E., with an area of 8,372 square miles. 
It is called after its former head-quarters, but the derivation of the 
name is unknown. The fanciful etymology from Gatiji-dui, ' the store- 
house of the world,' has no satisfactory authority and no sufificient 


warrant in the fertility of the District. In sliape (lanjani is triangular, 
running to a point at its southern end. Its northern 
boundary is formed by Orissa and the States recently aspects'^ 

transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal, its 
eastern by the sea, and its western by the adjoining Madras District of 
Vizagapatam. Much of it is mountainous and rocky, but it is inter- 
spersed with valleys and fertile plains ; pleasant groves of trees give to 
the scenery of the low country a greener appearance than is usually 
met with in the plains farther south ; and with its background of wild 
hills, frequently covered with dark jungle, it is one of the most beautiful 
Districts in the Presidency, winning the affections of almost every 
otiticer who serves within it. 

The Eastern Ghats traverse it from north to south, and are no- 
where more than 50 miles from the sea. At Baruva, in the centre of 
the District, they are within 15 miles of the sea, and at this point are 
much loftier than elsewhere, the peaks of .Singarazu and Mahendragiri, 
the two highest points in the District, being close upon 5,000 feet. 
Devagiri (4,535 feet), which stands farther south behind Parlakimedi, 
is their next highest hill. 'I'hey divide the District into two well-defined 
portions : the Maliahs, or hills, and the plains. The former, which are 
described in more detail in the separate account of them, occupy the 
whole of the western half. This hilly area is also known as the Agency 
of Ganjam. It is a wild country, for the most part inhabited by back- 
ward forest tribes, to whom it would be inexpedient to apply the whole 
of the ordinary law of the land, and it is consequently ruled by the 
Collector under special powers as Agent to the Governor. The 
ordinary courts of justice have no jurisdiction within it, the Collector 
being the chief civil and criminal tribunal, with an appeal from his 
decisions to the High Court and the Governor-in-Council. There are 
similar Agencies in the two adjoining Madras Districts of Vizagapatam 
and Godavari. In Ganjam these tracts are for the most part held on a 
kind of feudal tenure, while the plains consist of three (lovernment 
taluks and several permanently settled estates. 

No real lakes are situated in Ganjam ; but near the coast, and some- 
times farther inland, shallow depressions occur, which are filled in some 
cases with fresh, and in others with brackish water. These are known 
as tainparas or sagaratiis. 'J'he largest of them is the Chii.ka Lakk on 
the northern frontier. 

The three principal rivers of the District, all of which are utilized for 
irrigation, run eastwards into the Bay. They are the Rushikulya, 
which with its tributaries (the chief of which are the Mahanadi and 
Godahaddo) drains the northern part of the District, and the Vam- 
sadhara and Langulya, which traverse it in the extreme south. The 
Vamsadhara enters Ganjam at Battili, and after running southwards 


through it for 70 miles falls into the sea at Calingapatam. Tlie I^angulya 
forms, for the last 30 miles of its course, the southern boundary of the 
District, and enters the sea 3 miles from Chicacole, where it is crossed 
by the trunk road on a fine bridge. 

The rocks exposed in the District are Archaean gneisses and 
schists of the older and younger type, together with intrusive bands 
of charnockile (hypersthene granulite) and biotite gneissose granite. 
The younger type is of a distinctly metamorphic series. Cappings of 
high-level horizontal laterite, as much as 200 feet thick, are common 
at about the 4,000 feet level. In the flat coast region, except for the 
thickly dotted rocky ridges and hills, recent alluvium and low-level 
lateritic red clay are generally present. 

Botanically, most of Ganjam is included in what is classed as the 
moist region of the Presidency. Near the coast the wooded area con- 
sists to a large extent of scrub jungle, but it comprises tree forest inland 
where the rainfall is heavier ; the herbaceous flora is made up of plants 
belonging to both the dry and moist regions. The more prominent 
crops and the chief growth of the forests are referred to later. The 
most characteristic tree of the latter is sal {Shorea robusta). In some 
places along the coast casuarina has been planted, which grows very 
fast and is valuable as firewood. 

Ganjam is a fair sporting country. Bears and hyenas are common, and 
wolves, leopards, and tigers are also met with. Of the deer tribe, samhar^ 
spotted deer, barking-deer, and mouse deer occur on the .slopes of the 
hills, where are also some nilgai ; and antelope are found on the plains. 
The four-horned antelope, bison, and wild hog are rarer. Wild dogs 
commit havoc among the game. It is believed by the natives that there 
are two kinds of them : the bolio-kukuro, which hunt in pairs, and the 
k/iogo, which hunt in packs ; but the former are apparently wolves 
which have been mistaken for wild dogs. 

The climate along the coast, close to which most of the chief towns 
are situated, is usually cool and healthy, but Ganjam town is notori- 
ously malarious, and for this reason has ceased to be the District 
head-quarters. The Maliahs and the tracts adjoining them are also 
particularly malarious. The District is one of the few in the Presidency 
which enjoys a real cold season. 

The rainfall is usually considerable, being greatest in the Agency 
tracts, where it averages 55 inches annually. In the plains, the rain 
brought by the south-west monsoon is heavier inland than on the coast, 
while the reverse is the case with the north-east monsoon. On the 
coast the fall in both monsoons is heavier at the northern stations than 
in the south. The annual rainfall in the District as a whole averages 
45 inches, and the average number of wet days in the year is 59. The 
south-west current rarely fails, though it often sets in late ; but the 


north-east is much more precarious, and there have been three famines 
(see below) in the last half-century. Otherwise Ganjam has escaped 
serious natural calamities. A heavy flood in the Langulya in 1876, 
caused by a cyclone, destroyed six arches of the bridge at Chicacolc, 
and floods in the Rushikulya on another occasion washed away a 
portion of the town of Purushottapur. 

Historically, Ganjam formed part of the ancient Kalinga, though at 
times the kingdom of Vengi encroached upon its southern border. 
Conquered by the Mauryan king Asoka in 260 b.c, 
it seems to have passed later under the Andhra 
kings of Vengi. Both of these were Buddhists, and Asoka has left an 
edict at Jaugada. The Andhras were driven out of this part of the 
country in the third century a.d., and made way for the early line of 
the Ganga kings of Kalinga. The dates of the early Gangas are very 
obscure, and so are their relations with Mie Eastern Chalukyas of 
Vengi ; but the latter seem at one time to have ruled a part of Ganjam. 
The Chola conquest of Vengi and Kalinga, which took place at the end 
of the tenth and the beginning of the eleventh centuries, certainly in- 
cluded parts of Ganjam, and the great king Rajendra Chola has left 
a record of his victories on Mahendragiri hill. But the degree and 
the variation of the Chola control over Kalinga are still obscure. About 
the time of the Chola conquest the line of the later Ganga kings of 
Kalinga comes into view, who ruled, first no doubt as Chola feudatories, 
but later as independent sovereigns, for the next four centuries. They 
extended their dominions far to the north and south, and only fell 
before domestic treachery. The power of the Gajapatis of Orissa, 
whose descendants still hold considerable portions of the District, was 
founded in the fifteenth century by a minister of the former dynasty, 
who murdered his master and usurped the tiirone. About 1571 these 
last were ousted by the Kutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda, and for the 
next 180 years the country was ruled from Chicacole by Muhammadans. 
Apart from the mosque at that town, there are scarcely any permanent 
traces of their dominion. 

In 1687 the emperor Aurangzeb compelled Golconda to acknowledge 
his authority, and the governors of Chicacole were thereafter appointed 
by his Subahdars of the Deccan. Fur services to two of these .Subah- 
dars, the French obtained in 1753, among other tracts, the Chicacole 
Sarkdr — one of the five Northern Circars — which included the 
present District of Ganjam. In 1757 De Bussy came to reduce it to 
order, but in the next year he was summoned south by Lally, then 
Governor of Pondicherry, to help in the siege of Madras. Immediately 
on his departure, Clive dispatched Colonel Forde to the south with a 
force from Bengal. Forde defeated De Bussy's successor and captured 
Masulipatam, the French head-quarters, in January, 1759. The Subah- 


146 (;.l.y/AJ/ DISTRICT 

dar of the Dcccan thereupon changed sides, and made a treaty with 
Forde agreeing to prevent the Freneh ever settHng in these i)arts again. 
By this agreement, ratified by :xfarmdn from the emperor Shah Alam 
in 1765, and another treaty with the Subahdar in 1766, the l^iglish 
obtained the whole of the Northern Cirears. 

Ganjam, however, took longer to pacify than any area in the Presi- 
dency, and it was not until seventy years later that it was luially reduced 
to order. It originally consisted of the country as far south as the 
Fundi river ; and most of the numerous zavnnddrs in this area (who 
had 34 forts and 32,000 irregular troops) were contumacious, freijuently 
annexing Government villages, quarrelling with one another or over 
disputed successions, and declining to pay any tribute until compelled 
by force. Troops were used at different times against no less than 
fifteen of them ; but these expeditions, though they cost time, money, 
and often valuable lives, had little permanent effect. 

In 1803 the Chicacole division, which included the ParlAkimedi 
Zamindari, was added to the district. The disturbances which subse- 
quently occurred in that tract lasted in a more or less open manner for 
nineteen years from 1813 to 1832, being chiefly caused by the factions 
among the eleven hill chiefs, called Bissoyis, to whom certain villages 
had been granted by the zaminddr on condition that they prevented the 
Savara hill tribes from raiding the low country. They not only failed 
to keep the Savaras in order, but themselves perpetually harassed the 
villages in the plains. In 1816, 4,000 or 5,000 Pindaris entered the 
District from Jeypore and swept through the whole of it, plundering 
and burning. 

By 1832 the Bissoyis' doings became so intolerable that Mr. George 
Russell, first Member of the Board of Revenue and name-father of 
Russellkonda, was sent to stop them. He proclaimed martial law, 
captured the Bissoyis and their forts one after the other, hanged some 
and transported others, and gave the District a spell of ciuiet. In 1836 
he followed a similar policy in Goomsur, and since then there have been 
no disturbances of importance. Two other notable results of Russell's 
mission were the appointment in 1836 of the Meriah Agents to put 
down the practice of human sacrifice among the Khonds, and the pass- 
ing of the Act of 1839, by which the Collector of Ganjam, under the 
title of Agent to the Governor, received special powers over the hill 
country and its inhabitants. Russell's account of his mission and the 
reports of the Meriah Agents down to 1861, when they were abolished, 
give a vivid picture of the Ganjam of those restless days. 

Except Asoka's edicts at Jaugada, the only notable antiquities in the 
District are several ancient temples, some of which furnish interesting 
examples of architecture and .sculpture, and contain inscriptions throw- 
ing nunh light on the early history of Kalinga. The most important 




are the Vai.shnavite shrine at SrTkurjMAIm and the Saivite temple at 


The District as a whole contains 8 towns, all in the low country, and 
6,145 villages; but the villages in the Maliahs are 
small, with an average of less than 200 inhabitants. 

Population has .shown a steady advance during the past ^ thirty 
years, the total numbering 1,520,088 in 1871 ; 1,749,604 in i88r ; 
1,896,803 in 1891 ; and 2,010,256 in 1901. Migration to the As.sam 
tea gardens and to Bengal and Burma has lately somewhat checked 
the increase. Statistical particulars of the taluks and tahslls, according 
to the Census of 1901, are apj)ended : — 

7 dink 01 Tali^il. 

a. in square 



iber of 



3 3 


centagc of 
riation in 
ulaiion be- 

nd 1901. 

umber of 
;ons able to 
eail and 





pu, '- 































Surada (incliRliug 

Agency area) 








Aska . 



I '5,883 

2 85 




















Berhampur . 

















Sompeta (includ- 

ing Agency area) 


























railakimedi (in- 

cluding Agency 

area 1 

























The chief towns are the municipalities of Berha.mpur, CHiCACOLf,, 
and Parlaki.medi. In the plains 96 per cent, of the population are 
Hindus and nearly all the remainder are Animists ; while in the Agency 
tract more than two-thirds of the total are Animists. Mu.salmans and 
Christians are fewer than in any other Madras District. In the low 
country the density of population is above the average for the Presi- 
dency, but in the Agencies it is only one-third as great, being less than 
100 persons per square mile. Telugu is mainly spoken in the southern 
half of the District, while in the north the prevailing language is Oriya. 
In the Agency tract Khond is on the whole the chief vernacular, 
but in the Southern Maliahs Savara is most used. 

Except for a few Khonds and Savaras, the people of the [jlains nearly 

L 2 

148 GANJAM district 

all belong to cither Telugu or Oriya castes. The Telugii castes 
resemble, generally, those found elsewhere. The cultivating Kapus 
(150,000) are the most numerous, and then come the Kalingis 
(104,000), who are in greater strength in this District than in any other. 
Of the Oriya castes by far the nnxst numerous arc the Brahmans. 'I'hey 
number nearly 8 per cent, of the Hindus and Animists of the District, 
a proportion which is exceeded only by the Brahmans in South Kanara. 
Some classes of them differ from their fellows farther south in having 
no religious scruples against engaging personally in cultivation and 

In the Agency tract there are 90,000 persons of Oriya-speaking 
castes, 44,000 of whom are Panos (whose usual occupations are weaving 
and thieving) ; but otherwise the population consists almost entirely 
of Khonds (139,000) and Savaras (83,000). These two tribes arc 
described in the article on the Maliahs. They are more numerous 
in Ganjam than anywhere else in the Presidency. 

The means of livelihood of the people in the low country differs but 
little from the normal. About 66 per cent, of them are engaged in 
agricultural and pastoral pursuits, compared with an average of 70 per 
cent, for the Presidency as a whole ; but a larger proportion than usual 
returned themselves as living by unskilled labour, and probably many 
of these are in reality mainly agricultural labourers. In the Agency 
tract, however, the population subsists almost entirely by the land, the 
only industrial pursuit of any consequence being weaving. 

Of the 3,042 native Christians in the District in 1901, 1,948 belonged 
to the Roman Catholic Church, which began work in the District in 
1768 and has its head-quarters at Surada ; and 910 to the Baptist 
Mission, which started operations in 1825, with its chief station at 
Berhampur. The Canadian Baptist Mission has stations at Chicacole, 
Parlakimedi, and Tekkali. 

The soils in the Agency tract are of three kinds — black earth, loam, 

and red ferruginous land : but the first, which is the best, occurs onl)' in 

. . , occasional patches, and the second, the next most 


fertile, is chiefly used for turmeric cultivation. In 

the plains, black cotton soil {regar) predominates, the other land being 

red and sandy and, to a small extent, alluvial. Of the ' dry ' (unirri- 

gated) land, three-fifths in the Goomsur tahik, one-fourth in Chicacole, 

and one-sixth in Berhampur is of superior ({uality, being regar clay or 

regar loam. Of the ' wet ' land, three-fourths in the Chicacole ta/uk is 

of good quality, but in Berhampur and Goomsur the proportion is only 

two-fifths. Rice, the most important crop in the District, is for the 

most part sown broadcast on ' dry ' land, and then transj.ilanted to the 

' wet ' fields and matured with the aid of artificial irrigation. On some 

' dry' land it is raised with the aid of rainfall alone. If rain fails in a 



single month in the season, the ' dry ' crop is lost. Many officers have 
accordingly advocated the cultivation on these lands of ra^i, which re- 
quires less moisture ; but the ryots adhere to the more precarious rice 
cultivation, as the produce, if only it comes to maturity, is treble the 
value of a crop of rd^s;i. The Oriya ryots of the District are not indus- 
trious. The use of wells and garden cultivation are both very limited, 
though fencing and tree-growing are common. 

Of the 8,372 square miles of the District, 4,439 are rvofzvdri land, 
3,509 zaminddri^ and 424 indm. Detailed agricultural statistics are not 
available for the Agency tract (except for Chokkapad Khandam, a small 
area managed on the ryotwdri system) or for zaunnddri or ' whole 
indm ' land. Of the ryohvdri land shown in the revenue accounts, 
1,999 square miles were classified as follows in 1903-4 : — 


Area shown 
in accounts. 





Udayagiri . 
Berhanipur . 
Chicacole . 












'•5 ' 






Rice and rdgi are the staple food-grains of the I )istric . Rice covers 
nearly three-fourths, and r(7,i,7 nearly one-sixth, of the total area culti- 
vated. Other important crops are green gram, horse-gram, and gingelly. 
In the Agency tract the staple cereal is rice, and the main 'dry' grains 
are rdgi and pulses. The special crop of the Maliahs is turmeric, 
which takes three years to come to maturity and requires to be shaded 
from the sun during its first hot season. Products of the forest areas 
are alum, arrowroot, myrabolams, gall-nuts, and oranges. Every village 
owns a large number of mango-trees scattered about the jungle round 
it, and their fruit and a kind of flour made from the stones of the fruit 
are largely eaten. Ma hud trees [Bassia latifoUa) also afford food, and 
arrack (strong spirit) is distilled from their flowers. 

Ganjam ryots are conservative and have introduced few agricultural 
improvements. During the seventeen years ending 1905 they have 
borrowed only Rs. 63,000 under the Land Improvement Loans Act. 
Most of this has been spent in reclaiming waste land, and wells are few 
in number and often only temporary pits. Not a single well has been 
constructed with advances from dovernment in either Berhampur or 

Both bullocks and buffaloes are used for ploughing and other 
agricultural operations. They are bred locally, and are inferior and 
undersized animals, though there is no lack of pasture or fodder, even 
in bad years. 


Of the total area of ryotwari and inam land under cultivation 
378 square miles, or 45 per cent., were irrigated in 1903-4. Of this, 
213 square miles were watered from Oovernmcnt channels, 127 from 
tanks, and only 2 square miles from wells. The chief canals and 
channels are those belonging to the Rushikulya project and to what 
is known as the 'Ganjam minor rivers system.' These irrigated 92,000 
acres and 79,000 acres respectively in 1903-4. The former, which 
is referred to in the article on the Rushikulya river, supplies land 
in the Kerhampur, Aska, and (loomsur taluks, and is still being 
extended ; while the latter, which irrigates part of the Chicacole taluk, 
consists of the channels from tlie two rivers Langulya and Vamsadhara, 
and of a hill stream known as the Garibulagedda. In the three 
Government taluks of Berhampur, Goomsur, and Chicacole there are, 
including the major irrigation works, 2,505 (Government tanks and 302 
river and spring channels. The private works in the same area include 
102 tanks and one river channel. Most of the wells in the District 
are mere shallow, temporary pits dug to supplement tank-irrigation. 
At present 2,493 of these constructions exist in the tliree Government 
taluks. In Goomsur, not even one permanent well is used for irriga- 
tion, but Berhampur and Chicacole contain 1,007 ''^"d 408 respectively. 
The area watered from each of them averages only one acre. In the 
Maliahs, irrigation is entirely from hill streams and springs. The 
slopes of the hills and the valley through which the stream runs are 
levelled into terraces, and the water is led from field to field till the 
bottom of the slope is reached. Springs are diverted in a similar 
manner. These terraces are monuments of hard work and ingenuity, 
and have been constructed wherever there is any sufficient supply 
of water. They are made by the K bonds and Savaras, and in some 
places cover the whole side of a high hill from top to bottom. 

The Forest Act has not been yet introduced into any part of the 
Agency tract except a small corner of Surada. Most of the forests are 
in zamindari land ; and even where they are at the 
disposal of Government the extension of the Act 
is held to be unnecessary and inadvisable, for the reasons that no 
special denudation has taken place in the valleys where the great rivers 
rise, that the best timber is inaccessible and so of no direct commercial 
value, that the introduction of the Act would involve the maintenance 
of a considerable establishment in a deadly climate, and that the 
curtailment of the existing privileges of the hillmen would lead to great 
discontent. Consequently the area in the District which has been con- 
stituted forest under the Act is only about 600 square miles. Of this, 
570 square miles lie in Goomsur and jiractically all the remainder in 
Berhampur. The Goomsur forests are famous as containing the best 
sal (^Sliofca fol'usta) in the Presidency. This timber perliaps ranks 


second in utility to leak, and grows best on tlie alluvial deposits in the 
basins of the Mahanadl and Rushikulya rivers and their tributaries, 
where a light covering of alluvium overlies a gravelly subsoil and dis- 
integrated rock. Small areas of inferior sal are found on the ka/ikat- 
and sandy conglomerates which occur on the plateaux and terraces 
above these basins. The Goomsur forests were much spoilt in former 
days by the shifting cultivation practised by the hill tribes, and have 
also been overworked. Steps are now being taken for their effective 
j:)rotection and improvement. Besides sal, the more valuable timber 
trees found are Pterocarpiis Marsupiiim, Tcrminalia toinc/ilosa, Adiiia 
cordiffl/ia, Soymida febrifnga, Stephegync pa/'vifolia, ebon)', and satin- 
wood. The stock of bamboos and small timber on the outer slopes 
of the Maliahs and on several of the detached hills is almost inex- 
haustible. There is a small teak plantation in one of the Reserves, but 
it is not flourishing. 

In the Berhampur /ali/k the Reserves contain only firewood, 
bamboos, and small timber. In Chicacole they consist of a single 
small patch of scrub. A Government casuarina plantation has been 
made in Agastinaugam, three miles north of Chatrapur. 

There are no mines in Ganjam. Manganese ore has been discovered 
in small quantities near Boyirani in the Atagada za»u>iddrL Mica, 
antimony ore, and corundum are found in parts of the Goomsur fdli/k 
and the Parlakimedi tahs'il, but not of commercial value. Salt is 
manufactured in large quantities in the Government salt-pans along the 
coast, at Humma, Surla, Naupada, and Calingapatam. 

The chief non-agricultural industry of the District is weaving. 

Ordinary cloths are woven in most villages on the plains, and silk 

fabrics are made at Berhampur. The latter are ^ , 

,..,,. 131 Trade and 

dyed, the favourite colours bemg purple and red. communications. 

("hicacole used to be famous for its extremely fine 

muslins, but the better kinds of these are now made only to order. 

In the Maliahs, the Panos weave the coarse cloths which are used by 

the Khonds and Savaras. They are much thicker and narrower than 

those woven in the plains, and are of various colours. This tribe also 

rears the tasar silk-moth, and the silk produced is sent to Berhampur 

and to Sambalpur in Bengal. The Khonds collect the valuable red 

kamela dye, a powder with which the scarlet berries of Mallotus 

philippinensis (the monkey-face tree) are coated, and, in their ignorance 

of its worth, part with it for a few measures of rice or a yard or two 

of cloth to the dealers in the plains, who export it in considerable 

quantities and make large profits. In addition to the ordinary gold 

and silver jewels, quaint brass bangles and other ornaments are made 

and worn by Oriyas in the north of the District. The women of some 

castes wear numbers of these bracelets, to the weight of several [)ounds, 


half-way up their arms. I'ine l^etel-lioxes and curious flexible fish of 
brass and silver are made at Bellugunta near Russellkonda. 

A sugar factory and distillery at Aska supplies country spirit to the 
excise tracts of the District, and makes various other alcoholic liquors. 
There is a tannery at Russellkonda. The Oriental Salt Company has 
a factory at Naupada, where the ordinary marine salt is converted by 
a patented process into a fine white granular variety, which is expected 
to compete favourably with the salt at present imported from Europe. 
In T 903-4, 4,400 tons of crushed and 750 tons of sifted salt were 
treated by the company's special machinery. Sea and river fisheries 
form an important industry. There are 21 fish-curing yards, and their 
out-turn is greater than that of any District except the two on the west 
coast. In 1903-4 nearly 3,000 tons offish were salted in them. 

The main exports of Ganjam are grain, pulses, myrabolams, hides 
and skins, hemp, oilseeds, turmeric, wood, salt, salted fish, and coco- 
nuts ; while the chief imports are rice, piece-goods, twist, glassware, 
metals and metal goods, kerosene oil, spices, and gunny-bags. There 
are three ports in the District, at (tOPalpur, Cai.inoapatam, and 
B.\RUVA. The first two are open to foreign as well as coasting trade. 
The total value of the foreign exports and imports at these during 
1903-4 was ID lakhs and Rs. 9,000 respectively. Myrabolams are 
exported to London and Antwerp, hemp to London, rice to Colombo 
and Galle, and oilseeds and turmeric to Colombo. Matches are 
imported from Christiania and Hamburg, areca-nuts from Penang, 
coco-nut oil from Galle, refined sugar from Colombo, and spirits, wines, 
and many miscellaneous articles from the United Kingdom. 

The total value of the exports and imports carried coastwise to and 
from all three ports during 1903-4 was Rs. 10,87,000 and Rs. 2,60,000 
respectively. The exports go chiefly to Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, 
Negapatam, Cochin, Calicut, Tellicherry, Cannanore, Mangalore, 
Rangoon, and Moulmein ; they consist mainly of coir, grain and pulse, 
hides and skins, oilseeds, railway sleepers, apparel, and turmeric. The 
principal imports come from Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Cuddalore, 
Cochin, and Rangoon ; they are largely hardware and cutlery, metals, 
kerosene oil, haberdashery, and gunny-bags. There is much passenger 
traffic to and from Rangoon at the three ports. 

Of the imports by land, grain is the chief. It comes from Orissa, 
salt being sent there in return, and travels largely by way of the Chilka 
canal, which connects the C'hilka Lake with the Rushikulya river. 
Turmeric is largely exported from the Agency tract, not only to the low 
country within the District, but also to the Central Provinces and 
Orissa. Berhampur, Gopalpur, and Calingapatam are the chief centres 
of general trade. The principal trading castes are Komatis in the 
plains and Sondis in the Maliahs. Most of the internal trade is carried 


on at weekly markets. The most important of these are held at 
Narasannapeta, Battili, Hiramanclalam, and Lakshminarasupeta in the 
plains, and at Rayagada, Chelligodo, Sarangodo, and Tikkaballi in 
the Maliahs. Those in the plains are managed by the local boards, 
and in 1903-4 Rs. 3,960 was collected in the shape of tolls. 

The East Coast section of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway (standard 
gauge) runs through the District from north to south, not far from and 
nearly parallel to the coast. At Naupada a branch runs to the salt 
factory there, and the 2 feet 6 inches line which the Raja of Farlakimedi 
has constructed through his estate meets it at the same place. 

The total length of metalled roads in the plains is 729 miles, and 
of unmetalled roads 12 miles, the whole being maintained from Local 
funds. There are avenues of trees along 650 miles. The chief is the 
trunk road from the Bengal frontier on the north to the borders of 
Vizagapatam on the south. Except the Cloomsur taliik^ the low 
country is well supplied with communications. The Agency tract has 
508 miles of roads, of which only 84 miles are metalled and 221 more 
are practicable for carts. European officials whose duty takes them 
to the Maliahs carry their baggage on elephants, and a certain numlier 
of these animals are allotted to each of them and maintained at 
Government expense. Six chief routes lead to the Maliahs from the 
plains, all of which are passable by loaded elephants and horses. Two 
of these, the Kalingia and I'aptapani ghats^ can be used by carts. A 
third, the Puipani ghat^ is also, though steep, practicable for carts in 
the dry season. In the Goomsur Maliahs a road from Kalingia to the 
Bengal frontier is metalled. Another, known as the Kalipano road, leads 
from Kalingia to Udayagiri, thence to Balliguda, and on to Kalahandi 
in Bengal. An old military road passes from Balliguda to Ramagiri- 
Udayagiri and on to Farlakimedi. This runs through the heart of the 
Agency tract, but owing to a series oi ghats it cannot be used by carts. 

Famine visited the District in 1790-2, in 1 799-1801, in 1S36-9, in 

1865-6, in 1888-9, and in 1896-7. That of 1888-9 affected no other 

area, and is known as the Ganiam famine. The first ^ 

1 11 11-1. r I Famine, 

three were partly due to the disturbed state of the 

country. Except for the cyclonic rain in November, 1888, the seasons 

were similar in the last three. In all of them a partial failure of the 

south-west monsoon was followed by an almost entire failure of 

the north-east monsoon. The highest numbers relieved at any one 

time during the course of each of them were : in 1866, 30,500 on 

gratuitous relief and 1,500 at relief works ; in 1889, 11,632 in kitchens, 

93,561 on other gratuitous relief, and 20,726 at relief works : and in 

1897, 8,897 i" kitchens, 79,473 on other gratuitous relief, and 46,529 

at relief works. Weavers were also relieved on all three occasions. 

The cost of these three famines to Government, including advances 


(if money and the remissions of land revenue granted in consideration 

of the faihire of crops, was 4^, ti, and 14 lakhs respectively. In all 

three, small-pox and cholera caused many deaths ; but the smallpox 

of 1897, which claimed 6,028 persons as its victims in four months, 

was unprecedented in the annals of the District. 

For administrative purposes Ganjam is arranged into five sub- 

, , . . . divisions, of which three, Chicacot.e, Hf.rhampur, 

Admmistration. . ^ - ■ , ^_ ,. „. ... , 

and B.M.i.iouDA, are m charge of Indian Civilians, and 

two, GooMSUR and Chatrapur, of Deputy-Gollectors recruited in India. 

The tdhiks and zaminddri tahslh included in each of these are as 
follows : in Chicacole, (!hicacole, Narasannapeta, I'ekkali, Parlakimedi, 
and the Parlakimedi Agency ; in Berhampur, Berhampur, Ichchapuram, 
Sompeta, and the Sompeta Agency ; in Balliguda, the Balliguda Agency, 
Udayagiri Agency, and Ramagiri Agency : in Goomsur, Goomsur, 
Aska, Surada, and the Surada Agency ; and in Chatrapur, (ianjam and 
Perushottapur. The Balliguda subdivision consists entirely of Agency 
country, and the divisional officer is known as the Special Assistant 
Agent. Chicacole, Berhampur, and Cioomsur are the only taluks in 
the whole of the ordinary tracts which are not zamlndari land. A 
tahsllddr and a stationary sub-magistrate are stationed at the head- 
quarters of each of these, and at Berhampur a town sub-magistrate 
as well. The zaminddri tahs'ih and Agencies are in charge of deputy- 
tahsilddrs. Those at Parlakimedi, .Sompeta, and Surada look after 
both the ordinary and Agency tracts known by these names. The 
Deputy-Collector at Chatrapur exercises magisterial jurisdiction over 
a portion of the Berhampur tdhik. The head-quarters of the Collector, 
the Superintendent of police, the District Forest officer, and the District 
Registrar are at Chatrapur, while the District Judge, the Executive 
Engineer, and the District Medical and Sanitary officer live at Berham- 
pur. Chatrapur has a Civil Surgeon ; and there are two Assistant 
Superintendents of police in the District, one at Parlakimedi and the 
other at Russellkonda. 

The District Judge and four District Munsifs dispose of the civil 
suits in the plains ; but cases arising in the Maliahs, where, as already 
explained, the whole of the ordinary law is not in force, are dealt with 
by the Collector in virtue of his extraordinary powers as Agent to the 
Governor, by the three divisional officers in their capacity as Assistant 
Agents, and by six deputy-/a//.v/Z'/(7;-j- who exercise the powers of a 
District Munsif in the Maliah tracts within their jurisdiction. Litigation 
is extremely rare in these backward hill tracts. In an average year less 
than one in 3,000 of their population bring any kind of suit, whereas in 
the Presidency as a whole the corresponding figure is one in 115. The 
hill people often settle their little differences by primitive methods of 
their own. They still resort to trial by ordeal : the parties each nominate 


a representative, who endeavours to stay under water as lonL( as possible, 
and the verdict goes to the side whose champion is victorious. 

The chief court of criminal justice in the plains is that of the Sessions 
Judge, and, in the Agency tract, that of the Agent to the Governor. 
The senior of the three Assistant Agents is an Additional Sessions 
Judge for the latter, and sessions cases may be transferred to him by 
the Agent for disposal. Serious crime is rare in these tracts, and petty 
oflences are usually dealt with by the heads of villages without resort 
to the police or the courts of law. The Khonds have a reputation for 
honesty and truthfulness, but the Panos are notorious thieves. In the 
District, as a whole, dacoities and robberies are rare, l)ut house- 
breaking and cattle-theft are frequent and are often committed by pro- 
fessional thieves. The number of murders or cases of culpable homicide 
reported averages fifteen a year; they are due in a majority of cases to 
jealousy or other personal motives. 

Little is known of the revenue history of the District in the Hindu 
and Muhamniadan periods. The hill country seems, from time im- 
memorial, to have been parcelled out among military chieftains, who 
held hereditary posts and appropriated the entire revenues, subject to 
the condition of performing military service for their suzerains when 
called upon. The plains were held by petty non-military chiefs, some 
of whom represented old families, while others were little more than 
government officers entrusted with the collection of the revenue of 
various tracts. Under the Hindu governments the people seem to 
have paid an assessment of half the gross produce in kind ; but after 
the Muhammadans conquered the country the zaminddrs employed by 
them imposed fixed rates on the land (to which extra assessments 
were afterwards added), by which the ryots' share of the rice crops, 
the chief cultivation of the country, was nominally reduced to 
one-third, but actually to one-fifth of the gross produce ; in the case 
of ' dry ' grains the shares of the ryot and the government were equal. 
This division of produce seems to have continued till the introduction 
in 1 81 7 of the n'fi'/rw?;-/ settlement. 

When the English assumed charge of the District in 1766, they found 
that the cultivation was divided into r^amlJidch'tdinil haveli (or household) 
land. At first the Company rented out both these classes of land. On 
the receipt of the orders of Government directing the introduction of 
a permanent settlement into the Presidency, a Special Commissioner 
was appointed to examine the matter, and by 1804 the whole District 
was permanently assessed. The zaimnddris were confirmed to their 
holders in perpetuity, and the haveli lands were parcelled out into small 
estates and sold bv auction to the highest bidder. Some of the zanunddrs 
and other proprietors subsequently fell into arrears ; and between 1809 
and 1850 the estates of these one after the other eventually reverted 


to C"iovernmcnt, and now form the Government tahihs of rhiracole, 
Berhampiir, and Ooonisur. 

• The rvotivari system was first intro(Uiced in the Chicacole tCxliik in 
1817. The fields, including both arable and waste land, were measured, 
classified, and assessed ; but there were great anomalies in the assess- 
ment, and it was not until 1878 that revenue administration reached 
the stage at which it now stands. 

A regular survey of all the Government taluks was begun in 1866 
and a systematic settlement in 1875. The work was completed in 1884, 
and resulted in an increase in the three taluks of 16 per cent, in area 
over that shown in the old revenue accounts, and of 10 per cent, (or 
Rs. 60,000) in revenue. At present the average assessment per acre on 
'dry' land is R. 0-15-8 (maximum Rs. ' 4, minimum 4 annas), and 
on 'wet' land Rs. 3-12-ir (maximum Rs. 5-8, minimum Rs. 1-4). 

The revenue from land and the total revenue in recent years are 
given below, in thousands of rupees : — 



1900- 1. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 






The Local Boards Act V of 1884 was not in force in the Agency 
tract till 1906, when 122 villages in the country below the Parlakimedi 
Hills were brought under that enactment. The local affairs of the 
plains, outside the three municipalities of Chicacole, Parlakimedi, 
and Berhampur, are managed by the District board and the three 
idluk boards of Chicacole, Berhampur, and Goomsur, the areas under 
which correspond with the three administrative subdivisions of the same 
names, excluding the Agency tracts in them and including, in the case 
of the Berhampur taluk board, the jurisdiction of the Deputy-Collector 
at Chatrapur. The total expenditure of these boards in 1903-4 was 
about 4 lakhs, more than half of which was devoted to roads and 
buildings. The chief source of their income is, as usual, the land cess. 
In addition, fifteen Unions are managed by bodies called patuhayats 
established under the Local Boards Act. 

The police force of the District is controlled by a Superintendent 
and the two Assistants already mentioned. There are 15 police 
inspectors and 63 police stations. Bodies of reserve police are main- 
tained at Chatrapur and at Balliguda in the Agency tract, numbering 
ro6 and 94 respectively, each in charge of an inspector. These are 
picked men, better armed than the rest of the force, and are capable 
of dealing with any disturbances in the Agencies. The ordinary force 
includes 888 head constables and constables, and 809 rural police. 
In addition to the District jail at Berhampur there is a smaller prison 


at Russellkonda, under the charge of the divisional officer, which was 
established to save convicts belonging to the hill tracts from the fever 
which attacks them if they are brought down to the coast; and 13 
subsidiary jails which, taken together, can contain 271 prisoners. 

In the literacy of its population, the plains portion of the District 
stood seventeenth among the twenty-two Districts of the Presidency at 
the Census of 1901, only 4-4 per cent. (8-9 males and 
0-4 females) being able to read and write. In know- 
ledge of English the Telugus surpass the Oriyas, but the Oriyas are 
superior in vernacular education. The Agency tract is educationally 
the most backward area in the whole Presidency, only seven persons in 
1,000 being able to read and write. Only 56 females in the whole 
tract were returned as literate at the Census of 1901, and only 26 
people, including all the officials, as knowing English. Special efforts 
are being made to improve this state of things. In 1903-4 there were 
165 schools in the Agency tract, all but one of which were of the 
primary grade. Telugu is taught in one of these (in the Parlakimedi 
JMaliahs) and Oriya in all the others. Almost all the teachers are 
Oriyas, and the pupils are largely Khonds, Savaras, Panos, and Oriyas. 
In the District as a whole the number of pupils under instruction in 
1880-1 was 13,067; in 1890-1, 37,784; in 1900-1, 38,679; and in 
1903-4, 40,802. On March 31, 1904, the District contained 1,469 
public educational institutions of all kinds. Of these, 1,449 were primary 
schools, 14 were secondary, and 4 training schools. There were two 
second-grade colleges, at Parlakimedi and Berhampur, and 1 1 1 private 
schools. Of the public^ institutions, 96 were managed by the Educa- 
tional department, 100 by Local boards or municipalities, 951 were 
aided, and 322 unaided. They had 2,668 girl pupils, but all except 
4 of these were in primary classes. The District is the most backward 
in the Presidency in female education, only 1-7 per cent, of the girls of 
school-going age being under instruction. Among Musalmans, who 
form a smaller proportion of the population than anywhere else in the 
Presidency, the i)ercentages were 76-4 fur males and 19-4 for females. 
About 1,700 Panchama pupils were under instruction on March 31, 
1904. Most of these were in 51 schools specially maintained for them. 
The total expenditure on education in- 1903-4 was Rs. 1,89,000, of 
which Rs. 52,700 was derived from fees. Of the total, 68 per cent, was 
allotted to primary schools. 

Ganjam possesses 7 hospitals and 16 dispensaries, besides 3 police 
hospitals at Chatrapur, Aska, and Russellkonda, with accommodation 
for no in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 229,186, 
of whom 1,266 were in-patients, and 4,098 operations were performed. 
The ejcpenditure was Rs. 50,000, four-fifths of which was met from 
Local and municipal funds. The Collector and the Special Assistant 

15S C.l.y/A}/ DISTRICT 

Agent take a Hospital Assistant with them on llicit" periodiral tours in 
the Ageney tract, ami thus bring nieilical aid within reach of the hill 

During 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 32 
per 1,000, compared with an average for the Presidency of 30. There 
has been a gradual improvement in the matter in recent years. Vaccina- 
tion is compulsory only in the three municipalities. The number of 
persons successfully operated on in the hill tracts, where there is a 
special establishment for the purpose, was 43 per 1,000 of the 

[For further information regarding Ganjam see the District MiDiual 
by T. J. Maltby (1882), S. C. Macpherson's Report on the Khoiids 
(Calcutta, 1842), and the printed reports of Mr. Russell's mission and 
of the Meriah Agents from 1836 to i86r.] 

Ganjam Tahsil. — Zamlnddri tahsll in the north-east of Ganjam 
District, Madras, consisting of the Kallikota, Biridi, Humma, and 
Paluru estates, lying between 19° 23' and 19° 49' N. and 84° 56' 
and 85"^ 12' E., adjoining the Chilka Lake and the Bay of Bengal, 
with an area of 30S scjuare miles. The taJisil is a picturesque tract, 
sloping gradually to the sea, and dotted with low hills which cause 
an unusually cool climate. The population in 1901 was 95,882, 
compared with 88,714 in 1891. They live in 324 villages. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 48,500. The 
deputy-/rt/;j7MF/' in charge resides at Chatrapur outside the tahsil. 
The four estates of which it is made up are heavily involved in debt. 

Ganjam Town. Former head-quarters of the District in Madras 
to which it gives its name, situated in 19° 23' N. and 85° 5' E., in the 
Berhampur taluk, at the mouth of the Rushikulya river, on the trunk 
road and on the East Coast Railway. Population (1901), 4,397. 
The town itself and the remains of the old fort, built in 1768 as 
a defence against the Marathas at Cuttack, stand on rising ground ; 
but to the north the country is low and malarious. Ganjam was 
formerly a seat of considerable trade, and its factory and fort were 
presided over by a Chief and Council and protected by a garrison. 
But since the removal of the head-quarters of the District to Berham- 
pur in 1815 it has declined in importance, and the handsome buildings 
which it once contained have either fallen into ruins or been pulled 
down. The removal was occasioned by an epidemic of fever which 
carried off a large proportion of the inhabitants, both European and 
native. Ganjam was once a port, but this was closed in 1887 owing 
to the decay in its trade. It was reopened in 1893 for landing the 
material required for the railway which was then being built, but was 
closed again in 1897. There is no possibility of its ever being used 
for private trading, owing to the heavy surf outside and the constant 


shifting of the sandbanks round about. The chief land trad^:; consists 
in the export of rice to Orissa. 

Gantak. — Capital of Sikkini State, Bengal. See Gangtok. 

Gantarawadi.— One of the Karenni States, Burma. 

Ganutia. A'illage in the Ranipur Hat subdivision of Birbhiini 
District, ]5engal, situated in 23'^ 52' N. and 87*^ 50' E., on the north 
bank of the Mor river. Topulation (1901), 407. Ganutia is the 
centre of the silk industry of Birbhum. A factory was established here 
in 17S6 by a Mr. Frushard. After various vicissitudes, which are 
related in Hunter's Annals of Rural Bengal, this gentleman succeeded 
in converting the forest and waste land around Ganutia into thriving 
and prosperous villages, and founded factories throughout the north- 
east of Birbhum. His head factory, which is the most imposing 
edifice in the District, is now the property of the Bengal Silk Com- 
pany. The industry has seriously declined of late years and now 
employs only about 500 persons. 

Garai. — The name given to the upper reaches of the MadhumatI 
river in Bengal and Eastern Bengal, forming one of the ])rincipal 
channels by which the waters of the (ianges are carried to the sea, 
especially during the monsoon when the comparatively high level o' 
the Brahmai'UTKA prevents an exit by the more eastern channels. At 
a former period, while the Cianges was still working its way eastwards, 
the Garai pnjbably formed its main eastern outlet, and during the 
nineteenth century there .seemed a likelihood of the river reverting to 
this channel. The Garai, which leaves the Ganges near Kushtia in 
Nadia District (23" 55' N. and 89° 9' E.), flows in a southerly direction 
from Ganeshpur to Haripur, about 32 miles ; it is 420 yards wide 
in the rains, and navigable by steamers all the year round. It is 
s[)anned by a fine railway bridge of the Eastern Bengal State Railway. 

[For an account of the history of this river see Fergusson's ' Some 
Recent Changes in the Delta of the Ganges,' Journal of the Geo- 
graphical Society, vol. xviii, pj). 321 seq., and Hunter's Statistical 
Account of Faridpur, pp. 265 seq.] 

Garamur. — Village in Sibsagar District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, 
situated in 2G" 59' N. and 94° 9' E., in the Majuli Island. It is the 
site of one of the three colleges or sattras, which are held in highest 
estimation by the Assamese. The Gosains or high priests of these 
sattras exercise great influence over the people, but they are loyal 
supporters of the Government and display an enlightened and pro- 
gressive spirit. The sattra is chiefly supported by the offerings of its 
numerous disciples. It is said to have received a grant of nearly 
40,000 acres of revenue-free land from the Ahom Rajas ; but the 
proofs of title were destroyed by the Burmans, and the grants lapsed, 
as the Gosain, who was living at Brindaban, took no steps to support 


his claims when ihey were under examination by Govcnmient. A 
grant of 331 acres of revenue-free land has, however, recently l)een 
sanctioned by the Government of India. 

Garautha. — North-eastern tahsll of jhansi District, United Pro- 
vinces, conterminous with the pargaiia of the same name, lying 
between 25° 23' and 25° 49' N. and 79" 1' and 79° 25' E., with an 
area of 466 square miles. l^opulation fell from 88,926 in 1891 to 
66,963 in 1901, the rate of decrease being the highest in the District. 
The density of population, 144 persons per square mile, is below the 
District average. There are 153 villages, but no town. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,25,000, and for cesses Rs. 24,000. 
On the north-west and north the Betwa forms the boundary, while the 
Dhasan flows on the eastern frontier to join it. The soil is chiefly 
mar or black soil, becoming very poor near the ravines which scar this 
tract in every direction. For the Igist thirty years the growth of kdns 
{Saccharum spoittaneimi) has thrown a large area out of cultivation. 
In 1903-4 the cultivated area was 194 square miles, but there was 
practically no irrigation. 

Garbyang. — Station in Almora District, United Provinces, on the 
trade route from Tanakpur to Tibet, situated in 30° 8' N. and 
80° 52' E., near the junction of the Kuthi Yankti and Kalapani, which 
form the Kali or Sarda river. The road divides at this place, one 
branch going to the Lipu Lekh pass, and another to the Lampiya 
Dhura and Mangsha Dhura passes. A peshkdr is posted here to 
watch the interests of traders and pilgrims, and there is a branch of 
the American Methodist Mission. A small school has 36 pupils. 

Garden Reach. — Town in the District of the Twenty -four Parganas, 
Bengal, situated in 22° i2> N. and 88° 19' E., immediately below 
Calcutta, of which it forms a suburb, on the east bank of the Hooghly 
river. The suburb is divided for administrative purposes into two 
portions, the Nemuckmahal Ghat road dividing the 'Added Area' 
of Calcutta on the east from the Garden Reach municipality on the 
west. The population of the latter in 1901 was 28,211. Hindus 
number 12,181, Musalmans 15,779, and Christians 187. The site of 
the Allgarh fort, taken by Clive in December, 1756, during the 
operations for the recapture of Calcutta, may still be seen. The 
suburb was formerly a favourite European quarter, and contains many 
tine houses built between 1768 and 1780. The residence of the late 
ex king of Oudh was fixed here, and many of his descendants still 
inhabit the place. Garden Reach is now an important industrial 
suburb of Calcutta, containing jute-mills, a cotton-mill, and dockyards. 
Until 1897 the Garden Reach municipality formed part of the South 
Suburban municipality, but was separated from it in that year. The 
income during the seven \ears ending 1903-4 averaged Rs. 49,000, 


and the expenditure Rs. 46,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 56,400, including Rs. 25,000 derived from a tax on houses and 
lands, Rs. 14,000 from a conservancy rate, and Rs. 11,000 from a 
water rate. The expenditure was Rs. 55,700. The municipality is 
now supplied with filtered water from the Calcutta mains. 

Gargaon.- Old xA.hom capital in Sibsagar District, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. See Nazira. 

Garha. — Petty State in the Central India Agency, under the 
Resident at Cwalior, with an area of about 44 square miles, and 
a population (1901) of 9,481. It was originally included in the 
Raghugarh State ; but family feuds necessitated the grant of a sepa- 
rate yVro-/> to the various members of the KhTchi family, and in 1843 
Bijai Singh obtained a sanad for fifty-two villages, with a revenue esti- 
mated at Rs. 15,000. The State is much cut up by small hills; but 
the soil in the valleys is fertile and bears good crops, including poppy, 
which is a valuable asset, the opium being exported to Ujjain. The 
chief is a Khlchi Chauhan Rajput of the Raghugarh family, and bears 
the title of Raja. The present holder, named Dhlrat Singh, succeeded 
in 1 90 1. As he is a minor, the State is managed by a kdmdar under 
the direct supervision of the Resident. The total revenue is Rs. 22,000, 
and the expenditure on administration Rs. 13,000. The administrative 
head-quarters are at jamner (population, 901), where a dispensary and 
a school are situated. The chief place is Garha, situated on the eastern 
scarp of the Malwa plateau in 25° 2' N. and 78° 3' E. It also has 
a school and a dispensary. 

Garhakota. — Town in the Rehli tahs'il of Saugor District, Central 
Provinces, situated in 23° 46' N. and 79° 9' E., at the junction of the 
Ciadherl and Sonar rivers, 28 miles from Saugor on the Damoh road. 
Population (1901), 8,508. In the fork of the Sonar and Gadheri rivers 
stands an old fort, which must formerly have been of great strength. It 
was held by the rebels and stormed by Sir Hugh Rose in 1858. Two 
miles from the town in the forest is a high tower which formed part of 
the summer palace of a Bundela king, and is said to have been 
constructed in order that both Saugor and Damoh might be visible 
from its summit. The municipality of Garhakota has recently been 
abolished, but a town fund is raised for sanitary purposes. Garhakota 
is now best known as the site of an important cattle fair held annually 
in the month of February. It contains vernacular middle and girls' 
schools, and a dispensary. 

Garhchiroli. — 7a/^j7/ of Chanda District, Central Provinces, con- 
stituted in 1905. It was formed by taking the zainhiddri estates (;f 
Bramhapurl, and those of Chanda with the exception of Ahiri, together 
with 1,457 square miles of the khdha or land held in ordinary pro- 
prietary right, from the east of the Chanda and Bramhapurl tahslls. 

VOL. XII. .\i 


The area of the tci/is~il\^ 3, 708 square miles, and the population of this 
area in 1901 was 155,214, compared with 207,728 in 1891. The 
density is 42 persons per square mile. 'I'hc tahsU contains 1,098 
inhabited villages. Its head-quarters are at Garhchiroli, a village of 
2,077 inhabitants, 51 miles from Chanda town by road. The iahsil 
includes 19 zam'indari estates, lying to the east and south of the 
AVainganga river, with an area of 2,251 square miles and a population 
of 82,221 persons. Most of this area is hilly and thickly forested, 
the area of forest in the zamhiddris being 900 square miles. Outside 
the zam'indari estates there are 849 square miles of Government forest. 
The land revenue demand in 1903-4 for the area now constituting the 
faAsi/ wELS approximately Rs. 41,000. 

Garhdi'wala. — Town in the District and talisll of Hoshiarpur, 
Punjab, situated in 31° 45' N. and 75° 46' E., 17 miles from Hoshiar- 
pur. Population (1901), 3,652. The chief trade is in sugar. The 
municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 2,300, and the expenditure Rs. 2,200. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,900, chiefly derived from octroi ; and the 
expenditure was Rs, 2,600. It maintains a Government dispensary. 

Garhi. — Thakurdi in the BhopXwar Agency, Central India. 

Garhi Ikhtiar Khan. — Town in the Khanpur /a//.?// of Bahawalpur 
State, Punjab, situated in 28° 40' N. and 70° 39' E., 84 miles south- 
west of Bahawalpur town. Population (1901), 4,939. Founded by 
a governor of the Kalhora rulers of Sind, it was originally named Garhi 
Shadi Khan after him, but in 1753 a Daudputra chief wrested it from 
the Kalhoras. In 1806 Navvab Bahawal Khan II of Bahawalpur 
annexed it, and founded Khanpur in its vicinity. It has a considerable 
trade in dates, large groves of palm-trees surrounding the town, and 
formerly had a great reputation for the manufacture of arms. It is 
administered as a municipality, with an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 1,150, 
chiefly from octroi. 

Garhi Yasin. — Town in the Naushahro Abro tdluka of Sukkur 
District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 27° 54' N. and 68° ^t^' E. Popula- 
tion (1901), 6,554. There is a considerable trade in oilseeds. The 
municipality, established in 1870, had an average income during the 
decade ending 1901 of Rs. 12,100. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 25,000. The town contains a dispensary and two schools with 
171 pupils. 

Garhmuktesar.— Town in the Hapur iahsll of Meerut District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28°47'N. and 78° 6' E., near the Ganges, 
on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway and the Delhi-Moradabad road. 
Population (1901), 7,616. The place is .said to have been part of 
Hastinapur, the great city of the Kauravas ; but the site now pointed 
out as Hastinapur is 25 miles away. It contains an ancient fort, wliich 



was repaired by a Maratha leader in the eighteenth century. The name 
is derived from the great temple of Mukteswara Mahadeo, dedicated to 
the goddess Ganga, which consists of four principal shrines, two on the 
Ganges cliff and two below it. Close by is a sacred well whose waters 
are said to cleanse from sin, surrounded l)y eighty satl pillars. The 
principal festival is held at the full moon of Kartik, when about 200,000 
pilgrims collect, the numbers being much larger at intervals of six, 
twelve, and forty years. The cost of the fair is met from a tax on carts 
and cattle, and the rent of shops. Horses were formerly exhibited, but 
the numbers are decreasing. On the other hand, mules are now 
brought in increasing numbers. The town also contains a mosque 
built by Ghiyas-ud-din Balban in 1283, and a branch of the American 
Methodist Mission. Garhmuktesar is administered under Act XX of 
1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,000. There is little trade except 
in timber and bamboos, which are rafted do^-n the river from the Dun 
and Garhwal. 

Garhshankar Tahsil. -7I?/«/7 of Hoshiarpur District, Punjab, 
lying between 30° 59' and 31° 31' N. and 75"^ 51' and 76' 31' E., with 
an area of 509 square miles. The population in 1901 was 261,468, 
compared with 264,141 in 1891. Garhshankar Town (population, 
5,803) is the head-quarters. It also contains 472 villages, of which 
Jaijon is of some historical interest. The land revenue and cesses 
amounted in 1903-4 to 4-4 lakhs. The physical features of the tahsil 
are similar to those of Hoshiarpur, except that the hills are steeper and 
torrent-beds less frequent. 'I'he Sutlej forms the southern boundary. 

Garhshankar Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same 
name in Hoshiarpur District, Punjab, situated in 31° 13' N. and 76° 9' E. 
Population (1901), 5,803. A fort built on the site of the present town 
is said to have been taken by Mahmud of Ghazni, and subsequently 
given by Muhammad of Ghor to the sons of Raja Man Singh of 
Jaipur. Its inhabitants are Rajputs, who expelled the Mahtons about 
A.D. 1175. It possesses a considerable trade in sugar and tobacco. 
The municipality, founded in 1882, was abolished in 1891. The town 
has a vernacular middle school and a Government dispensary. 

Garhwal District.— Western District of the Kumaun Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 29° 26' and 31° 5' N. and 78" 12' and 
80° 6" E., with an area of 5,629 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Tibet ; on the south-east by Almora and Naini Tal ; on the 
south-west by Bijnor ; and on the north-west by the State of Tehrl. 
The District extends from the submontane plain across 
the central axis of the Himalayas to the watershed Physical 

between the drainage systems of the Sutlej and the 
Ganges. It consists for the most part of rugged mountain ranges, which 
appear to be tossed about in the most intricate confusion. They can, 

M 2 


however, be ultinuitcly traced to the great watershed, and by their 
general direction from north-east to south-west they determine the 
course and direction of the drainage channels. The greater part of 
the District is included in the basin of the Ganges, the principal 
tributary of which is the Alaknanda. This stream is formed by the 
junction of the Bishanganga with the Dhauliganga, both rising near the 
watershed and flowing south-west, their upper courses being divided 
from that of the Mandakinl, which joins the Alaknanda at Rudraprayag, 
by a massive spur of mountains. At Devaprayag, on the border of 
Tehrl State, the Alaknanda meets the Bhaglrathi, their valleys being 
separated by another lofty range. The combined stream now assumes 
the name of the Ganges, and from the point of junction separates 
Garhwal from Tehri and subsequently from Dehra Dun. The great 
central axis of the Himalayas, lying about 30 miles south of the water- 
shed, includes two ranges of lofty snow-clad hills on either side of 
the Alaknanda. From the eastern range, which culminates in the giant 
peak of Nanda, a series of spurs divides the valleys of the Birehl, 
Mandakinl, and I'indar, all tributaries of the Alaknanda, from each 
other. Farther south the Dudatoli range forms the boundary between 
the Ganges basin and the Ramganga, which drains the south-east of 
the District. The principal peaks are : Trisul, 23,382 feet ; Dunagiri, 
23,181 feet; Kamet, 25,413 feet; Badrinath, 23,210 feet; and Kedar- 
nath, 22,853 feet. The rivers flow in narrow valleys which may rather 
be described as gorges or ravines, and in their lower courses some of 
them are used for rafting timber. There are a few small lakes ; but 
the GoHNA Lake is the only one of importance. A narrow strip of 
Bhabar or waterless forest land, some 2 or 3 miles in breadth, inter- 
vening between the southern base of the hills and the alluvial lowlands 
of Rohilkhand, forms the only level portion of the District. 

On the south the narrow sub-Himalayan zone displays a great 
sequence of fresh-water deposits resembling the geological formation 
of the SiWALiKS. The outer Himalayan zone and central axi.^ include 
enormous tracts of highland country and snowy peaks, composed in 
their southern half of slates, massive limestones sometimes succeeded 
by bands of mesozoic (?) limestone, and Nummulitic shales, and in their 
more northern portion of schistose slates, quartz-schists, and basic 
lava-flows. The schistose slates pass into mica-schists, with isolated 
patches of gneissose granites or massive bands, as along the central 
axis. To the north of the central axis, the Tibetan watershed, in the 
neighbourhood of the Niti pass, introduces an entirely new and vast 
sequence of marine strata from Silurian to Cretaceous, including a 
fine development of Trias. 

The Bhabar and the hills immediately above it are covered with 
a dense forest growth, the principal tree being sal {Shorea robusta). 


From about 4,000 to 6,000 feet the place of sal is taken by cJiir {Fimis 
lo/igifolia), which then yields to the I'dfiJ oak {Quercus incana) and the 
tree rhododendron. Above 8,000 another oak, fi7o)iJ {Qi/crciis dilatata), 
is found, and above 10,000 feet the chief trees are various firs, yew, 
and cypress. The birch grows up to 12,000 feet, but beyond this limit 
lies a vast expanse of grass, variegated in the summer by rich flowers 
of Alpine species. 

Elephants are found in the Bhabar, and tigers in the same locality 
and in the lower hills. Leopards are common in all parts of the 
District. Three kinds of bear are known, and other beasts of prey 
include the wolf, jackal, and wild dog. Sdmhar or jaraii and i^iiral 
are also found. The District is rich in bird life, and the rivers contain 
fish, including mahseer. 

The great variations in altitude cause a corresponding diversity in 
the climate of different parts of the District. In the Bhabar conditions 
resemble those of the adjacent submontane Districts. Heat is excessive 
in the river valleys from March to October, while the temperature falls 
very low in the winter. In ()i)en situations the climate is more equable. 

The maximum rainfall occurs at the outer edge of the Himalayas, 
and in the interior near the foot of the snows. In these localities the 
annual amount is about 100 inches. Where there are no high moun- 
tains the precipitation is much less, and at Srinagar only 37 inches are 
received, though in places of the same altitude situated near lofty 
ranges the flill is as much as 50 inches. The snow-line is at about 
18,000 feet in the summer, but in the winter snow falls as low as 4,000 
feet in the north of the District and 5,000 feet in the south. 

The early historv of Garhwal is extremely obscure. Part (jf it was 

probably included in the kingdom of Brahmapura referred to by the 

Chinese traveller of the seventh century. The earliest 

r y ■ ■, 1 • , ,- 1 T^ - - History, 

dynasty of which records exist was that ot the katyuns. 

According to tradition, they had their origin at JoshTmath in the nortli 

of the District, and thence spread to the south-east and into Almora. 

The country was subsequently divided among a series of petty chiefs. 

Local tradition states that a Raja, named Ajaya Pala, reduced the petty 

chiefs about the middle or close of the fourteenth century and settled 

at Dewalgarh ; but a successor, named Mahipat Shah, who lived early 

in the seventeenth century and founded Srinagar, was possibly the first 

of the line to establish real independence. The Garhwal Rajas first 

came into conflict with their neighbours, the Chands of Almora, about 

1581, when Rudra Chand attempted, but without success, to invade 

Garhwal. Subsequent attempts were also repulsed. In 1654 Shah 

Jahan dispatched an expedition to coerce Raja PirthI Shah, which 

ended in the separation of Dehra Dun from Garhwal. The same Raja, 

a few years later, robbed the unfortunate refugee, Sulaiman Shikoh, 



son of Dara Shikoli, and delivered him up to Auiang/.cl). Towards 
the close of the seventeenth century the Chand Rajas again attempted 
to take Garhwnl, and Jagat Chand (1708-20) drove the Raja from 
Srinagar, which was formally bestowed on a Brahman. PradTp Shah 
(1717-72), however, recovered Garhwal, and held the Dun till, in 1757, 
Najib Khan, the Rohilla, established his authority there. In 1779 
].alat Shah of Garhwal defeated the usurper who was ruling in Kumaun, 
and allowed his son, Parduman Shah, to become Raja of that territory. 
A few years later, on the death of his brother, Parduman Shah held 
both Garhwal and Kumaun for a year ; but he then preferred the more 
certain tenure of his own dominions to the intrigues of Almora, and 
retired to Srinagar. The Gurkhas conquered Almora early in 1790 
and made an attempt on Garhwal, but withdrew owing to trouble with 
the Chinese in Tibet. Internal dissensions prevented another advance 
for some years ; but in 1803 the Gurkhas overran Garhwal and also 
look Dehra Dun. Parduman Shah fled to the plains and collected 
a force, but perished near Dehra with most of his Garhwal 1 retainers in 
1804. The Gurkha rule was severe ; and when the British conquered 
Kumaun in 181 5, in consequence of aggressions by the Gurkhas, the 
change was hailed with delight by the hill-men. The whole Division 
was administered directly by a Commissioner; but in 1837 Garhwal 
became a separate subdivision under an Assistant Commissioner, and 
in 1 89 1 was constituted a District. 

The District contains a number of temples held sacred by the 
Hindus of all parts of India. Among these may be mentioned the 
shrines of Badrinath, Joshimath, Kedarnath, and Pandukeshwar. 
At Gopeshwar an iron trident 10 feet high bears an inscription of 
the twelfth century, recording the victories of Anekamalla, possibly 
a ruler of Nepal. Many copperplates are preserved in temples or by 
individuals, which are valuable for their historic interest. 

Garhwal contains 3 towns and 3,600 villages. Population is increas- 
ing steadily. The numbers at the last four enumerations were as 
follows : (1872) 310,288, (1881) 345,629, (1891) 
407.818, and (1901) 429,900. The whole District 
forms a single /ahstl, sometimes called Paurl from its head-quarters. 
The towns are the cantonment of Lansdowne, Srinagar, and 
Kotdwara. Pauri, the District head-quarters, is a mere village. The 
following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 


Area in 

Nuinbi r of 

Popula- Percpiitago of 

T, . ,• tion per variation in popu- 

Population. , ^^,^.1^,, ,^^^.,,,^ ,,^, J^^;; 

1 mile. 1891 and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able 

to read and 







429,900 76 . + 5.4 



Nearly 99 per cent, of the total are Hindus, and Musalmans nunilier 
only 4,400. The density of population is low, as usual in Himalayan 
tracts. About 97 per cent, of the people speak the Garhwali dialect of 
Central Paharl. 

More than 97 per cent, of the total Hindu population are included 
in three castes: Rajputs or Kshattriyas (245,000), Brahmans (101,000), 
and Donis (68,000). The two former are subdivided into the descen- 
dants of settlers from the plains, and members of the great Khas tribe 
who are regarded as autochthonous. The Doms are labourers and 
artisans. Garhwalis and Kumaunis still preserve a certain degree of 
antagonism towards each other. The District is essentially agricultural, 
and agriculture supports 89 per cent, of the total. Two battalions of 
the Indian army are recruited entirely in (larhwal. 

There were 588 native Christians in 1901, of whom 536 were 
Methodists. 'I'he American Methodist Mission was founded in 1859 
and has a number of stations in the District. 

The most striking feature of the cultivated area is its scattered 

nature. The richest land lies in the river valleys where these widen 

out, and in places the rivers have left a series of . , 

,,, , .... r ^ , Agriculture. 

terraces. Elsewhere cultivation is conhned to those 

parts of the hill-side which are the least steep, and even here terracing 

is required, each field being protected by an outer wall of stones. 

There is also some temporary cultivation, called kafil, in which the 

land is not terraced. The shrubs and bushes are cut and burnt, and 

the land is dug with a hoe. After cropping it remains fallow for 

a number of years. In the extreme north crops are sown in the spring 

and reaped in the autumn ; but in the greater part of the District two 

crops are grown, ripening in the spring and in the autumn, as in the 

plains. The Bhabar or submontane tract resembles the plains, but 

cultivation here entirely depends on irrigation. 

The tenures are those of the Kumaun Division. Detailed agricultural 
statistics are not maintained, but the total cultivated area in 1903-4 
was 410 square miles. The principal food-crops are rice, maruCx 
{E/eiisific coracana\ jhangord {Oplismeniis frumentaceus), wheat, and 
barley. The District also produces small millets, amaranth, sesamum, 
peas, pulses, pepper, ginger, turmeric, and mustard. Rice grows up to 
about 5,000 feet, :\x\(\j7ia>ii:^ofd and marud to about 6,000. Above that 
altitude amaranth is the chief autumn crop. Only one crop can be 
grown annually above 8,000 feet, and here phdpar or buckwheat 
{Fagopynim tatariaiiii) is largely cultivated. Wheat grows up to 
10,000 feet, and barley and mustard up to 11,000 feet. In the 
Bhabar, maize, tobacco, and cotton are also cultivated. 

Between 1864 and 1896 the cultivated area increased by about 50 
pe? cent., and the rise in population is causing a further increase, 


Apcirl from the fuel tliat the area under the plough is rising, llic 
cultivated land is also steadily improving. I'hc soil on the hill-sides 
is usually very thin ; and when fresh land is broken up, only a small 
excavation can be made in the first year. The soil is gradually 
improved by the weathering of rock and the annual cultivation, and 
the fields become broader and higher, the outer walls being gradually 
raised. There haA-e, however, been no improvements in agricultural 
methods, and no new staples have been introduced. Advances from 
Government are taken only in adverse .seasons, and 2\ lakhs was 
advanced in 1890-1 and 1892-3. 

About two per cent, of the cultivated area is irrigated. In the hills 
irrigation is usually supplied by small channels conducted from rivers 
along the hill-sides to the fields. Only the smaller streams are used for 
this purpose, and the supply is effected entirely by gravitation, no 
artificial means of lifting being employed. Cultivation in the Bhabar is 
entirely dependent on irrigation, which is supplied by small canals. 

The outer ranges of hills are covered with forests which have been 
formally ' reserved ' and are administered by officers of the Forest 
department. Their area is 579 square miles. Bam- 
boos and sal are the chief products, and firewood and 
grass are also extracted. The hills near Lansdowne are covered with 
pines and oak. In addition to these forests, the whole of the waste 
land has been declared ' District-protected ' forest in charge of the 
Deputy-Commissioner, and simple regulations for conserving the forests 
have been framed, with beneficial results. The ' reserved ' forests 
belong to the Ganges and Garhwal Forest divisions, and bring in 
a revenue of about 1-5 lakhs annually, while the District forests yield 
about Rs. 20,000. 

Copper and iron were formerly worked to some extent, but only for 
local use, and little is extracted now. Minute quantities of gold are 
found in some of the rivers. Lead, arsenic, lignite, graphite, sulphur, 
gypsum, soapstone, asbestos, alum, and stone-lac have also been 

The manufactures of the District are few and unimportant. Hemp 

is woven into coarse cloth and ro})e, and blankets are 

communications. "^^^^- I-eathern goods, mats, baskets, wooden bowls, 

and glass bangles are made for local use. Stone is 

carved in one or two places. 

The most important trade is with Tibet. Salt, wool, sheep and goats, 
ponies, and borax are imported, and grain, cloth, and cash exported. 
The trade is chiefly in the hands of the Bhotias, who alone are per- 
mitted to cross the frontier, and the merchandise is carried on yaks, 
jubas (a cross between the yak and the cow), asses, sheep, and goats, 
or even by the Bhotias themselves. In the west of the District there is 


some trade with the State of Tehrl, which exports grain in return for 
salt from Tibet. The borax from Tibet and some portion of the other 
imports are taken to Kotdwara or Ramnagar at the foot of the hills. 
Other exports include gh'i, chillies, ginger, and turmeric, the produce of 
the lower valleys, and forest products. The resources of the District 
are considerably increased by the pilgrim traffic to the sacred shrines, 
and by the money earned by the hundreds of men who work as coolies 
in the hill stations of Simla, NainI Tal, and Mussoorie throughout the 
summer. Srinagar and Kotdwara are the two chief marts in the 
District, but most of the trade is done in villages. 

A branch of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway from Najibabad to 
Kotdwara just reaches the foot of the hills. There are 1,063 miles of 
road, of which only one mile is metalled. Of the total, 462 miles are 
maintained by the Public Works department, 352 miles being repaired 
at the cost of Provincial revenues. Avenues of trees are maintained on 
6 miles. The roads are almost entirely bridle-paths, and in places are 
barely practicable for laden animals ; but a cart-road is under con- 
struction from Kotdwara to Lansdowne. The pilgrim route and the 
roads from Kotdwara to Lansdowne and Srinagar are the chief tracks. 

Oarhwal is more subject to distress from drought than the neigh- 
bouring District of Almora ; but the scarcity is usually local. In 1867 

the spring crops failed in the southern half of the ^ 

District ; Government advanced Rs. 10,000, and tlie 

people carried up grain from the Bhabar. The scarcity of 1869-70 was 

little felt, as the export of grain was forbidden, ^^'hen traffic was allowed, 

large profits were made by the export of grain to Bijnor. I'he District 

suffered severely in 1877-8, when many deaths occurred from privation. 

In 1889-90 both the autumn and spring crops failed, and Government 

imported grain and gave advances. A similar failure in 1892, which 

affected most of the District, was met in the same way. In 1896 relief 

works were opened and Rs. 27,000 was spent; but the works were 

abandoned when the rate of wages was reduced below the market rate. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is assisted by three Deputy-Collectors 

recruited in India, of whom one is stationed at head-quarters, one at 

Lansdowne, and one at ChamolT. Each of these is in . 

, , ,. . . r 1 rx- • 1 1- • r Administration, 

charge of a subdivision of the District, the limits ot 

which can be varied by the Deputy-Commissioner. There is only one 

tahsildar, who is posted to Paurl, the District head-quarters. 

The Deputy-Commissioner, the Deputy-Collectors, and the tahsllddr 
all have civil, revenue, and criminal powers, the first named being 
District Judge. The Commissioner of Kumaun sits as a High Court 
in civil cases and as a Sessions Judge. Crime is very light. 

The short rule of the Gurkhas was sufficiently harsh to cause a great 
diminution in the pros[)erity of Garhwal. .\ formal settlement of the 

I70 GARrnwir. distrr't 

land ivvcnuL' was indeed made, but the local ofticers disregarded it. In 
the last year of the Gurkha government only Rs. 37,700 could be 
collected, out of a demand of Rs. 91,300. The first l^ritish settlement 
was made in 18 15, as a temporary arrangement for one year, by farming 
whole /rt;;i^rt';w.f to ^^\c pa7-gana headmen for the sum collected in the 
previous year, which yielded Rs. 36,000. Succeeding settlements were 
made by villages ; but the revenue was still fixed on the basis of 
previous collections for a whole pargana at a time, and was distributed 
over villages by the village headmen. Six revisions were carried out 
between 1816 and 1833, and the revenue rose to Rs. 69,200. In 1822 
the first attempt was made to prepare a rough record-of-rights, which 
consisted merely of a statement of the nominal boundaries of each 
village, an enumeration of the blocks of cultivation with the estimated 
area of each, and the names of the proprietors. In 1837 Garhwal was 
l)laced in charge of a separate officer temporarily subordinate to the 
Commissioner of Bareilly, who made the first regular settlement. Each 
village was inspected and a fresh estimate was made of the cultivated 
area, which was divided into six classes, according to its quality. The 
new demand was fixed for twenty years on a consideration of this 
estimate and of the previous fiscal history of the village, the total 
amounting to Rs. 68,700. At the same time a careful record-of-rights 
was prepared in great detail, and was the means of settling innumerable 
disputes. The next revision was preceded by a complete measurement 
of the cultivated area, and was carried out on a new plan. It was 
assumed, after calculating the out-turn of the principal crops, that 
terraced land generally was worth so much an acre. Land was divided 
into five classes, and a scale of relative value was fixed. The valuation 
was made by reducing the total area to a common standard and apply- 
ing the general rate ; but other checks were also used, and in parti- 
cular the population of each village was considered. The revision was 
completed in 1864, and the demand was raised from Rs. 69,300 
to Rs. 96,300. The revenue was collected in full with an ease un- 
known in any District of the plains. In 1890 preparations commenced 
for a new revision which was to be based on a scientific survey ; but 
after a year's experience it was found that a complete survey would cost 
5 lakhs, and the cadastral survey was completed for only 971 square 
miles. A modification of the system followed in the plains, by which 
villages are classified in circles according to their general quality, w^as 
introduced ; but on the whole the methods of the previous settlement 
were adhered to, and a new valuation of produce and a revised scale of 
relative values were used to calculate the land revenue. In the area 
which was not surveyed cadastrally, the assessment was first fixed for 
each pattl (a division cjf a pargana) and distributed in consultation with 
the village headmen. In the extreme north, the produce of the neigh- 


bouring jungles was also taken into account. The result was a total 
assessment of Rs. 1,66,000. The small Bhabar cultivation is treated 
for the most part as a Government estate on which rent is fixed by the 
Deputy-Commissioner. The gross revenue of the District is included 
in that of the Kumaun Division. 

There are no municipalities in Garhwal, but two towns are admin- 
istered under Act XX of 1856. Beyond the limits of these, local 
affairs are managed by the District board, which in 1903-4 had a total 
income of Rs. 61,000, chiefly derived from a grant from Provincial 
revenues. The expenditure in the same year was Rs. 64,000. 

Regular police are permanently maintained at SrTnagar and at Kot- 
dwara, and during the pilgrim season at six other places. The whole 
force consists of 11 subordinate officers, 130 constables, and 6 town 
police, and is under the District Superintendent of Kumaun. Else- 
where there are no police, but \\\q pahvdris have powers corresponding 
to those of sub-inspectors in the plains. The District jail contained 
a daily average of 12 prisoners in 1903. 

Garhwal takes a very high place as regards the literacy of its inhabi- 
tants, of whom 6-4 per cent. (13 males and 0-2 females) could read and 
write in 1901. The number of public schools increased from 59 in 
18S0-1 to 76 in 1900-1, and the number of pupils from 2,746 to 2,813. 
In 1903 4 there were iiS such schools with 4,527 pupils, of whom only 
15 were girls. All the pupils but 1S7 were in primary classes. The 
District also contained three private schools with 350 pupils. Two 
schools are managed by Government, and roi by the District board, 
which contributed Rs. 22,000 out of a total expenditure on education 
of Rs. 31,000. Receipts from fees were only Rs. 1,200. 

There are ro hospitals and dispensaries with accommodation for 84 
in-l)atients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 58,000, including 
653 in-patients, and 1,514 operations were performed. The expenditure 
amounted to Rs. 12,000, about Rs. 10,000 of which is derived from 
endowments of land called saddhart. 

About 41,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting the very high proportion of 95 per 1,000 of population. 

[A'.-//' /'. Gazetteers, vols. x~xii, 1882 6 (under revision): E. K. 
Pauw, Settlement Report, 1896.] 

Garhwal State. — State in the United Provinces. See TkhrT 

Garmali-Moti. Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Garmali-Nani. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Garo Hills. — District in the south-western corner of Assam, 
lying between 25° 9' and 26° 1' N. and 89° 49' and 91° 2 E., with an 
area of 3, 140 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Goalpara 
Distj-ict : on the east by the Khasi and Jaintia Hills : and on the west 

172 C.U^O II I LIS 

and soulli by the Eastern Bengal Districts of Kangpur and M)nicn- 
singh. As its name implies, the greater portion of the District con- 
sists of hills, which form the western extremity of 
aspect^ ihc range dividing the valleys of the ISiahmaputru 

and the Surma. These hills rise sharply from the 
plain on the south, and attain their highest elevation in the Tura 
and Arbela ranges, which lie parallel to one another, east and west, 
near the centre of the District. The highest peak, Nokrek (4,652 feet), 
is a little to the east of Tura station. On the north a succession of low 
hills fall away towards the Brahmaputra. The ranges include many 
steep ridges sei)arated from one another by deep valleys, and, except 
where they have been cleared for cultivation, are covered with dense 
forest. At the foot of the hills is a fringe of level land, into which out- 
lying spurs project, but which otherwise does not differ from the adjoin- 
ing plains. The principal river is the Someswari, which rises to the 
north of Tura station and falls into the Kangsa river in Mymensingh. 
Other important streams flowing towards the south are the Bhugai, 
Nitai, and Maheshkhali, all of which are used for floating timber, 
while from the northern side of the watershed the Krishnai, Dudhnai, 
linjiram, and other minor streams fall into the Brahmaputra. There 
are no lakes or bliils in the hills, but near Phulbari lies a large marsh, 
which is leased as a fishery. The general appearance of the District 
is wild and picturesque. Some of the rivers fiovv through rocky 
gorges, which are overgrown with trees, creepers, and giant ferns to 
the water's edge, and nowhere is the scenery tame or uninteresting. 
On a clear day a magnificent view over hill and plain is obtained 
from the summit of Tura hill, and the course of the Brahmaputra 
can be traced for many miles. 

The greater portion of the District is formed of gneissic rock, overlaid 
by sandstones and conglomerates belonging to the Cretaceous system. 
On the top of these rest limestones and sandstones of Nummulitic 
age, while sandstones of Upper Tertiary origin form low hills along the 
Mymensingh border. 

In their natural condition the hills are covered with dense forest, 
most of which is evergreen, though sal and other deciduous trees are 
also found. Dense bamboo jungle springs up on land which has been 
cleared for cultivation and then left to fallow, and the bottoms of the 
valleys are often covered with high reeds and grass. 

The hills abound in game, including elephants, tigers, leopards, bears, 
bison, deer, and a species of wild goat or serow {Nemorhaedus bubalinus) ; 
and in the low country buffalo and occasionally rhinoceros are found. 
In 1904, 17 persons were killed by wild animals, and rewards were paid 
for the destruction of 50 tigers and leopards and 54 bears. Since 1878 
elephants have been hunted almost every year by the Government 


Khedda department, about 190 animals being annually captured ; but 
operations have recently been suspended, to allow the herds a little 
rest. Small game include peafowl, jungle-fowl, partridges, snipe, phea- 
sants, and hares ; while excellent mahseer fishing is to be obtained in 
the rivers. 

The whole of the District is malarious and unhealthy, and kala azar 
liere made its first appearance in Assam. This disease is an acute form 
of malarial poisoning, which has been a cause of dreadful mortality in 
the Brahmaputra Valley. The elevation is not, as a rule, sufficient to 
produce any material reduction in the temperature ; but the heavy rain- 
fall, and the evaporation which goes on over the immense expanse of 
forest, tend to cool the air during the rainy season. The rainfall is 
recorded only at Tura, where about 125 inches usually fall in the year. 
As in the rest of Assam, there is heavy rain in March, April, and May, 
a time when in Northern India precipitation is at its minimum. 

The earthquake of 1897 was felt very severely in the Garo Hills, but 
us there are no masonry buildings in the District, the actual damage 
done was less than in other places. Violent storms frequently pass 
over the country at the foot of the hills in March and April. In 1900 
two cyclones swept over this portion of the District, uprooting trees and 
destroying everything in their path. Fourteen persons were killed and 
nine injured, but more damage was done in the neighbouring District 
of Goalpara. 

Practically nothing is known of the early history of the District. 
Ethnologically the Garos are a section of the great Bodo race, which 
at one time occupied a large part of the valley 
of the Brahmaputra, and were probably driven from 
the plains into the hills by early Hindu invaders from Bengal. The 
earliest n(jtices of the Garos describe them as being in a state of 
intermittent conflict with the zamJnddrs of the large estates lying 
at the foot of the hills. These zanfiitdars were, in all probability, 
themselves sprung from the great Bodo stock to which the Garos 
belong, but in power and civilization had advanced far beyond their 
hitrhland kinsmen. The exactions levied bv the subordinates of these 
border chiefs irritated the hillmen, and the belief that the spirits 
of their headmen required the souls of others to attend them in the 
next world acted as a further incitement to the dispatch of raiding 
parties. At the end of the eighteenth century, the Garos inhabiting the 
outer ranges had been brought to some extent under the authority of 
the zamlnddrs, but the villages in the interior were entirely independent. 
As early as [790 the British Government had tried to put an end to 
these disturbances by appointing one of the most powerful Garo chiefs 
a zaminddr under the Company, but their efforts were frustrated by the 
turliulence of the Goalpara zamludars. In 1816 Mr. Scott was deputed 


to the frontier, and steps were taken to release the tributary Garos from 
the control of the Bengali landlords. It was difficult, however, to put 
down all oppression, and tlic hillnien continued to be turbulent. In 
1848 an expedition was sent into the hills to punish the Dasanni tiaros 
for having murdered one of their headmen, with all his family, because 
he attempted to collect the tribute due from them to Government. In 
1852 seven Garo raids took place, in which 44 persons were killed, and 
a blockade was established along the frontier, which produced some 
effect ; but in 1856 the tribes broke out again and successive raids were 
made upon the plains. Between May, 1857, and October, 1859, nine 
incursions were made into Goalpara and 20 heads were taken. An 
expedition was dispatched into the hills in 1861, the effects of which 
lasted for a few years ; but in 1866 a most murderous raid was made 
into Mymensingh District, and it was decided to post an officer, 
Lieutenant Williamson, in the hills. The success with which this ex- 
periment was attended was very striking. Raids ceased, and many 
independent villages submitted of their own accord. The hills were 
constituted a separate District in 1869. In 1870 the survey, which had 
been carried through the neighbouring hills, entered the District, and it 
was determined to take this opportunity of exploring independent Garo 
territory. No opposition was offered at first, but in the following year 
a survey cooly was seized and murdered by the villagers of Rongmagiri. 
An expedition was accordingly dispatched at the beginning of the cold 
weather, and in the summer of 1872 some villages, which had attacked 
Garos who had assisted the expedition, were punished by the Deputy- 
Commissioner. It was then decided that the whole of the country 
should be brought under control; and in 1872-3 three detachments 
of police marched through the independent territory from the south, 
north, and west. Little resistance was experienced, and since that date 
the history of the District has been one of profound peace. 

The population of the Garo Hills rose from 121,570 in 1891, the 
first year in which a regular Census was taken, to 138,274 in 1901, or 

by 13-7 per cent. The people live in 1,026 villages, 

Population. 1 .1 J V r 1 <-■ 

and the density of population is 44 persons per square 

mile. About 82 per cent, of the population in 1901 were still faithful 

to their animistic beliefs, 10 per cent, were Hindus, and 6 per cent. 

Muhammadans. The head-quarters of the American Baptist Mission 

are at Tura, and almost all the native Christians (3,629) are members 

of this sect. Garo is the language of 77 per cent, of the population, 

and 5 per cent, use Rabha, which is also a dialect of the Bodo group. 

As the name of the hills implies, the great majority of the population 

are Garos, who numbered 103,500, or 75 per cent, of the whole. To 

these should be added nearly all the native Christians. Of the same 

stock are the Rabhas (7,700), the Kochs (4,300), and the Haijongs 


(5,300), though the last two profess to be Hindus by reUgion. The 
language spoken by the Haijongs is akin to Bengali, but from their 
appearance it is evident that they have a large admixture of Garo 
blood. The economic organization of the hillmen is naturally of the 
most simple character, and 96 per cent, of the population returned 
agriculture as their means of livelihood in 1901. 

Linguistically, the Garos belong to the Bodo group, and there seem 
good grounds for supposing that they are members of the great Tibcto- 
Burman race, whose cradle is said to have been north-western China 
between the upper waters of the Yang-tse-kiang and the Ho-ang-ho. 
The Tibeto-Burmans sent forth successive waves of emigrants, who 
S[)read down the valley of the Brahmaputra and the great rivers, such 
as the Chindwin, the Irrawaddy, and the Mekong, that flow towards the 
south. The Garos are believed to be closely related to the Kacharis, 
Rabhas, Mechs, and other tribes inhabiting the Assam Valley, but to 
belong to a wave of immigrants subsequent to, and distinct from, that 
which left the Khasis in the hills to the east. According to their own 
traditions, they came originally from Tibet and settled in Cooch Behar. 
From there they were ciriven to the neighbourhood of Jogighopa, where 
they remained 400 years, but were again compelled to fly towards the 
south by the king of the country and his ally, the ruler of Cooch Behar. 
Their next wanderings were towards Gauhati, where they were enslaved 
I)y the Assamese, but released by a Khasi prince, who settled them in 
the neighbourhood of Boko. The place was, however, infested with 
tigers, and the Garos then moved into the hills in which they are now 

The name they use among themselves is not Garo, but Achikrang, 
' hill people,' or Manderang, ' men.' The Garos classify themselves by 
geographical divisions (/<?/) and by exogamous septs {c/iar/ii), sub- 
divided into iiiaharis or families. There are altogether about fifteen 
jals^ the most important of which are the Abeng, who live to the west 
of Tura, the Atong in the lower, the Matchi in the central, and the 
Matjangchi in the upper Someswari valley, the Awi and Akawi in 
the low country round Damra, the Chisak to the north of the Awi, 
the Matabeng in the hills north of Tura, and the Migam on the 
borders of the Khasi Hills. The great majority of these divisions do 
not appear to denote racial distinctions. The Migam seem to ha\e 
intermarried with the Khasis, and the Atong have some connexion 
with the Koclis. There are differences of dialect, but customs, as a 
rule, are similar. The Abeng are the most numerous section, but the 
Atong have made more progress, and the Awi dialect is used in the 
publications of the Tura mission, as they were the first Garos to come 
under missionary influence. There are two main exogamous septs, the 
Sangma and the Marak. A tliird sept called Momin is found among 


ilic Awi. The septs are again di\ ided into numerous familie?' called 
maharis. There is no restriction on intermarriage between members 
of different jals, provided that they do not i)elong to the same sept. 
The village organization at the present day is of a very democratic 
character; but if their legends are to be believed, the Garos were 
originally ruled by chiefs. In appearance they are squat and sturdy, 
with oblique eyes, large head, thick lips, and large and ugly features, 
which have a peculiarly flattened appearance. In disposition they are 
cheerful and friendly. 

The villages are often built on the side of the hills, and are unfortified, 
unlike those of the Nagas and Lushais, who prior to the British occupa- 
tion of their country lived in a perpetual state of warfare. They consist, 
in fiict, of small hamlets, containing but a few houses, and in no other 
District in the Province are the villages so small. The houses are 
chiefly constructed of bamboo, and though one end rests on the earth, 
the other, which overhangs the slope of the hill, is supported on 
bamboo posts, and is some height above the ground. They are often 
from So to loo feet in length, and are divided into different compart- 
ments ; but, owing to the absence of windows, they are dark and 
gloomy, and the fire smouldering on the hearth serves only to 
accentuate the darkness. 

The Garo costume is as scanty as is compatible with decency. The 
men wear a very narrow cloth, which is passed between the legs and 
fastened round the waist. The woman's cloth, which is also of the 
scantiest description, is fastened round the body below the navel, the 
two top corners meeting over the thigh ; the bottom corners are left 
unfastened, as otherwise the petticoat would be too tight for comfort. 
The women load their ears with masses of brass earrings, and individuals 
have been seen with more than 60 brass rings, 6^ inches in circum- 
ference and weighing altogether just under 2 lb., in the lobe of a single 
ear. The lobe, though enormously distended, was not broken ; but 
the weight of the rings was to a great extent supported by a string 
passed over the head. The Garo weapons consist of spear, sword, and 
shield. The sword, which is peculiar to these hills, is a two-edged 
instrument, the blade and handle forming one piece. The shield is 
composed of thin strips of bamboo woven together so as to be almost 
proof against a spear-thrust. The staple article of food is rice, but 
Garos will eat practically anything. 

The Garos are not exclusive in matters matrimonial, and will inter- 
marry with any persons except Jugis or sweepers. Owing to the 
conditions under which they live, mixed marriages are, however, far 
from ccjmmon. The proposal comes from the family of the bride, and 
though his parents' consent must of course be obtained, the wishes of 
the person most concerned are sometimes not consulted. If he dislikes 


the girl, the bridegroom runs away, and after he has done this and been 
recaptured twice or thrice, he is allowed to go for good and all. The 
essential portions of the ceremony are an address from the priest and 
the slaughter of a cock and hen. Divorce is recognized, and widows 
are allowed to marry, but are expected to marry in their husband's 
family. Polygamy is permitted, provided that the consent of the first 
wife be obtained. Contrary to the usual customs of the animistic 
tribes, girls who are heiresses are sometimes married before the age of 
puberty. Inheritance goes through the female, and property frequently 
passes through the daughter to the son-in-law. "Where this is the case, 
the latter is compelled to marry his mother-in-law, if she is still alive, 
and a man not unfrequently occupies the position of husband towards 
mother and daughter at the same time. When a woman dies, the 
family property passes to her youngest, or occasionally to her eldest, 
daughter. The husband is, however, allowed to retain possession of 
the estate if he can succeed In obtaining one of his first wife's family 
as his second spouse. In spite of the liberal exposure of their persons, 
the women are chaste and make good and steady wives ; and, as far as 
the orthodox standards of sexual morality are concerned, they com- 
pare favourably with the Khasi women, their neighbours on the east, 
who swathe themselves in a multitude of garments. 

The dead are burned and the calcined bones buried in the neigh- 
bourhood of the homestead. The villagers are feasted, and in each 
house can be seen a bullock which is kept fatted up in preparation for 
the next funeral, and serves as a perpetual memento mori. A post is 
erected near the porch in memory of the deceased, and houses which 
have been in the same position for many years have sometimes as 
many as fifty posts, standing like a gigantic sheaf of corn before them. 
A great man's post is carved into a rude effigy of his features, clothed 
in his dress of state, and further ornamented with his umbrella and 
his head covering, if he had one. 

The Garos appear to believe in a supreme deity and in a future life ; 
but, as is usual in the hills, the greater part of their religious activi- 
ties is devoted to the propitiation of evil spirits, who are supposed to 
be the cause of the misfortunes that befall them. The following is an 
accurate description of a Garo sacrifice : — 

' The priest squatted before a curious flat shield of split bamboo and 
cane, and muttered strangely to himself, as though under the influence 
of some drug. A villager kept dragging a kid in a circle round and 
round the priest and his curious god, and each time as it passed the 
priest dabbed it on the head with a little flour and water. Finally 
a little of the mixture was forced into its mouth and it was summarily 
beheaded. Hie blood was allowed to pour upon a plate of rice, which, 
with the tail, was offered to the deity. The rest of the animal went to 
fornr-part of the feast.' 



The people, as a whole, are well-to-do, and have accumulated })ro- 
perty. Some of their most treasured possessions are metal gongs, to 
which they attach a fictitious value. The intrinsic worth of these 
articles is small, and new gongs do not cost more than a few rupees, but 
one collection of 60 old ones is known to have been sold for Rs. 3,000, 
a large price to obtain from a semi-savage community. 

In the hills the Garos cultivate their land on the system known as 
jhurn. A spot of land is selected on the hill-side, and the jungle cut 
down during the cold season. Towards the end of 
March, the trees and brushwood are burned as they 
lie, and the rice crop is planted in April at the commencement of the 
rains. Shortly afterwards, the seeds of vegetables, cotton, pepper, and 
pulses are sown in the same clearing : and each crop is reaped in 
rotation as it comes to maturity. Miscellaneous crops include potatoes, 
arhar {Cajamis indicus), reared as food for the lac insect, ginger, indigo, 
and turmeric. In the second year, rice only is grown ; and after two 
years' cultivation the clearing is abandoned and suffered to lie fallow for 
about ten years. Neither plough nor spade is used, except in the few 
Hinduized villages bordering on the plains. The sole implements of 
agriculture are a short dao fixed in a long handle with which jungle is 
cleared, and a small hoe. The cotton is short in staple and poor in 
quality, but contains a small proportion of seed and has been found 
suited for mixing with woollen fabrics. 

There are no means of ascertaining the area under cultivation in the 
hills ; but in the submontane villages, which contain a little over one- 
fourth of the total population, the land is measured every year by the 
local revenue officials. The area under the principal crops in this tract 
in 1903-4 was : rice 23,000 acres, mustard 3,700, and jute 1,800 acres ; 
but in the District as a whole cotton is the most important staple 
after rice. The area under cultivation has expanded with the growing 
population, but no figures can be quoted to show the extent to which 
this has taken place. Irrigation is unknown ; it would be impossible in 
the hills except with a system of artificially constructed terraces, and in 
the plains it is not required. Loans are occasionally made by Govern- 
ment to the cultivators, as there are very few money-lenders in the 
District, but only small sums are thus distributed. 

In the hills cattle are used (jnly for food, and are, as a rule, fat and 
sturdy animals, as the Garos, like other hill tribes, leave all the milk to 
the calf. 

There are eighteen patches of ' reserved ' forests dotted about the Dis- 
trict, which cover altogether an area of 139 square miles. A consider- 
able portion of these Reserves is stocked with sa/ 
{Shorea robusta), but the difficulty experienced in 
getting the timber to market h.-rs hitherto prevented them from being 


worked with an)- success. Other valuable trees are saiii {Ar/ocarpus 

C/iaJ)laska), goman^Ginelina arborea),paroli (^Stereospermum chclonoides), 

and koroi (^Albizzia procera). On three occasions leases of the Danibu 

Reserve have been given to private [)ersons on favourable terms ; but 

in every case the concession was abandoned, as the holder found that 

he was unable to work it at a profit. The whole of the hills are covered 

with mixed evergreen and sal forest and bamboo jungle, in which the 

Garos are allowed to cultivate, and from which they may take anything 

which they require for their own use. Royalty nmsl, however, be paid 

on all timber removed for sale. These forests are managed by the 

Forest department, and uiore timber is sold from them than from the 


Outcrops of coal, all of which are of Cretaceous origin, have been 

found in the Garo Hills, from Samding in the north-west corner of the 

District to Siju, which is situated at the point where 

the Someswari river pierces the main range. The 

most important field is situated a little farther up the valley of that river 
in the neighbourhood of the Uarangiri, but, though the quantity of coal 
is very large, the field has not been worked, owing to the lack of means 
of transport. A syndicate has recently obtained a prospecting licence. 
Petroleum oil has been found at Dholakhal in the Someswari valley. 
There are deposits of limestone in the valley of the Maheshkhali, and 
of fine potter's clay near the base of the Cretaceous rocks of the western 
range. None of these minerals is at present worked. 

There are no s[)ecial local manufactures in the hills. The (Jaro 
women weave a coarse cotton cloth for the scanty garments of them- 
selves and the men, and baskets and bamboo mats are 

also made for sale. The cloth is generally coloured Trade and 

. , . " communications, 

with a blue dye and ornamented with red stripes. 

Rude pottery is made in certain \illages, but all metal utensils are 


Trade is chietiy carried on at the small markets situated at the 
passes leading into the plains. The most important are : on the south- 
ern border, Khata, Mahendraganj, Ualu, Ghoshgaon, and Baghmara ; 
on the north, Nibari ; and on the north-west border, Phulbari and 
Singrimari. In the hills the two chief markets are at Tura and 
Garobadha. The principal articles of export are cotton, timber and 
other forest produce, boats, chillies, and lac from the hills, and 
mustard and jute from the plains ; the imports received in exchange 
consist of rice, dried fish, cattle, goats, fowls, pigs, cloth, and orna- 
ments. The raw cotton is bought up by Marwari merchants to be 
shipped to Sirajganj, but Tura is the only place in which the)' have 
established shops. 

Two cart-roads leave Tura, one to Ruwmarighat on the Brahma- 

N 2 

i.'^o (,v/AY? inr.Ls 

putra, the other to Dalu on the Mymensiiigh border. A cart road 
has also been constructed by the lessee of the Dambu forest to Damra, 
a distance of 24 miles ; bridle-paths run to Salniara and Damra. 
Altogether, 73 miles of cart-roads and 126 miles of bridle-paths were 
maintained by the Public Works department in 1903-4. The remain- 
ing means of communication are the tracks made by the Garos from 
one village to another. 

'JI1C District does not contain any subdivisions, and only a small 
staff is employed on its administration. Public works are in charge of 

.... . the Executive Engineer stationed at Dhubri, and the 
Administration. ,, ^^ . ^ .. . , ,. 

rorest officer is usually a native subordinate. Ihe 

officer in charge of the civil and military police is generally invested 

with magisterial powers. 

The Garo Hills are administered under a code of Regulaticjns 
specially framed by the Chief Commissioner on their behalf. The 
High Court at Calcutta has no jurisdiction ; and the Deputy-Com- 
missioner is empowered to try civil suits of any value, and to pass 
sentence of death subject to confirmation by the Chief Commissioner. 
Petty criminal and civil cases are decided by village officers called 
laskars, who are also entrusted with the greater part of the duties 
assigned to the police in other Districts. The Codes of Civil and 
Criminal Procedure are not in force, but the courts, though not bound 
by the letter, are guided by the spirit of these laws. In the Garo 
polity almost every form of wrong can be atoned for by the payment of 
pecuniary compensation ; but the hillmen have no sense of a statute 
of limitations, and complaints are sometimes preferred with regard to 
offences and civil causes of action which occurred many years before. 
The people have now become peaceful and law-abiding, and there is 
little litigation either criminal or civil. 

Land revenue is not assessed in the hills, but the Garos pay a tax 
of Rs. 2 per house, irrespective of the area brought under cultivation. 
In the villages in the plains settlement is made annually with the 
cultivators, the ordinary rates charged being Rs. 3 per acre for home- 
stead, Rs. 1-8-0 for transplanted rice land, and Rs. r-2-0 for land 
growing other crops. About one-third of the settled area falls within 
the boundaries of the estates of the neighbouring zainl/iddrs, who 
receive 75 per cent, of the collections, but are not allowed to interfere 
in the management. The total revenue of the District and the revenue 
realized from house tax are shown in the table on the next page, in 
thousands of rupees. 

The peace of the District is maintained by a battalion of military 
police, with a sanctioned strength of 24 officers and 178 men, under 
the command of the District Superintendent of police. The civil 
police force consists of one sub-inspector and 66 head constables and 



men, who are employed only in the villages at the foot of the hills. 
There is a small jail at Tura, with accommodation for 36 prisoners. 

Revenue from liouse-ta\ 
Total revenue 

Exclusive of forest revenue. 


1 890- I. 


1903-4. • 






Education is in a very backward condition. The number of pupils 
under instruction in 1 880-1, 1 890-1, 1900-1, and 1903-4 was 45 S, 
593, 1,538, and 1,870 respectively. At the Census of 1901 only 
0-8 per cent, of the population (1-5 males and 0-2 females) were 
returned as literate. Primary education, which is largely in the 
hands of the American Baptist Mission, has made considerable pro- 
gress of recent years. In 1903-4 there were 94 primary schools in 
the District, and one training school. The number of girls under 
instruction was 276. Of the male population of school-going age 
15 per cent., and of the females 3 per cent., were under instruction. 
The expenditure on education was Rs. t 1,000, of which only Rs. 98 
was derived from fees. 

The District contains 2 hospitals and 2 dispen.saries, with accom- 
modation for 15 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated 
was 19,000, of whom 200 were in-patients, and 300 operations were 
performed. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 5,000, the whole of 
which was met from Provincial revenues. 

The Garos are fully alive to the advantages of vaccination. In 
1903-4, 77 per 1,000 of the population were protected, and nearly 
half the population were vaccinated between 1896 and 1900. The 
result is that small-pox has been almost stamped out in the hills, 
and deaths from that disease are very rare. 

[A. Mackenzie, History of the Relations of Government with the 
Hill Tribes of the North-East Frontier of Bengal (Calcutta, 1884) ; Sir 
W. W. Hunter, A Statistical Account of Assam (1879); B. C. Allen, 
District Gazetteer for the Gdro Hills (1906).] 

Garot. — Head-quarters of the Rampura-Bhanpura district and of 
the pargana of the same name in Indore State, Central India, situated 
in 24° 19' N. and 75° 42' E. Population (1901), 3,456. The town 
appears to have been originally a Bhil settlement, which fell to the 
Chandra wat Rajputs of Rampura in the sixteenth century. Histori- 
cally, Garot is important as the place from which Colonel Monson 
commenced his retreat before Jaswant Rao Holkar, which culminated 
in the disaster in the Mukundwara pass, in 1804. At Piplia village, 
4 miles north-east of Garot, Monson's rear-guard, under I>ucan and 


Aniar Singli ul Kucla, nuuk' the desperate stand against tlie wliole 
Maratha, army which enabled Monson to retire. The cenotaph of 
Amar Singh still stands on the field ; Lucan, whom Tod erroneously 
supposes to have been also killed, was taken to Kotah, where he died 
ot" his wounds. In 1811 Jaswant Rao Holkar was removed from 
lihanpura to Garot, as the madness from which he was then suffering 
was attributed to a local demon, who haunted the former place ; later 
on he was taken back to Bhanpura, and died there the same year. 
At one time the Sondhias, who form the greater part of the surround- 
ing population, caused much trouble by their turbulent behaviour, 
and a detachment of the Mehidpur Contingent ■^vas stationed in the 
town from 1834 to 1842. 

Besides the zila and pargana offices and the SiibaJi's official resi- 
dence, a school, a dispensary, and an inspection bungalow are situated 
in the town. The decrease in prosperity has been caused by its 
distance from roads and railways. It has lately, however, been made 
the head-quarters of the district, and the Nagda-Muttra branch of the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway will pass about 3 miles 
east of the town. A metalled road to Chandwasa, Balia, and Rampura 
is under construction. 

S^.Tod., Rajasthaii, vol. ii, 'Personal Narrative,' ch. \ii.J 

Garotha. — l^aJisiI in JhSiisi District, United Provinces. See 


Garrauli. — A petty sanad State in Central India, under the 
Bundelkhand Agency, with an area of about 37 square miles. Popu- 
lation (1901), 5,231. This yV/^Jr was recognized by a sanad granted 
in 181 2 by the British Government to Dlwan Gopal Singh, Bundela, 
descended from a branch of the Orchha family. Go{)al Singh seized 
the pargana of Kotrl during the invasion of All Bahadur, and was one 
of the most active and daring of the military adventurers who opposed 
the occupation of Bundelkhand by the British. For years he resisted 
all efforts of persuasion or force to reduce him to submission, and 
surrendered only when he saw the absolute hopelessness of further 
opposition. On the conditions of a full pardon and provision in land 
he submitted, an additional inducement being the grant for life of 
eighteen villages by the Maharaja of Panna. The present Jdglrddr, 
Dlwan Chandra Bhan Singh, succeeded his grandfather Farichhat as 
a minor in 1884, and was granted powers in 1904. In 1905, however, 
it was found necessary to put the administration under the chief's 
mother. The State contains 18 villages and a cultivated area of 
II square miles, and the revenue is Rs. 25,000. The chief place, 
Garrauli, is situated in 25° 5' N. and 79° 21' E., on the right bank of 
the Dhasan, 8 miles fnmi Nowgong. Population (1901), 878. 

Garulia. — Town in the Barrackpore subdivision of the District 


of the Twenty-tour I'arganas, Bengal, situated in 22° 49' N. and 
88° 22' E., on the east bank of the Hooghly river. Population (1901), 
7,375. It is a busy industrial place, containing jute and cotton mills. 
The village of Svamnagar is within the town. Garulia was included 
within the North Barrackpore municipality until 1896, when it was 
constituted a separate municipality. The income of the municipality 
during the eight years since its constitution has averaged Rs. 9,000, 
and the expenditure Rs. 8,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 18,000, 
including a loan of Rs. 5,000 from Government, while the same sum 
was realized from a tax on persons (or property tax). The expenditure 
was Rs. 13,000. 

Garvi. — Petty State in the Dangs, Bombay. 

Garwa. — Town in the I'alamau District of Bengal, situated in 
24° 10' N. and 83° 50' E., on the Danro river. Population (1901), 
3,610. Garwa is the chief distributing centre for the surplus produce 
of the District, and of a great part of Surguja State. Stick-lac, resin, 
catechu, cocoons of tasar silk, hides, oilseeds, ghi, cotton, and iron 
are here collected for export ; the imports are food-grains, brass 
vessels, piece-goods, blankets, silk, salt, tobacco, spices, drugs, &c. 
The market is held in the dry season on the sands of the Danro river. 

Gauhati Subdivision. — Subdivision of Kamrup District, Eastern 
Bengal and /^ssam, lying between 25° 43' and 26° 53' N. and 90° 56' 
and 92° 11' E., on both sides of the Brahmaputra, with an area of 
2,584 square miles. It had a population in 1901 of 473,252, 
compared with 498,544 in 1891. It contains one town, Gauhati 
(population, 11,661), the head-quarters of the District; and 1,116 
villages. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 10,97,000. South of the river the country is much 
broken up by outlying spurs of the Assam Range and by isolated hills 
which crop up above the alluvium, but on the north a wide plain 
stretches right up to the frontier of Bhutan. The centre of this plain 
is densely populated, and in the Nalbari fahsll there are as many as 
613 persons per square mile ; but near the hills stretch large tracts of 
waste land, and the subdivision as a whole supports only 183 persons 
per square mile. The decrease during the last intercensal period was 
due to the ravages of kald azdr, malarial fever, and cholera. The 
average rainfall at Gauhati is only 67 inches in the year, but nearer 
the hills, both on the north and south, it is as much as 75 or 80 inches. 
The majority of the population consist of respectable Sudra castes, 
such as the Kalita and Kewat, but a large tract lying between the Go- 
hain Kamala All and the Bhutan hills is almost exclusively occupied by 
the Kachari tribe. Sali, or transplanted winter rice, forms the staple 
crop ; but the subdivision was most injuriously affected by the earth- 
quake of 1897, which covered some of the most valuable land with 


deposits of sand, and increased Uie liabilit)' to flood, from which thi 
District was never free, by disturbing the beds of rivers and drainagi 
channels. Mustard and hao^ a long-stemmed variety of winter rice, an 
grown near the Brahmaputra, and in recent years jute has been raise( 
on a commercial scale. 'I"he Kacharis in the north irrigate their field 
from the hill streams ; elsewhere drains and embankments rather thai 
irrigation channels are required. The tea industry is of comparativel 
small importance. In 1904 there were 19 gardens with 3,659 acre 
under plant, which gave employment to 7 Europeans and 2,41 
natives. The subdivision contains many places which are objects c 
pilgrimage to the devout Hindu, such as Kamakhva, Hajo, Basisthr 
Umananda, Aswakranta opposite Gauhati, where the footprint c 
Krishna is to be seen embedded in the rock, and Chitrachal, wher 
there is a temple dedicated to the nine planets, which marked th 
eastern boundary of old Gauhati. 

Gauhati To'wn {Goa-hat/ii =^ 'high land covered with areca-palms' 

- — Head-quarters of Kamrup District, Eastern Bengal and Assan 

situated in 26° 11' N. and 91"^ 45' E., on both banks of the Brahmj 

putra river. The principal portion of the town is, however, on the le 

or southern bank. This lies on the trunk road from Bengal to Sadiy; 

and is the terminus of the Assam Valley branch of the Assam-Beng; 

Railway. A line is under construction along the north bank of tb 

Brahmaputra, which will connect the northern portion with Calcutta b 

the Eastern Bengal State Railway. An excellent metalled road rur 

from South Gauhati to Shillong, the head-quarters of the Province 

A steam ferry crosses the Brahmaputra, and the town is a port of ca 

for the river steamers. The population of North and South Gauhati i 

1 90 1 was 14,244. The majority of the inhabitants, as in most of tl: 

towns of Assam, are foreigners. Modern Gauhati is identified wit 

Pragjyotishapura, the capital of king Bhagadatta, who is mentione 

in the Mahabharata. Its subsequent history is uncertain, but in tl 

sixteenth century it was included in the Koch kingdom. In tl 

seventeenth century it was the sport of the armies of the Muhar 

madans and Ahoms, and in the short space of fifty years was taken an 

retaken no less than eight times. In 1681 the Muhammadans wei 

driven out of Kamrup, and from that time onward Gauhati becan 

the residence of the Ahom governor of Lower Assam. In 1786, whe 

Rangpur was captured by the Moamarias, the Ahom Raja transferrt 

his capital to Gauhati. 'J'he extensive earthworks which protect it c 

the land side, the numerous large tanks, and the brick and mason 

remains which are found in every direction beneath the soil, all clear 

show that the place was originally an important city, with a considerab 

population, which occupied both i)anks of the Brahmaputra. Tl 

])ortion which lies on the north of the river is said to ha\c been bu 


by Pankshit, a Koch king who flourished at the end of the sixteenth 
century, and was the ancestor of the present Bijni family. By the end 
of the eighteenth century (iauhati had, however, fiillen from its high 
estate, and Buchanan Hamilton, writing in 1809, describes it as a 'very 
poor place.' From 1826, when Assam was ceded to the British, till 
1874, when the Province was separated from Bengal, Gauhati was the 
head-quarters of the Assam Division, and it is still the head-quarters of 
the Commissioner and the Judge of the Assam Valley Districts, as well 
as of the ordinary District staff. The most noteworthy event in its 
recent history was the earthquake of 1897, which destroyed all the Gov- 
ernment offices and wrecked every masonry building in the place. The 
town has since been rebuilt, and hardly any traces are now to be seen 
of this great catastrophe. The situation of Gauhati is extremely pictur- 
esque. To the south it is surrounded by a semicircle of thickly wooded 
hills, while in front rolls the mighty Brahmaputra, which during the 
rains is nearly a mile across. In the centie of the stream lies a rocky 
island, the farther bank is fringed with graceful palms, and the view to 
the north is again shut in by ranges of low hills. wSuch a site, though 
beautiful, is far from healthy, and at one time the mortality in the town 
was very high. Improvements in the drainage and water-supply have 
done much to remedy this defect, but owing to its sheltered situation 
and the comparatively low rainfall (67 inches) the climate in the 
.summer is rather oppressive. In addition to the ordinary public 
buildings, there are a town hall, a hospital with 29 beds, and a jail with 
accommodation for 352 prisoners. The convicts are chiefly employed 
on gardening, oil-pressing, and weaving. Branches of the American 
Baptist Mission and of the Roman Catholic Mission are located in 
the town, while the numerous temples situated in Gauhati itself and 
in its immediate vicinity render it an object of pilgrimage to Hindus 
from all parts of India. 

Gauhati was constituted a municipality, under (Bengal) Act V of 1876, 
in 1878, and (Bengal) Act III of 1884 was subsequently introduced 
in 1887. The municipal receipts and expenditure during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 43,000. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 49,000, including taxes on houses and lands (Rs. 8,900), water rate 
(Rs. 10,000), revenue from markets and slaughterhouses (Rs. 5,400), 
and a contribution from Provincial revenues (Rs. 10,000). The expen- 
diture was Rs. 51,000, the chief items being water-supply (Rs. 10,600), 
conservancy (Rs. 16,800), and public works (Rs. 11,200). The water- 
supply is pumped from the Brahmaputra, passed through filtering 
beds, and distributed by standpipes all over the town. Since the 
completion of these works iti 1887, cholera, which used to be very 
prevalent, has almost disappeared. The town is the principal centre of 
trade in Lowcn- Assam, 'i'he exports to Calcutta consist of mustard 


seed, cotton, silk, tlotli, lac, and other forest produce ; the principal 
imports are salt, cotton piece-goods and thread, grain and pulse, and 
kerosene and other oils. Nearly the whole of the business is in the 
hands of Marwari merchants, who have recentl)- made some attempt to 
work up raw material obtained from the Assamese instead of exporting 
it in that condition to Calcutta. Two steam mills have been started for 
cotton-ginning, flour-grinding, and the manufacture of mustard oil. The 
larger mill has a daily out-turn of about 1,200 gallons of oil. The chief 
educational institutions are a second-grade college — the Cotton College 
— which teaches up to the First Arts standard, and two high schools. 
The Government school was opened in 1835 '-^^^^ the college in 1901. 
In 1903-4 the college had an average attendance of 64 students. 

Gaur. — Ruined city and ancient capital in Malda District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, situated in 24° 54' N. and 88° 8' E., on a deserted 
channel of the Ganges. The date of the foundation of the city is 
involved in obscurity, and the whole course of its history down to the 
day when it was finally deserted is only to be conjectured. It is known, 
however, that it was the metropolis of Bengal under its Hindu kings; 
and local traditions connect some of its ruins with the names of Ballal 
Sen and Lakshman Sen, from the last of whom it took the name 
LakshmanavatI or Lakhnautl. The name Gaur is also of great anti- 
quity, but was more strictly applicable to the kingdom (called Gauriya 
Bangala) than to the city. It is, according to Cunningham, derived 
from gi/r, the common name for molasses or raw sugar, for which this 
country has always been famous, the city being, in all probability, the 
great export mart for all the northern Districts in the days when the 
Ganges flowed past it. The recorded history of Gaur begins with its 
conquest in 11 98 by the Muhammadans, who retained it as the chief 
seat of their power in Bengal for more than three centuries, and erected 
numerous mosques and other buildings, a few of which yet remain 
in a tolerable state of preservation. After the Afghan kings of Bengal 
established their independence, they founded about 1350 another 
capital, called Firozabad, at Pandua, which appears to have been the 
seat of government till the capital was again transferred to Gaur by 
Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Shah seventy years later. From that time, the 
royal residence remained at Gaur, which was known by various names, 
such as Jannatabad, or the ' abode of paradise,' Fatehabad, Husainabad, 
and Nusratabad, the first name being given to it by Humayun during 
his residence here in 1538. After the conquest of Bengal by Sher 
Shah in 1539, the seat of government was again removed to Tanda or 
Tanra, a few miles south-west of Gaur, on the bank of the then main 
channel of the Ganges, which was gradually receding westwards : and 
shortly afterwards Gaur was depopulated by pestilence when Munim 
Khan, after defeating Daud Shah, the last of the Afghan dynasty, who 

(;aur 187 

had denied the suzerainty of the emperor Akbar, proceeded here with 
his army during the rainy season of 1575. Thousands of the troops 
and inhabitants died daily ; the people were unable to bury or burn the 
dead ; and the corpses of Hindus and Musalmans alike were thrown 
into the marshes and tanks, and into the adjoining river BhagTrathi. 
The few people that survived the plague left the city ; and the imperial 
general, who had resolved to maintain Gaur as the seat of the govern- 
ment and to restore its former magnificence, himself fell a victim to the 
general contagion, (laur was never again populated to any extent, 
although various additions were made to its buildings from time to time, 
such as the Lukachuri, or eastern gate of the fort, which was erected by 
Sultan Shuja in 1650. Tliis prince was a disciple of Niamat-ullahAN'all, 
a saint who lived in Firozpur, the southern suburb of Gaur, where his 
tomb still exists ; and though his capital was at Rajmahal, he appears to 
have spent some time in this city. 

The final desertion of Gaur dates from the time when the Mughal 
viceroys removed the seat of government to Dacca and Murshidabad ; 
but as late as 1683, when \\'illiani Hedges visited the place, the palace 
and most of the buildings were fairly intact. 7'he greatest damage 
done to the ruins has, however, been due to human agency. They have 
been a quarry not only for the brick houses of the neighbouring towns 
and villages, but also for the mosques, palaces, and public monuments 
of Murshidabad ; and the towns of Old Malda and English Bazar have 
been constructed almost entirely with bricks from Gaur. Mr. Reuben 
Burrow, who visited the ruins in the year 1787, wrote as follows : — 

' These tombs were not long ago in perfect order and were held in 
a manner sacred, till they were torn to pieces for the sake of stone ; 
indeed such of the gates as happened to have no stone in them are 
almost perfect ; but wherever a piece of stone happened to be placed, 
the most elegant buildings have been destroyed to get it out, so that 
there is now scarce a piece left except a part in the round tower, which 
happens to have been preserved by the peculiar construction of the 

Mr. Creighton, who was in charge of the indigo factory at Gomalti 
towards the end of the eighteenth century, wrote : — 

' Rajmahal, Malda, and Murshidabad for centuries have been sup- 
{)lied from hence with materials for building, and bricks and stones are 
continually carried away to other parts of the country on carts, bullocks, 
and in boats by the natives for the purpose of modern edifices.' 

According to Grant, the Nizdinat Daftar received Rs. 800 annually 
from two local zamlnddrs as a fee for the privilege of demolishing the 
venerable ruins, and stripping from ^ them their highly-prized enamelled 
tiles and the so-called Gaur marble. During the last fifty years, 
hou'ever, extensive clearances of jungle base been effected, and the 

i8S (7./rVv' 

wanton destruciioii of the buildings has been stopped; but the damage 
ah-eady done is unfortunately irreparable. I )r. Buchanan Hamilton, 
who visited Gaur in 1810, has left an elaborate description of the ruins 
as they then appeared, from which the following account is mainly 
condensed. It must be remembered, however, that their dilapidation 
rapidly advanced since that time till within a few years ago, when it was 
slopped by (jovernment. 

The city with its suburbs covered an area variously estimated at from 
22 to 30 square miles; and the dimensions of the city proper were 
about 7^ miles in length from north to south, and from i to 2 miles 
in breadth, giving a total area of about 13 square miles. The west side 
of the city was throughout washed by the main stream of the Ganges, 
the eastern side being protected partly by the Mahananda and partly 
l)y a line of perennial swamps, representing a former channel of the 
Ganges. To the south but little protection was needed, for the junction 
of the Mahananda and the Ganges a little lower down would have 
prevented an invader from choosing such a circumscribed base of opera- 
tions. To the north, which was the most accessible quarter, an artificial 
bulwark was required ; and this was afforded by a line of fortifications 
about 6 miles in length, extending in an irregular curve from the old 
channel of the Bhagirathi at Sonatala to near the Mahananda at Bhola 
Hat. This rampart, which was mainly composed of earth, was about 
100 feet wide at its base. At the north-east part of the curve was a 
gate protected by a strong projecting outwork in the form of a quad- 
rant, through which a high embanked road passed north and south. 

North of the rampart was the site of the ruins of the palace where 
Ballal Sen is said to have resided, consisting, like the palace at Rampal 
in Dacca District, of a square of about 400 yards surrounded by 
a ditch. No trace, however, can now be found of these ruins, which 
were still extant in the time of Buchanan Hamilton. Behind the 
rampart was the northern suburb of the city. It was of vast extent, in 
the shape of a quadrant of a circle, with an area of about 6,000 square 
yards. The eastern portion is now occupied by marshes, but the 
western portion near the Bhagirathi is enclosed by earthworks and 
contains the remains of many public buildings. Here is situated the 
Sagardighi, the most celebrated artificial piece of water in Bengal, 
which was formed by deepening and embanking natural hollows exist- 
ing in the high clay lands. Its dimensions are nearly 1,600 yards from 
north to south and more than 800 yards from east to west. The banks 
are occupied by Muhammadan buildings, of which the most con- 
spicuous is the tomb of Makhdiim Shaikh Akhi Siraj, one of the saints 
of Ciaur, who came here from Delhi and died in 1357. In the neigh- 
bourhood are the two most frequented places of Hindu pilgrimage in 
the District : namely, Sadullahpur g/idt and the DuarbasinI shrine. 'I'he 

GAUR 189 

,i,'//(7/, which formed the chief descent to the old bed of the Ganges, is 
said to have been the only burning ghat which the Muhammadan rulers 
allowed their Hindu subjects to use, and dead bodies of Hindus arc 
still brought here from great distances to be burned. 

Immediately to the south lies the city itself, which towards each 
suburb and along the Ganges was defended by a strong rampart and a 
ditch. On the side facing the Mahananda the rampart was doubled, 
and in most parts there were two, and in some parts three, immense 
ditches. These works were designed for embankments against inunda- 
tion, and were utilized as drains and as fortifications, the double 
embankment having, apparently, been constructed to prevent the 
Ganges from cutting away the site of Gaur, when the main body of its 
water began to gravitate westwards in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. The encroachments of the river were successfully checked 
by these works, combined with the hardness of the clay of the high 
lands on which Gaur was built ; and the Ganges cut fresh channels 
west of the embanked city, instead of sweeping it away. The base of 
the outer embankment was measured in one place by Mr. Creighton 
and found to be 150 feet thick. By far the greater portion of the city 
appears to have been densely inhabited. Broad roads from east to west 
traversed the northern portion at irregular intervals ; and there were 
also water channels affording easy communication between different 
parts of the city, as well as a regular system of drainage for carrying off 
the rain-water to the large natural and artificial reservoirs. .Somewhat 
to the south, on the banks of the Bhaglrathi, was the citadel or kila^ a 
work evidently of the Muhammadan period, extending in the form of 
an irregular pentagon about a mile in length from north to south and 
about 600 to 800 yards broad. 'Jlie rampart which encircled this was 
strongly built of earth and brick, with many flanking angles and bastions. 
The main entrance was to the north through a noble gate called the 
Dakhil Darwaza, the erection of which is ascribed to Barbak Shah 
{1459-74). The palace at the south-east corner of the citadel was 
surrounded by a wall of brick, 66 feet high and 18 feet broad at 
the base and 8^ feet at the top ; only a portion of this wall, which is 
called the BaisgazI wall or Ghordaur ('racecourse'), is still standing. 
In the interior the remains of several cross-walls are visible, but the 
arrangement of the apartments cannot be ascertained. A little north 
of the palace were the royal tombs, where Ala-ud-din Husain and other 
independent kings of Bengal were buried, but these have now entirely 
disappeared. Within the citadel close to the Lukachuri Gate is the 
Kadam Rasul mosque, erected in 1530 over a stone bearing the im- 
pression of Muhammad's foot. It is still used as a place of worship, 
and is consec[uently in fairly good preservation. Near it is the Chikka 
mosque, so called from the number of bats infesting its interior, which, 

I90 GAL'/^: 

according to sonic traditions, was used not as a mosque but as a court- 
house or a prison. Just outside the east wall of the citadel stands a 
lofty tower known as the Firoz Minar. Local tradition ascribes this 
tower to the reign of Ala-ud-din Husain Shah ; and a plausible hypo- 
thesis is that Firoz Minar is a translation of the Sanskrit /^c/ Stanibha, 
or ' tower of victory,' and that it was erected by Husain Shah after the 
conquest of Assam. According to some writers, it was built by Saif-ud- 
din Firoz. Farther away along the eastern wall of the citadel stand the 
Tantipara and Lotan mosques, both of which date from 1475-80. The 
former is famous for its moulded brickwork. The latter, which consists 
of a single chamber 34 feet square, with a corridor in front 34 feet by 
1 1 feet, is the only building with glazed tiles which has escaped the 
vandal despoilers of previous generations. The name Lotan has been 
explained as a corruption of iiatin or ' dancing girl,' the tradition being 
that the mosque was erected by a woman of that profession. 

About a mile and a half north of the citadel is a plot of land of 
600 square yards surrounded by a rampart and a ditch, known as the 
Flower Ciarden. South-east of this is the Piyasbari, or 'abode of thirst,' 
a tank of considerable dimensions. It is said to have formerly contained 
brackish water, and tradition relates that condemned criminals were 
allowed to drink nothing but the water from this tank, and thus })erished 
of thirst. Between the Piyasbari and the citadel is the Great Golden 
mosque, generally known as the Baradarwazi of Ramkel, which is 180 
feet from north to south, 60 feet from east to west, and 20 feet high to 
the top of the cornice ; it was formerly covered with t^t^ domes, and 
was built by Nusrat Shah in 1526. Another structure of considerable 
interest was the fine central gate in the south wall of the city, which 
fell to pieces in the earthquake of 1897. It was called the Kotwali 
Darwaza, presumably from the circumstance that the superintendent 
of police was stationed here. 

Southwards from this gate stretches an immense suburb called 
Firozpur. It extends as far as Pukhariya, a distance of about 7 miles, 
though its width is comparatively small, and it bears abundant traces of 
having been at one time densely populated. Towards the east and 
south lay an embankment and a ditch, probably designed to ward off 
the floods, which have now formed long marshes in that direction. The 
most prominent building in this suburb is the Golden or Eunuch's 
mosque, erected during the reign of Husain Shah, which is called the 
Small Golden mosque to distinguish it from that mentioned above. It 
has some very fine carvings and is the best preserved mosque with stone 
facings at Gaur. Another monument of some interest is the tomb of 
Niamat-ullah Wall, the spiritual guide of Shah Shuja, which is to this 
day carefully tended by his descendants. 

Government has since lyoo taken steps for the preservation of certain 

c;a ukihar 1 .J I 

of the more interesting or prominent buildings : namely, the Firoz 
Minar, the Kadam Rasul mosque, the Great Golden mosque, and the 
Small Golden mosque ; the tomb of Fateh Khan (said to have been a 
son of Dilawar Khan, a general of Aurangzeb), situated outside the 
enclosure of the Kadam Rasul ; the east gate of the fort, called Luka- 
churi, which was built by Shah Shuja when he temporarily endeavoured 
to revive the city long after its desertion ; the Chikka mosque near the 
jjalace ; the Dakhil Gate, forming the northern entrance to the fort \ the 
Tantipara mosque ; and the Lotan mosque. 

[M. Martin (Buchanan Hamilton), Eastern India, vol. iii (1831) ; 
G. H. Ravenshaw, Gaur, its Ruins and Inscriptions (1878); A. Cun- 
ningham, Archat'fllogical Survey Reports, vol. xv, pp. 39-94 ; Reports of 
the Archaeological Surveyor, Bengal Circle (1900 -i, 1902-3, and 
1903-4) ; :\\v\ Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (igo2-^), 

PP- 51-55-] 

Gaura. -Town in the Deoria tahsil of (jorakhpur District, United 
Provinces, situated in 26'^ 17' N. and 83° 43' E., close to Barhaj, of 
which it practically forms a suburb. Population (1901), 7,965. Gaura 
is administered, together with Barhaj, under Act XX of 1856. There 
are several sugar factories, but not much trade besides. 

Gaurihar. —A petty sanad State in Central India, under the 
Bundelkhand Agency, with an area of 73 square miles. Population 
(1901), 7,760. The chief is a Jijhotia Brahman. His ancestors 
originally held the village of Mahapura (now in Charkharl). Raja Ram 
Tiwari was governor of the fort of Bhuragarh (Banda District), under 
Raja Guman Singh of Ajaigarh ; but during the confusion caused by 
All Bahadur's invasion, he rebelled and became the leader of a 
marauding band. The Ajaigarh chief was unal)le to reduce him t(j 
(jrder, and the British, after their occupation of Bundelkhand, were 
obliged to offer a reward of Rs. 30,000 for his capture. Raja Ram, 
however, thereupon surrendered, on the condition that he should 
receive land on terms similar to those granted to the other Bundela 
chiefs. The grant was made in 1807. Raja Ram died in 1846, and 
was succeeded by Rajdhar Rudra Singh TiwarT, who rescued some 
Europeans during the Mutiny, and was rewarded with the title of Rao 
Bahadur and a khilat of Rs. 10,000. In 1862 he received a sanad oi 
adoption. The present chief is PrithwTpal Singh, who was born in 1886 
and succeeded in 1904. The State contains 22 villages. Of the total area, 
1 2 square miles, or i 6 per cent., are cultivated, and 39 square miles, or 53 
per cent., are cultivable ; the rest is jungle and waste. The chief ad- 
ministers the estate when not a minor, but all serious matters are 
referred to the Political Agent for disposal. The revenue is Rs. 27,000. 
The chief place, Ciaurihar, is situated in 25° 15' N. and 80° 12' E., 
i5-,miles by country track from Banda, on the Jhansi-Manikpu 

ii)2 i'.ALKIIIAR 

section of ihc (.Ircat Indian J'cninsula Railway. l'()i)ulaliun (xyoi), 

Gauripur. — A permanently settled estate in Goalpara District, Eastern 

Bengal and Assam, lying between 25° 38' and 26° 19' N. and 89° 50' 
and 90° 6' E., and consisting of parganas Ghurla, Janiira, Makramj)ur, 
and Kalumalupara, with other smaller parganas. The estate covers 
an area of 583 square miles, and the rent roll is about Rs. 2,34,000 ; 
but the land revenue demand is only Rs. 5,396, and the demand on 
account of local rates Rs. 25,000. This extremely low rate of assess- 
ment is due to the fact that under Mughal rule Goalpara was a frontier 
District. The zamlnddrs were required to keep the peace of the 
marches, and in return to pay a tribute that was little more than 
nominal. At the time of the Permanent Settlement this tribute was 
accepted as the land revenue, though no settlement was ever made in 
detail, and it is doubtful whether the District ever came within the 
purview of the Permanent Settlement at all. The family seat of the 
zamlnddr is at Gauripur, which is a flourishing village about 6 miles 
north of Dhubri. It contains a high school, a dispensary, and a busy 
market. A colony of Marwari merchants carry on a large trade in jute, 
grain, and piece-goods ; and the place contains blacksmiths, wheel- 
wrights, potters, goldsmiths, confectioners, and the complement of 
shopkeepers and artisans found in a small Indian town. 

Gautampura. — Town in the Indore district of Indore State, Central 
India, situated in 22° 59' N. and 75° 35' E., 2)2) niiles north-west of 
Indore city, and 3 miles from the Chambal Station on the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway. It is usually called Runaji-Gautampura, to distinguish 
it from other towns of the same name. Population (1901), 3,103. The 
town is comparatively a modern one, having been founded by Gautama 
Bai, wife of Malhar Rao Holkar (1728-66), after whom it was called. 
A curious concession was made regarding residence in the town, all 
malefiictors, even murderers, being safe from pursuit within its walls. 
Under the patronage of the Rani and her famous daughter-in-law, 
Ahalya Bai, the place soon reached a flourishing state. Gautampura 
is reputed for its calico-printing industry, the products of which find 
a ready market at Indore and in the neighbourhood. A committee 
has been lately (1905) constituted for the control of municipal 
affairs. In the town are a large temple to Siva as Achaleshwar 
Mahadeo, built by Gautama Bai, several smaller edifices, and a monas- 
tery of the Ramsanehi sect of devotees, besides a school and a 

Gavridad. — I'etty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Gawilgarh Hills. — A hill range in Berar, which branches off from 
the Satpuka mountains, and lies between 21° 10' and 21° 47' N. and 
76° 40' and 77^ 53' 1'^. It is named from the fort of Gawilgarh, 


which is situated on its southern side. The range is mentioned in tlie 
Ain-i-Akbari under the name of Banda. It passes in a south-westerly 
direction through Betul, the Melghat or upland country of AmraotT, and 
the southern portion of Nimar, terminating at the junction of the Tapti 
with its principal tributary, the Purna. In the Melghat the crest of 
the range attains an average elevation of 3,400 feet above sea-level, the 
highest point, Bairat, being 3,989 feet. The mean height of the lower 
hills, bordering on the Tapti, is about 1,650 feet. The range is com- 
posed of Deccan trap, of the Upper Cretaceous or lower eocene group. 
The chief passes are Malhara on the east, Deulghat on the west, and 
Bingara on the extreme west ; the first two have been made practicable 
for wheeled trafitic, and the same may be said of communications in the 
Melghat generally. 

Gawilgarh Fort. — A deserted hill fortress in the Satpuras, in the 
Melghat taluk of Amraoti District, Berar, situated in 21^ 22' N. and 
77^^ 23' E., on the watershed between the Purna and Tapti rivers, at an 
elevation of 3,595 feet. It is impossible to say when the Gawilgarh 
hill was first fortified, but the name seems to point to its having been 
at one time a (iaoli stronghold. The fort as it stands is the work of 
Muhammadan builders, and cannot be assigned to an earlier date than 
that given by Firishta, who tells us that it was built by the Bahmani 
king, Ahmad Shah Wali, when he halted at Ellichpur from 1425 to 142S. 
It was improved and thoroughly repaired in 1488 by Fath-ullah Imad- 
ul-mulk, as appears from a partially obliterated inscription over the 
south-western gate. Imad-ul-mulk, who as viceroy of the province under 
the roi faineant, Mahmud Shah Bahmani, had been for some years 
the actual ruler of Berar, was forced in 1490 by the pretensions of the 
minister. Amir Barid, to proclaim himself independent. He founded the 
short-lived Imad Shahi dynasty, whose principal stronghold was Gawil- 
garh. The fort was again improved and repaired in 1577 by the officers 
of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, owing to a premature report 
that Akbar was marching on the Deccan. The BurJ-i-Bahrd?n, a bastion 
in the south-west face, contains an inscription recording its construction 
by Bahram Khan on this occasion. The date (a. h. 985 = a. n. 1577) 
is given in a chronogram. 

The f(jrt was captured from the officer who held it on behalf of the 
king of Ahmadnagar by Saiyid Yusuf Khan Mashhadi and Shaikh Abul 
Fazl in 1597-8, less than two years after Berar had been formally 
ceded to Akbar. In the second Maratha ^\'ar the fortress was held by 
Beni Singh for Raghuji Bhonsla, and was stormed by General Arthur 
Wellesley on December 15, 1803. It was dismantled in 1853. 

The principal building still standing in the fort is the large masjict, 
a tiandsome stone building in the Pathan style of architecture. The 
front of the mosque is formed of seven arches, the central arc h being 

vol.. XII. o 

194 GAU'lr.GARH rORT 

slightly higher than the rest ; and the covered portion was furnurly 
three arches deep, and liad twenty-one domes, but the western wall 
has fallen away and carried with it a row of domes, so that only four- 
teen now remain. A low minaret at the north-eastern angle has some 
handsome stone lattice-work. The gate now known as the Delhi Gate 
has two bas-rcUefSy each representing a double-headed eagle holding 
elephants in its beaks and claws. This bird is the fabulous ganda- 
hherunda, the emblem of the Hindu empire of Vijayanagar in the 
Carnatic ; and the occurrence of the emblem on a gate of the old 
military capital of Berar is particularly interesting, for it enables us to 
assign the gate to Fath-ullah Imad-ul-mulk, who was, as Firishta tells 
us, a Brahman of Vijayanagar captured in boyhood and brought up as 
a Musalman. The gandabhenoida on the Delhi Gate is a proof that 
he was proud of his origin. 

Gaya District. - District in the Patna Division of Bengal, lying 
between 24° 17' and 25° 19' N. and 84° o' and 86° 3' E., with an area 
of 4.712 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Patna District ; 
on the east by Monghyr and Hazaribagh ; on the south by Hazaribagh 
and Palamau ; and on the west by Shahabad, from which it is separated 
by the Son river. 

The southern part of the District is elevated and occupies the 

declivity from the Chota Nagpur plateau, from which numerous ridges 

and spurs project into the plains. About 10 miles 

TJ \% \f C\ f* Q 1 

cts ^outh of Gaya town the surface becomes more 

level ; but semi-isolated ranges stand out from 
the plains, and still farther to the north separate ridges and 
isolated peaks crop up here and there. The chief hills are : the 
Durvasarishi and Mahabar hills in the south of the Nawada sub- 
division, which rise to a height of 2,202 and 1,832 feet above sea- 
level, the former being the highest point in the District ; the Maher 
(1,612 feet) and Hasra hills, the Ganjas and Bhindas, the Jethian 
range running from the neighbourhood of Buddh Gaya to RajgTr and 
Giriak, and the Pahra, CherkI, and Gaya hills in the head-quarters 
subdivision ; the Pawai, Dugul, and I'achar hills in the Aurangabad 
subdivision ; and the Barabar and Kowadol hills in the Jahanabad 
subdivision. The general level falls somewhat rapidly towards the 
north, and numerous hill streams from the highlands of Chota Nagpur 
flow northwards across the District in more or less parallel courses. 
The chief of these from east to west are the Sakri, Dhanarjl, 'I'ilaya, 
Dhadhar, Paimar, Phalgu, Jamuna, Morhar, Dhawa, Madar, Adrl, and 
Punpun ; and the Son, which forms the western boundary of the District. 
The two last-named rivers are the only ones which reach the Ganges. 
The water brought down by the other streams is nearly all used up in 
the network of pcxins or artificial irrigation channels ; the Dhawa and 


Madar are tributaries of the Punpiin, and the Morhar and Phalgu 
also eventually join that river ; while other streams, after being thus 
diverted for the purposes of irrigation, cannot be traced or mingle in 
the rainy season in a huge jhll in the Barh subdivision (of Patna). 
The Phalgu, \vhich is formed by the junction of the Lilajan and 
Mohana rivers about 2 miles below Buddh-Gaya, flows past the 
town of Gaya, and then northwards under the foot of the Barabar Hills. 
This river and the Punpun are regarded by the Hindus as sacred 
streams, and to bathe in them is the duty of every pilgrim who performs 
the Gaya tlrtha or pilgrimage. The most important river is the Son, 
its bed being nearly as broad as that of the Ganges, though it becomes 
almost dry in the hot months. During the rains the current is very 
rapid and navigation difficult, in consequence of which the river is 
used only by small craft up to about 20 tons burden for a few months 
in the year. Between Barun on the Gaya bank and Dehrl on the 
Shahabad side a stone causeway leads the grand trunk road across the 
bed. Just above this causeway is the great anicut of the Son Canals 
system, and below the causeway the river is spanned by one of the 
longest railway bridges in the world, comprising 98 spans of 100 feet 
each ; it is made of iron girders laid on stone-built pillars. 

A considerable part of the District is occupied by the Gangetic 
alluvium, but older rocks rise above its level chiefly in the south and 
east. These are composed for the most part of a foliated gneiss, con- 
sisting of a great variety of crystalline rocks forming parallel bands 
and known as the Bengal gneiss. It is a subdivision of the Archaean 
system, which contains the oldest rocks of the earth's crust. Scattered 
at intervals amid the Bengal gneiss in the east of the District are 
several outcrops of another very ancient series, resembling that 
described in Southern India under the name of Dharwar schists and 
constituting another subdivision of the Archaean system. Owing to 
the predominance of massive beds' of quartzite, these beds stand out 
as abrupt ridges and constitute all the most conspicuous hills of the 
District. Not only are these rocks everywhere altered by ' regional 
nietamorphism,' caused by the great pressure that has thrown them 
into close-set synclinal and anticlinal folds, as expressed by the 
elongated shape of the ridges and high dips of the strata with the 
inducement of slaty cleavage ; but they have also been affected 
to a great extent by contact metamorphism from the intrusion of 
great masses of granite and innumerable veins of coarse granitic 
pegmatite, by which the slates have been further transformed into 
crystalline schists. In its more massive form the granite is relatively 
fine-grained and very homogeneous, and it weathers into great rounded 
hummocks that have suggested the name of ' dome-gneiss ' by which 
it is. sometimes known. It is the narrow sheets of the same intrusive 

o 2 

196 (7.1 )'./" DISTRTCT 

group, where tliey cut across the metamorphosed schists as excessively 
coarse granitic pegmatites, tliat are of most economical importance on 
account of the mica which they contain. 

The Rajgfr hills, consisting of slaty schists and cjuartzites, are less 
metamorphosed ; but contact effects are well seen in the Maher hills, 
and in the detached spurs forming the south-western continuation of 
the Rajglr range near C>aya, where idols and utensils are extensively 
wrought from the soft serpentinous rock of the converted schists. 

The Talcher rocks, which constitute the basement beds of the coal- 
bearing Gondwana series, are seen at the small village of Gangti, 
20 miles south-west-by-west of Sherghati ; and also 4 miles west-by-south 
of Imaniganj, in the bed of the Morhar river, where they occupy a small 
outcrop entirely surrounded by alluvium. This outcrop is of great 
interest, as indicating the possibility that coal-measures may exist 
beneath the alluvial formation in this part of the (iangetic plain '. 

In the north the rice-fields have the usual weeds of such localities. 
Near villages there are often considerable groves of mango-trees and 
]x\lm\ras {Borassiis flabellifer), some date palms {Phoenix sy/vesfris), 
and numerous isolated examples of Tamarindus and other semi- 
spontaneous and more or less useful species. There are no Govern- 
ment torests, but the hills on the south are completely covered with 
dense jungle ; here the fuel-supply of the District is obtained, and the 
lac industry is a considerable source of income to the landlords. The 
principal trees are the plpal {Ficus reh'giosa), tiliii {Melia Azadirachfa), 
banyan {Ficus ifidica), sin's {Albizzia odoratissi)iia\ ma hud (Bassia 
/afifo/ia), palds {Bidea frondosa), sissu i^DaIbe7-gia Sissoo), tamarind 
( Tamarindus i/idiai), jdmun {^Eugenia Jambolana), sal {Shorea robusta\ 
babul {Acada arabica), cotton-tree {Bombax malabaricum), and kahud 
( Terminalia Arjuna). Flowering shrubs and creepers grow luxuriantly 
in the hills after the rains ; and during the cold season wild plums and 
other small edible berries are common in these tracts, and form part 
of the food-supply of the poorer classes. 

Tigers are found in the hills in the south, and leopards, hyenas 
bears, and wild hog on most of the hills in the District. Sdmbar 
{Cervus unicolor), spotted deer {Cen'us axis), 'ravine deer' (Gazella 
bennetti), four-horned antelope {Tetracerus quadricornis\ and barking- 
deer {Cervulus muntjac) live in the jungles in the south ; but their 
numbers are rapidly decreasing. The antelope {Aiitilope cenncapra) 
is still occasionally found. Wolves and wild dogs are compara- 
ti\elv rare. A few nilgai {Boselaphus tragoca7mius) still frequent the 
banks of the Son. Peafowl, jungle-fowl (Gallus ferrugineus), black 

' T. II. Holland, ' Mica Deposits of India,' Metnoirs, Geological Survey of India, 
vol. xxxiv, pt.i. This account was contributed by Mr. \\. Vredenburg. Deputy-Super- 
intendent, Geological Survey of Indin. 


partridge {Fraticolinus vii/garis). grey partridge {Fra/u-o/i/n/s pondi- 
cerianus), and spur fowl i^Galloperdi y .*/.) are found in and akmg the 
skirts of the southern hills. 

By reason of its distance from the sea, Gaya has greater extremes of 
climate than the south and east of Bengal. The mean temperature 
varies from 64^ in January to 93"^ in May, and the highest average 
maximum is 105° in May. Owing to the hot and dry westerly winds 
which prevail in March and April, the humidity at that season averages 
only 51 per cent. With the approach of the monsoon the hunu'dity 
increases, and then remains steady at from 84 to 87 per cent, through- 
out July and August. The annual rainfall averages 42 inches, of which 
5-6 fall in June, 12-1 in July, ri-8 in .\ugust, and 6-4 in September. 
The strength of the monsoon during the month of September is of 
special importance to the cultivator, as the winter rice harvest is 
largely dependent on a good supply of rain at that season. 

Local floods are occasionally caused by the rivers breaching their 
banks after abnormally heavy rain in the hills, or by a river leaving 
its bed and appropriating the channel of a pain or irrigation canal. 
A case of this nature occurred in 1896-7, when the .Sakri river changed 
its course and flooded the lands of some villages in the Nawada sub- 
division, converting a (Considerable area of fertile land into a sandy 
waste. In September, 1901, in consequence of the sudden simulta- 
neous rise of the Son and the Ganges, the former river topped its bank 
near Arwal and flooded Badrabad and other villages, many mud-built 
houses falling in. 

The modern District was comprised, with the country now included 
in Patna and Shahabad, within the ancient kingdom of Magadha. 
Both Patna and Gaya, which formed part of the 
Muhammadan Subah of Bih.\r, passed into the hands 
of the English in 1765, being at first administered from Patna. This 
arrangement lasted till 1781, when Bihar was made into a District 
under a Collector and a Judge-Magistrate. In 1814 the south of the 
District was placed under the jurisdiction of a special Joint-Magistrate, 
stationed at Sherghati. In 1865 Gaya was separated from Patna and 
constituted an independent Collectorate. 

Though Gaya was not the scene of fighting during the Mutiny of 
1857, yet an incident took place in the District worthy of record. The 
sepoys in the cantonments at Dinapore mutinied in July and escai)ed 
into Shahabad. After the first attack upon them by a British force had 
resulted in disaster, orders were issued by the Commissioner of Patna 
to all the civil officers within his jurisdiction to withdraw their establish- 
ments and retire on Dinapore, A small garrison of the 64th Regiment, 
together with a few Sikhs, was then stationed at Gaya town. In 
obedience to the written orders of the Commissioner, the handful of 


soldiers and civilians at Gaya started on the road to Patna, leaving be- 
hind about 7 lakhs in the treasury. But on the way bolder counsels pre- 
vailed. Mr. Money, the Magistrate of the District, and Mr. Hollings, 
an uncovenanted official in the opium agency, determined to return to 
(^laya and save what they could from the general pillage that would in- 
evitably follow u])on the abandonment of the town. The detachment 
of the 64th Regiment was also sent back, llie town was found still at 
peace. By the time that carriage had been collected for the treasure 
the Patna road had become unsafe, and the only means of retreat was 
by the grand trunk road to Calcutta. As soon as the little party had 
started a second time, they were attacked by a mixed rabble of released 
prisoners and the former jail-guards. They repulsed the attack, and 
conveyed the treasure safely to Calcutta. 

The District is full of places of the greatest archaeological interest, 
and the rocky hills teem with associations of the ancient religion of 
Buddha. As a place of Hindu pilgrimage, the town of Cava is of com- 
paratively modern interest, but at Buddh (or Bodh) Cava, 7 miles to 
the south, are remains of great religious and archaeological importance. 
Many Buddhist images are to be found in the neighbourhood and also 
at Punawan, 14 miles east of Gaya. Two miles south of Punawan is 
Hasra hill, identified by Dr. Stein with the Kukkutapada-giri of Pa Hian 
and Hiuen Tsiang. 'Phere are many scattered remains of undoubted 
Buddhist origin in the valley between the Sobhnath hill and Hasra hill 
proper ; while in the neighbouring village of Bishnupur Tarwa are some 
finely cut Buddhist images. At Kurkihar, 7 miles to the north-east, is 
a large mound, from which many Buddhist sculptures have been un- 
earthed. About II miles to the ncjrth-east lies the village of Jethian, 
identified with the Yashtivana of Hiuen Tsiang, in the neighbourhood 
of which there are several sites associated with the wanderings of 
Buddha. At Konch is a curious brick-built temple, and traces of 
Buddhist influence are observable in sculptures round about. Seven 
miles south-east of Gaya is the Dhongra hill, which is clearly identi- 
fiable with the Pragbodhi mountain of Hiuen Tsiang, and contains a 
cave in which Gautama is supposed to have rested before he went to 
Buddh Gaya. At Guneri are many Buddhist images and remains mark- 
ing the site apparently of the Sri Guna Charita monastery. The above 
remains are all in the head-quarters subdivision, in the extreme north of 
which lie the Barabar Hills with their famous rock-cut caves. Not 
far from these hills to the west is the isolated rocky peak of Kowadol, 
at the base of which is a huge stone image of Buddha ; it probably 
marks the site of the ancient Buddhist monastery of Silabhadra. 

In the Nawada subdivision at Sitamarhi, about 7 miles south-west of 
Hisua, is a cave hewn in a large isolated boulder of granite. Tradition 
relates that here Sita, the wife of Rama, gave birth to Lava while in 



exile. Man}- legend.s also eluster round RajaulT, with its pieturesque 
hills and pretty valleys. At Af.sar are several remains, including a fine 
statue of the Varaha or Boar incarnation of Vishnu. 

In the Jahanabad subdivision, about 3 miles north of the Barabar 
Hills, stands Dharavvat, near the site of another Buddhist monastery 
called Gunamati. South of this, on the slope of a low ridge of hills, 
many Buddhist remains have been found. At Dapthu, there are some 
finely carved images and ruins of temples : and not far from here, lying 
halfburied in an open field, is a large carved monolith of granite. At 
Jaru and Banwaria, on the east side of the Phalgu river, are the ruins of 
what must have been a large temple, and there are other remains of 
interest at Kako, Ghenjan, and Ner. 

In the Aurangabad subdivision a fine stone temple stands at Deo 
and a similar one at Umga. I^arge Buddhist images and many remains 
are found at Manda ; and at Bhurha, 2 miles farther east, are some finely 
carved chaHyas and images, and some remains marking the site of 
a monastery. DeokulT, Cheon, and Pachar also contain remains of 
Brahmanical, Buddhist, and Jain interest. 

The recorded population of the present area rose from 1,947,824 in 
1872 to 2,124,682 in 1881 and to 2,138,331 in 1891, but fell again to 
2,059,933 in 1901. The population is not progres- 
sive, and much of the increase between 1872 and 
1881 must have been due to better enumeration. The decrease at the 
Census of 1901 was largely due to the ravages of the plague. The 
greatest loss took place in the central police circles, where plague was 
most prevalent ; but a slight decadence for which plague was not to 
blame occurred in the south-west, where the land is high and barren 
and the crops are scanty and uncertain. The Nawada subdivision in 
the east and a small tract which benefits by irrigation from the Son in 
the north-west added to their population. 

The principal statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below : — 



Area in square 

Number of 


3 3 




Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and iQOi. 


= s 2 ' 



16,695 ! 









Gaya . 

Anrangabad . 
Jahanabad . 

District total 






- tj.7 

+ 3-2 

- J.O 

- 1.8 

- 3-7 






Of the towns, Gaya, the District head-quarters, Tekari, and Daud- 
nagar are municipalities. The other chief towns are Aurang.^, 

200 (/.n/l DISTRICT 

Nawada, ami Jahanaisad. The densit\ of the populaiioii is greatest 
in the north, rising to 666 persons per scjuare mile in the Jahanfibad 
thana : along the southern boundary, wliere a considerable area belongs 
geographically to the Chota Nagpur plateau, it is very sparse, and in 
the Barachati ///dz/a there are only 257 persons per square mile. Gaya 
sends out numerous emigrants to the adjoining Districts of Hazaribagh 
and Palamau, but the most marked feature connected with migration is 
the great number of natives of the District who earn a livelihood in 
distant parts. No less than 58,952, or 2-8 per cent, of the population, 
were residing in Bengal proper at the time of the Census of 1901, and 
of these 36,953 were enumerated in Calcutta. These emigrants are em- 
ployed chiefly as darivans, peons, and weavers in jute-mills : and they 
remit a large portion of their earnings for the support of their families, 
whom they seldom take with them. It was estimated in 1893 that as 
much as Rs. 8,40,000 was thus annually remitted to the District. The 
vernacular of Gaya is the MagahT dialect of Bihari ; the Awadhi 
dialect of Eastern Hindi is spoken by Muhammadans. Of the total 
])opulation. 1,840,382 persons (89-3 per cent.) are Hindus and 219,124 
(10-64 per cent.) Muhammadans. 

The Goalas (306,000) are the most numerous Hindu caste, next to 
whom come Babhans (163,000) and Koiris (145,000). There arc 
several aboriginal or semi-Hinduized tribes, the principal being Bhuiyas 
(i 12,000), Dosadhs (108,000), Musahars (55,000), and Rajwars (53,000). 
The most common higher castes are Brahmans (64,000), Rajputs 
(111,000), and Kayasths (39,000). The Brahmans include a number 
of persons who, though not regular or orthodox Brrdimans, are allowed 
a kind of brevet rank ; among these the most remarkable are the 
Gayawals (.v^^ Gaya Town) and the Dhamins. Many of the functional 
castes are well represented, such as Kahars (110,000), Chamars 
(81,000), 'I'elis (58,000), KurmTs (41,000), Barhais (39,000), and 
Hajjams and Pasis (38,000 each). Among Muhammadans, Jolahas 
(74,000) are the most numerous. Agriculture supports 65-1 per cent, 
of the population, industries 14 per cent., commerce o-6 per cent., and 
the professions 1-9 per cent. 

Christians number only 253, of whom 40 are natives ; the missions 
at work are the London Baptist Missionary Society, the London 
Baptist Zanana Missionary Society, and the ^^'orld's I^^aith Missionary 

The northern portion of the District, extending .southwards to about 

10 miles beyond Gaya town and constituting about two-thirds of the 

. . whole area, is fairly level and is mostly under cultiva- 

Agnculture. „ , 1 1 • , 1 1 n r 

tion. farther south the rise towards the hills of 

Chota Nagpur is more rapid, the country is intersected with hills and 

ravines, the proportion of sand in the soil is much higher, and a large 



area is composed of liill and scrub-covered jungle, which extends for 
several miles below the hills. Cultivation in this tract is far more 
scanty ; but in recent years large areas of waste have been reclaimed, 
and the process will probably be accelerated with the opening of new 
lines of railway and the general improvement of communications. Be- 
tween the numerous rivers the land is higher : in the south these dodbs 
can only be irrigated with difficulty, and rabi and hhadoi crops are most 
grown. Farther north, where the surface is more level, most of them 
can be watered by channels from the rivers and from dhars, and rice is 
largely grown. In the west near the Son a considerable area, which 
was formerlv sandy and infertile, is irrigated from the Patna canal and 
its distributaries. In the ]iorthern tract the soil is generally alluvial, 
consisting chiefly of clay with a small proportion of sand. In the 
south, however, sand generally predominates. In some parts the soil 
is impregnated with carbonate of soda. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1905-4 are given below, areas 
being in square miles : — 


Total. Cultivated. Cultivable Irrigated.* 


Gaya . 

Jahanabad . 


^905 ' 1.049 92 i ... .' 

95.5 ' 498 .37 
1,246 657 9,S 52 

606 508 20 1 33 

4,7'-' j 2,712 , 247 


* This column represents tin; ,irea iirigated from Government canals. Statistics 
slio\vin<( the area irrijjated from private channels, tanks, wells, &c., are not available ; 
but it is estimated that in the whole District the area irrijrated from all sources is 
-5 percent, of the total cultivated area. 

'J'he area twice cropped is estimated at 287 square miles, 'i'he most 
important staple is rice, grown on 1,382 square miles or about 51 per 
cent, of the cultivated area. Besides this, a great variety of crops are 
raised ; and it is not unusual to find four crops--such as gram, wheat, 
sesamum, and linseed — grown together in the same field : to this feet 
and to the protection afforded by the Son Canals and the indigenous 
system of irrigation followed in the District may be ascribed the com- 
parative immunity it enjoys from famine. Wheat covers about 249 
square miles ; and the other important cereals and pulses arc gram, 
mania., maize, barley, khesdri, masur, peas, urd, and i/ifiiig. Bdjra and 
j invar are cultivated to a large extent on high lands. Oilseeds cover 329 
square miles, the chief crop being linseed, grown on 160 square miles. 
Gaya is one of the chief opium-producing Districts in Bengal, and 75 
square miles are devoted to the cultivation of the poppy. Sugar-cane 
is widely grown, as also are potatoes, yams and other vegetables, and 
/>d)fo\ betel-leaf. 

202 GAVA DlSIRIcr 

In tlu' ten years ending 1901 2, 2-83 lakhs was advanced under 
the Land Improvement Loans Act and Rs. 67,000 under the Agricul- 
turists' Loans Act ; the loans are chiefly used for the improvement or 
extension of the means of irrigation. 

The local cattle are small but sturd)-. Extensive pasture lands exist 
in the thinly cultivated tracts in the south, but elsewhere the cattle are 
largely fed on chopped straw. Sheep are reared extensively by the 
Gareri caste, especially near the hills where grazing is plentiful : and 
their wool is used in the manufacture of carpets, rugs, and blankets. 
Goats are common, and pigs are kept by Bhuiyas, Musahars, Dosadhs, 
and Doms. A veterinary dispensary is maintained at Gaya by the Dis- 
trict board. Numerous religious gatherings are held at various places 
in the District, especially in Gaya town, which is a place of pilgrimage 
throughout the year ; to some of these cattle and ponies are brought for 
sale, but no special fair is held for the sale of cattle. 

Agricultural prosperity depends almost entirely on irrigation. It is 
supplied in the west by two branches of the Son Canals system. The 
Eastern Main Canal, which was originally intended to pass across Gaya 
into Monghyr, runs eastward for 8 miles to the Pilnpun river, and 
the Patna Canal runs northwards for 43 miles before entering Patna 
District. One-fifth of the District is thus irrigated, the area actually 
supplied with water from these canals and their distributaries in 1903-4 
being 85 square miles. The remainder is cut into parallel strips by 
a number of rivers which flow from south to north. Between each 
pair of rivers is necessarily a watershed, and in the slope leading from 
it to the river reservoirs are constructed. These are filled either by 
the rain-water which comes down the slope, this system being known 
as ge/irdba>idi\ or from a water channel {pain) which passes along the 
side, and takes off from the river at a higher level. As the rivers fall 
only 6 feet in the mile, the channels are sometimes carried to a con- 
siderable distance, and Dr. Grierson writes of having seen one 20 miles 
long. Whenever a flood comes down, during the rainy season, it fills 
all the reservoirs {ahars) attached to each channel, ^\'ell-lrrigation 
is largely resorted to in the neighbourhood of villages, where less 
expensive methods are not practicable. Though no accurate statistics 
are available, it is believed that about 156 square miles are irrigated 
by these means. 

The principal mineral product is mica, which is found at vSapahi, 
Singar, Basron, Chatkari, and Belam in the Nawada subdivision, and 
in smaller quantities among the hills in the south on 
the border of Hazaribagh. The seams are reached 
by blasting ; and the sheets of mica are then dug out, separated, 
clipped, and sorted and packed according to size, and dispatched to 
Calcutta for export to America and Europe. In 1903 the only mines 



worked regularly were those at Sapahl, Basron, Singar, and Belam. 
The average number of labourers employed was 464 ; they are drawn 
from the ordinary labouring classes, and are paid a daily wage varying 
from 2 to 6 annas, according to age, sex, and skill. The output, which 
varies according to the demand in the market, amounted in 1903 to 
122 tons. Iron ore is found in considerable quantities at Pachamba 
in the Nawada subdivision and at Lodhwe in the head-quarters sub- 
division, but is not now worked. It also exists in the Barabar Hills, 
where there were formerly smelting works under European manage- 
ment ; it is now being worked again to a small extent. Granite, 
.syenite, and laterite are quarried in many of the hills for building 
purposes and road-metalling. The so-called Gaya black stone, of 
which ornaments, bowls, and figures are carved, is quarried at Pathab 
kati in the Atri fhii/ia, and worked chiefly by stone-carvers who claim 
to be of Brahman descent and to have come from Jaipur. Potter)' 
clay exists in many places, and nodules of limestone are found in 
scattered localities. Saltpetre is manufactured, chiefly in the J^ihanabad 
subdivision, from efflorescences on the clay of village sites. 

The manufactures include lac, sugar, tasar and cotton cloth, brass 
utensils, stoneware, gold and silver ornaments, blankets, rugs and 
carpets. Paper was formerly made on a large scale 

at Arwal, but the industry has entirely died out. ,„J[^^!!f;5f,?^„e 
' -' -^ communications. 

Silk cloth is woven to a considerable extent at 
Manpur near Gaya, and in a smaller degree at Kadirganj in the 
Nawada subdivision and Daudnagar. Carpets and rugs are manu- 
factured at Obra and Daudnagar. Brass utensils are also made in 
large quantities at the latter town. Carving in wood was formerly an 
important industry, and the caivers had attained much proficiency, as 
is evident from some examples still existing in the balconies, doors, 
and windows of Old Gaya; but the art has almost died out. Cane 
chairs are made at Gaya, but not to any great extent. Small statues 
of animals and figures of gods are carved by a few artists at Gaya from 
black stone. Sugar refining is on the wane, but raw sugar is largely 
manufactured for export. The lac insect is cultivated, generally on the 
/la/dstree {^Biitm frondosa) in the southern jungles ; and the manu- 
factured product, which is prepared in about forty factories, is exported 
chiefly to Calcutta. The average annual out-turn is estimated at 
50,000 maunds. 

The principal exports are food-grains, especially rice, oilseeds, 
pepper, crude opium, raw sugar, ntahuCi flowers, saltpetre, mica, lac, 
blankets, carpets, stone and brass utensils, hides, prepared tobacco, 
and betel-leaves. Among the imports are salt, coal, coke, piece-goods 
and shawls, kerosene oil, tea, cotton, timber, tobacco (unmanufactured 
dry leaves), iron, spices of all kinds, dried and fresh fruits, refined 


sugar, paper, and various articles of European manufacture. The bulk 
of the trade is with Calcutta, but unrefined sugar finds its way in large 
quantities to the Central Provinces, Rajputana, Central India, and 
Berar. The chief centres of trade are Gaya, Tekari, Gurua, Ranlganj, 
and Imamganj in the head-cjuarters subdivision ; RajaulT and Akbarpur 
in Nawada ; Jahanabad and Arwal in Jalianabad : and Daudnagar, 
Deo, Aiaharajganj, Tarwa, Khiriawan, Rafiganj, and Jinnhor in the 
Aurangabad subdivision. Owing to tlic opening of new railways, which 
now tap most of the trade routes in the District, several other places 
are rising in importance, the most noticeable being Nawada. Feeder- 
roads have been constructed by the District board, and trade tends 
more and more to converge upon the railway stations. For the con- 
veyance of produce, bullock-carts are used, but pack-bullocks also are 
still very largely employed, especially in the hilly parts. The principal 
classes engaged in trade are the various Baniya castes and Marwaris ; 
some Mughals deal in sugar, cloths, and shawls. 

The Patna-Gaya branch connects Gaya with tiie main line of the 
East Indian Railway at Bankipore, 34^ miles of it lying within the 
District. Three other lines have recently been opened : namely, the 
South Bihar branch, which runs east from Gaya t(j Luckeesarai through 
the Nawada subdivision, 58 miles falling within the District : the 
Mughal Sarai-Ciaya branch from Gaya through the Aurangabad sub- 
division to Mughal Sarai, 51 miles lying within Gaya; and the Barun- 
Daltonganj branch, which leaves the latter line at Barun on the Son 
and runs for 23-^ miles before it enters Palamau District. A fifth line 
from Gaya to Katrasgarh, of which 34 miles fall within Gaya District, 
has recently been completed, and, with the Mughal Sarai-Gaya line, 
forms the grand chord-line to Calcutta. 

The District is intersected by numerous excellent roads, of which 
202 miles are metalled and 719 miles unmetalled, in addition to 
628 miles of village tracks. The chief lines are : the grand trunk road; 
with a length of 51 miles maintained from Provincial funds ; the 
Kharhat-Rajauli road, running from Bihar to Nawada and southwards ; 
the Gaya-Salimpur road, which is a portion of the Patna-Gaya road, 
running parallel to the Patna-Gaya Railway ; and the Gaya-Nawada 
road, with several feeder-roads leading from it to the stations on the 
South Bihar Railway. 

A small steamer plies weekly on the Patna Canal, but it carries very 
little merchandise. None of the small rivers is navigable. Most of 
them, where not bridged, are provided with ferries during the rainy 
season, but the only large ferry is that across the Son from Daudnagar 
to Nasriganj in Shahabad District. 

Owing to the construction of the Son Canals, the indigenous system 
of irrigation which prevails, and the improvement in connnunications 


which has taken place since 1874, the District is not seriously affected 
by famines. The whole of the western border is protected by the 
Son Canals, and almost all the remainder of the 
District by the local system of reservoirs and channels 
described above. A great variety of crops are grown, and it rarely 
happens that famine obtains a grip over any considerable area. The 
famine of t866 affected 1,300 square miles; but the majority of the 
people were able to support themselves, and the relief operations were 
on a comparatively small scale, costing only Rs. 22,000, of which 
Rs. 12,000 was raised by local subscription. In 1874 also the District 
was not seriously involved ; the food-supply was augmented by private 
trade, and the Government had only to supplement it by a small 
amount of grain, and by the provision of relief works on the canals. 
The total expenditure on that occasion was 1-38 lakhs. .Slight scarcities 
occurred in 1888-9 and 1891-2, while in 1896-7, when severe famine 
was felt over a large part of India, prices rose very high, and the land- 
less labourers suffered much in consequence. No regular works were 
opened, but 50,000 persons were gratuitously relieved, most of them 
iieing travellers passing through the District in search of labour. The 
total expenditure was only about Rs, 18,000, all of which was sub- 
scribed locally. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into four sub 
divisions, with head-quarters at Sahibganj (Gav.\ Town), Nawada, 

Jahanabad, and Aurangabad. The District head- 

^- , ,. 1 AT • A- ,1 Administration. 

quarters staff subordinate to the Magistrate-Collector 

consists of three or four Deputy-Magistrate-Collectors, besides two 
special Deputy-Collectors for excise and partition work. A Joint- 
Magistrate is usually deputed to Gaya for the cold-season months, 
and one or two .Sub- Deputy-Collectors and an Assistant Magistrate- 
Collector are also occasionally posted to the District. The Nawada, 
Jahanabad, and Aurangabad subdivisions are in charge of Deputy- 
Magistrate-Collectors, and sometimes, in the case of the two sub- 
divisions first named, of Assistant Magistrates. 

The civil courts are those of the District and Sessions Judge, two 
Sub-Judges, and four Munsifs, one of whom sits at Aurangabad. The 
criminal courts include those of the District and Sessions Judge, the 
1 )istrict Magistrate, and the above-mentioned Joint, Assistant, and 
Deputy-Magistrates. A special magistrate is authorized under section 14 
of the Criminal Procedure Code to try cases connected with breaches 
of the Irrigation laws. The District was formerly notorious for the 
prevalence of crime, especially in the south, which was in a lawless 
state, dacoities and highway robberies being frequent. Now, though 
dacoities are occasionally committed, the commonest offences are 
burglary, cattle-stealing, and riots caused by disputes about irrigation. 


Owing to changes in the jurisdiction of tlie District and the destruc- 
tion of records at the time of the Mutiny, early statistics of the land 
revenue are not available. The current demand has risen from 
13-8 lakhs in 1 870-1 to 14-39 lakhs in 1903-4. Subdivision of estates 
has gone on rapidly, there being in the latter year 7,876 estates, of 
which 7,828 with a demand of i3'4o lakhs were permanently settled, 
15 with a demand of Rs. 47,000 temporarily settled, and the remainder 
were held direct by Government. Among special tenures may be 
mentioned altamgha grants, or lands given in perpetuity as a reward 
for conspicuous military service ; ghdfwdli lands, assigned for the 
maintenance of guards and patrols on roads and passes ; and viadat- 
1/ids/i, lands granted to favourites and others. About 70 per cent, "of 
the cultivated land is held under the system of bhaoli or produce rents. 
There are two kinds : ddndbandi, where the crop is appraised while 
standing in the field ; and l>atai or agorlmfai, where the crop is taken 
to the threshing-floor and divided equally between the landlord and 
tenant after the labourers engaged in cutting and carrying it have been 
given their share. Under the dd?td/>andi system also the crop is 
supposed to be divided equally, but in practice the landlord's share 
is generally -^^ths and often even more. In the case of cash rents 
three kinds of tenure obtain : namely, the ordinary ?iagdi, skikm'i, and 
chakath. A shikiiii tenure in tliis District means a tenure held on 
a cash rent fixed for ever. A chakath holding is one in which the rent 
is fixed for a term of years ; the term is also often applied to settle- 
ments made for the reclamation of cultivable waste. Another local 
tenure is the paran or para/ipheri, under which rice land held on the 
bhaoli system and suited to the growth of sugar-cane or poppy is settled 
at a specially high rate of rent in the years when these crops are grown. 
The following rates of rent per acre may be regarded as fairly general : 
rice land, if fit for only a single crop, Rs. 1-8-0 to Rs. 8, and if 
yielding a double crop, Rs. 3 to Rs. 10 ; land on which wheat, barley, 
gram, pulses, and (^Iseeds are grown, Rs. 2 to Rs. 8 ; sugar-cane and 
poppy land, Rs. 3 to Rs. 16; land growing bhddoi crops such as 
maize, »iarud, ox jowdi% Rs. 1-8-0 to Rs. 5 ; and land growing potatoes, 
Rs. 4 to Rs. 16. The Government estates in the District and part 
of the Tekari estate with a total area of 582 square miles were 
cadastrally surveyed and settled between 1893 and 1898. The 
incidence of land revenue was found to be R. 0-10-5 P^'' ^^"^^ ^'id the 
rent Rs. 4-0-10, the land revenue demand thus amounting to only 16 per 
cent, of the rent. Over the whole District the maximum and minimum 
rent rates per acre are about Rs. 16 and 8 annas respectively, the average 
being Rs. 5-12-0. The average holding of a ryot is about 6 acres. 
Recently the Deo and Maksudpur estates, with an area of 92 and 132 
square miles respectively, have also come under survcv and settlement. 



The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of 
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : — 

Land revenue 
Total revenue 



1 890- 1. 







Outside the municipalities of (Java, Tkkari, and Daudnagar, local 
affairs are managed by the District board, with subordinate local boards 
in each subdivision except the head-(iuarters subdivision. In 1903-4 • 
its income was Rs. 3,26,000, of which Rs. 2,26,000 was derived from 
rates ; and the expenditure was Rs. 3,07,000, including Rs. 2,04,000 
spent on public works and Rs. 45,000 on education. 

In 1903 the District contained 14 police stations and 22 outposts ; 
and the force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted 
of 5 inspectors, 49 sub-inspectors, 56 head constables, and 659 con- 
stables. The rural police consisted of 389 daffadars and 3,648 
chaukiddrs. The District jail at Gaya has accommodation for 542 
prisoners, and subsidiary jails at Nawada, Jahanabad, and Aurang- 
abad for 105. 

Gaya District is backward in [)oint of education, and only 3-6 per 
cent, of the population (7-2 males and 0-2 females) could read and 
write in igoi. The number of pupils in the schools increased from 
19,118 in 1880-1 to 26,250 in 1892-3 and to 26,849 "'' T900-1. In 
1903-4 37,824 boys and 2,303 girls were at school, being respectively 
24-9 and 1-4 per cent, of the children of school-going age. The 
number of educational institutions, public and private, in that year was 
1,598, including 19 secondary, 979 primary, and 600 special schools. 
The expenditure on education was Rs. 1,49,000, of which Rs. 14,000 
was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 45,000 from District funds, Rs. 
3,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 51,000 from fees. The chief 
institutions are the Government school and two private schools at 
Gaya town, and a school maintained by the Tekari Raj at Tekari, 
all teaching English uj) to the matriculation standard. 

In 1903 the District contained 15 dispensaries, of which 10 had 
accommodation for 182 in-patients; the cases of 90,000 out-patients 
and 2,300 in-patients were treated, and 7,000 operations were per- 
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 67,000, of which Rs. 3,000 was 
met by Government contributions, Rs. 22,000 from Local funds and 
Rs. 7,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 25,000 from subscriptions. 
The chief institutions are the pilgrim and mt/d/ia hospitals at 
Gaya town. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas, but the practice 
is steadily gaining ground, and the jjcople as a whole are beginning to 

2o8 6'.-/ ):/ DISfRICr 

realize its efficacy. In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully 
vaccinated was 58,000, or 29-5 per 1,000. 

[M. Martin (i^uchanan-Hamilton), Eastern India, vol. i (1838) ; 
G. A. (Irierson, Notes on the District of Gayd (Calcutta, 1893) ; 
L. S. S. O'Malley, District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1906).] 

Gaya Subdivision. — Head-quarters subdivi.sion of Gaya District, 
Bengal, lying between 24° 17' and 25° 5' N. and 84° 17' and 85° 24' E., 
with an area of 1,905 scjuare miles. The population in 1901 was 
751,855, compared with 832,442 in 1891. A plague epidemic was 
raging at the time of the Census of 1901, which not only caused many 
deaths and a considerable exodus, but also made the work of enumera- 
tion exceptionally difficult. The subdivision comprises two tracts, that 
to the north being a level plain dotted with isolated hills and contain- 
ing some long hill ranges, that to the south an undulating country 
with several hills forming the northern fringe of the Chota Nagpur 
plateau. The density for the whole subdivision is only 395 persons 
per square mile, and the population along the south is very sparse. 
It contains three towns, Gava (population, 71,288), its head-quarters, 
Tekari (6,437), the residence of the Tekari family {see Tekari Raj), 
and Sherghati (2,641) ; and 2,999 villages. Gaya town, which pos- 
sesses a very ancient history, is an important place of pilgrimage, and 
at BuDDH Gaya are remains of unusual religious and archaeological 
importance. The subdivision contains numerous other remains of 
great interest, which have been referred to in the articles on Gava 
District and Barabar Hills. 

Gaya To'wn.— Chief town, and, with Sahibganj, the administrative 
head-quarters of Gaya District, Bengal, situated in 24° 49' N. and 
85° i' E., on the left bank of the Phalgu river, on branches of the 
East Indian Railway leading to Patna, Mughal Sarai, Luckeesarai, and 
Katrasgarh. The town is divided into two adjoining parts, Gaya 
proper or the old town, and Sahibganj or the new town. The old 
town, which contains the famous temple of Vishnupada and other 
sacred shrines, is chiefly inhabited by the Gayawal priests. The new 
town (Sahibganj) is the administrative head-quarters of the District, 
and contains all the public offices, revenue, magisterial, civil, opium, 
police, &c., the dwelling-houses of the European officers and residents, 
and also the police station and lines, hospitals, circuit and dak bunga- 
lows, railway offices, a church, a public library, a school, and a 
racecourse. The jail building, which was formerly in the midst of 
the new town, has now been removed to a distance. It has accom- 
modation for 542 prisoners, who are employed on oil-pressing, breaking 
of road metal, weaving of darls and newar, manufacture of bamboo 
baskets, money-bags, string and mats, jute twine, and cotton rope. 
The streets of the old town arc narrow, but those of the new town are 

G'jyJ TOirX 2oy 

generally straight and broad with numerous cross-roads. There are 
many brick houses, often three storeys high. The population, which 
was 66,843 ''"' 1872, rose to 76,415 in 1881 and to 80,383 in 1891, but 
fell in 1901 to 71,288, the heavy decrease probably being entirely due 
to the plague which was raging at the time of the ('ensus. Of those 
enumerated, 54,223, or 76 per cent., were Hindus, and 16,778, or 23 
per cent., Musalmans, while among the others were 156 Christians and 
121 Jains. Ciaya was constituted a municipality in 1865. The in- 
come during the decade ending 190 1-2 averaged Rs. 88,000, and the 
expenditure Rs. 83,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,13,000, 
including Rs. 50,000 derived from a tax on houses and lands, Rs. 
23,000 from a conservancy rate, Rs. 9,000 from a tax on vehicles, 
and Rs. 5,000 as revenue from markets. The incidence of taxation 
was Rs. 1-2-8 per head of the po!)ulation. In the same year the ex- 
penditure amounted to Rs. 1,06,000, the chief items being Rs. 4,000 
spent on lighting, Rs. 2,000 on drainage, PvS. 42,000 on conservancy, 
Rs. 16,000 on medical relief, Rs. 8,000 on roads, and Rs. 2,000 on 
education. A scheme of water-sui)ply is und^r consideration, but has 
been deferred for lack of funds. 

According to the Bhagavat Purana, Gaya was the name of a king 
who dwelt in the town in the Treta-Yuga. The more generally 
accepted legend, however, is that contained in the Vayu Purana, 
according to which Gaya was the name of an Asura, or demon of giant 
size, who by long and austere penance and devotion obtained the 
quality of holiness to such an extent that all who saw or touched him 
were admitted to heaven. \'ania, the lord of hell, grew jealous and, 
pleading that his post was becoming a sinecure, api)ealed to the gods, 
who, after conferring in council, visited Gaya and persuaded the demon 
to grant his pure and holy body as a place of sacrifice. To this Gaya 
assented, and la)- down with his head resting where the old town of 
Gaya now is. Vama then placed a sacred rock {dharmasila) on his 
head ; but this was not sufficient to keep him c[uiet until Vishnu 
promised the rock should be the holiest spot on earth, that the devas 
should rest there, that the locality should be known as Gayd-kshettra, 
and that whoever offered funeral cakes and performed the funeral 
ceremonies there should be translated with their ancestors to the 
heaven of Brahma. This legend, purporting to explain the reason 
for the [)eculiar sanctity of the spot which is an object of pilgrimage 
to every member of the Hindu religion, contains, in the opinion of 
the late Dr. Rajendralala Mitra, an allegory of the final victory of 
Brahmanism over Buddhism, which had flourished strongly in and 
around Gaya for many centuries. The pilgrimage to Gaya is under- 
taken by thousands of Hindus from every part of India. There are 
forty--five places at which the pilgrims should offer piiuias or funeral 

VOL. XII. r 


cakes in the Gayd-kshetlra, an area extending from 5 miles north- 
west of Gaya to 7 miles south. The whole forty-five are rarely visited 
now, the majority of pilgrims contenting themselves with seven and 
often with three only. The Vishnupada, a temple built over the foot- 
print of Vishnu on the solid rock that crops up on the west bank of the 
Phalgu river, and round which the old town of Gaya proper was built, 
may be regarded as the centre of this pilgrimage, and is the largest and 
most important temple in Gaya. It faces east, the facade being very 
striking. It is an ugly octagonal building about too feet high, with 
many very clumsy mouldings. 'I'he threshold is guarded by high 
folding doors plated with silver. In the centre is an octagonal basin 
plated with silver, which surrounds the impress on the rock of the 
god's foot about 16 inches in length. Pilgrims to the temple stand 
round the basin and throw in their offerings of rice and water. To the 
south of the temple, almost touching it, is a handsome pillared hall or 
porch, where the bare rock shows itself; in fact the pillars are let into 
the solid rock for a foundation. This temple is said to have been 
erected in the eighteenth century by Ahalya Bai, widow of Holkar of 
Indore, on the site of a more ancient temple. The Gayawals are the 
hereditary officiating priests, possessing the exclusive privilege to grant 
to the pilgrims the blessing without which their visit would be in- 
effectual, and they take advantage of their position to obtain from the 
pilgrims such gifts as they are able to afford. The poorest pilgrim can 
rarely get through the functions required of him under five rupees, 
while certain princes are reputed to have sfjent more than a lakh. 

[M. Martin (Buchanan-Hamilton), Eastern India, vol. i (1838); 
L. S. S. O'Malley, District Gazetteer of Gaya (Calcutta, 1906).] 

Gedi. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Geonkhali. —Village in the Tamluk subdivision of Midnapore 
District, Bengal, situated in 22° 10' N. and 87° 57' E., on the right 
bank of the Hooghly river at the entrance of the Orissa Coast canal. 
Population (1901), 524. It is a considerable trading centre. A steam 
ferry crosses from Diamond Harbour in connexion with the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway. There is a lighthouse here, known as the 
Cowcolly lighthouse. 

Georgegarh {Jahiizgarh). — Village in the Jhajjar ta/is'ii of Rohtak 
District, Punjab, situated in 28° 37' N. and 76^^ 36' E. Population 
(1901), 1,285. It was founded by George Thomas, who built a fort tf) 
overawe the towns of Beri and Jhajjar, which was besieged and taken 
by a large Maratha force under Louis Bourquin, Thomas being obliged 
to retire to Hansi (1801). A large cattle fair is held here twice a year. 

Gersoppa Falls. — The Gersoppa Falls are situated in 14*^ 14' N. 
and 74° 49' E., on the Bombay-Mysore frontier, about r8 miles east of 
Gersoppa, and 2)S 'ni'cs east of Honavar (North Kanara District), from 


which they can best be visited. They are locally known as the Jog 
Falls, from the neighbouring village of Jog. The waterfall is on the 
vSharavatT river, which, with a breadth above the falls of about 230 feet, 
hurls itself over a chff 830 feet high, in four separate cascades, known 
as the Raja (or Horseshoe) Fall, the Roarer, the Rocket, and La Dame 
Blanche. The best time to see the falls is early in December, when the 
river is low enough to make it possible to cross to the left or Mysore 
bank. Between June and November, when the river is flooded, the 
banks are shrouded in clouds of mist. From Gersoppa village the road 
climbs about 10 miles through noble stretches of forest to the crest of 
the Gersoppa or Malemani pass, and from the crest passes 8 miles 
farther to the falls. Close underwood hides all trace of the river, till, 
at the bungalow near the falls, the plateau conunands a glorious view. 
The rock of the river-bed and the cliff over which the river falls are 
gneiss associated w'ith hypogene schists. The Gersop[)a Falls eclipse 
every other in India and have few rivals in the world for height, volume, 
and beauty combined. The varying effects of light and shade at dif- 
ferent times of the day are among their greatest beauties. In the after- 
noon, as the sun sinks to the west, a lovely rainbow spans the waters ; 
at night, the moon at times throws across the spray a belt of faintly- 
tinted light. On a dark night, rockets, bla/ing torches, or bundles of 
burning straw cast over the cliff light the raging waters with a litful and 
weird glare. The best sight of the chasm is gained by lying down and 
peering over a pinnacle of rock, which stands out from the edge of the 
cliff. The finest general view of the falls is from the Mysore bank. 
From the right bank of the river a rough bamboo bridge crosses the 
Raja channel to the rocks beyond. The path then keeps well above 
the edge of the cliff, among large rocks, over small channels, and across 
seven or eight of the broader streams by rude bamboo and palm-stem 
bridges. On the left or Mysore bank a well-kept path leads through 
shady woods to a point called Watkins's Platform, which commands 
a view across the chasm to tlie deep cleft where the waters of the Raja 
and the Roarer join and plunge into the pool below. Hence a farther 
path through the woods leads down a series of steep steps to the open 
hill-side, which slopes to the bed of the river. The edge of the pool 
affords a fine general view of the falls, of the magnificent rugged chasm, 
and of the deep winding gorge through which, in the course of ages, 
the waters of the river have untiringly eaten their way. 

Gersoppa Village ( = ' the cashew-nut'). — Village in the Honavar 
taluka of North Kanara District, Bombay, situated in 14° 14' N. and 
74° 39' E., on the Sharavati, about 18 miles east of Honavar and a 
similar distance from the falls known by this name. The village is 
pleasantly placed on the left bank of the river, shaded by a grove of 
coco-liuts. About a mile and a half east of Gersoppa arc the extensive 


ruins of Nagarbastikere, which was the capital of the jain ciiiofs of 
Gersoppa (1409-1610), and is locally believed to have contained, in 
its prosperous days, 100,000 houses and 84 temples. The chief object 
of interest is a cross-shaped Jain temple, with four doors and four 
images. There are five other ruinous temples, in which are a few 
images and inscriptions. The temple of Varddhaman or Mahavira- 
swami contains a fine black stone image of Mahavira, the twenty-fourth 
or last Jain Tirthankar. There are four inscribed stones in Vard- 
dhaman's temple. 

According to tradition the Vijayanagar kings (i 336-1 565) raised a 
Jain family of Gersoppa to power in Kanara, and Buchanan records 
a grant to a temple of Gunvanti near Manki in 1409 by Itchappa 
Wodearu Pritani, the Gersoppa chief, by order of Pratap Dev Rai 
Trilochia of the family of Harihar. Itchappa's granddaughter became 
almost independent of the Vijayanagar kings. The chiefship seems to 
have been very often held by women, as almost all the writers of the 
sixteenth and early part of the seventeenth century refer to the queen 
of Gersoppa or Bhatkal. In the early years of the seventeenth century 
Bhaira Devi of Gersoppa, the last of the name, was attacked and 
defeated by Venkatappa Naik, the chief of Bednur. According to 
a local account, she died in 1608. In 1623 the Italian traveller Delia 
Valle describes the place as once a famous city, the seat of a cjueen, the 
metropolis of a province. The city and palace had fallen to ruin and 
were overgrown with trees ; nothing was left but some peasants' huts. 
So famous was the country for its i)epper that the Portuguese called the 
queen of Gersoppa ' Rainha da Pimenta,' or the Pepper-Queen. 

Gevrai. — Northern taluk of Bhir District, Hyderabad State, with an 
area of 506 square miles. The population in 1901, including y<?^''z/-j-, 
was 58,361, compared with 81,119 i'l i<^9i) the decrease being due to 
the fiimines of 1897 and 1 899-1 900. The taliik has 135 villages, of 
which 16 ■dxejaglr; and Gevrai (population, 3,965) is the head-quarters. 
The land revenue in 1901 was 2-3 lakhs. The Godavari in the north 
separates the taluk from Aurangabad District. 

Ghaggar. — River of Northern India. It rises on the lower slopes of 
the Himalayas in the Native State of Sirmur, in 30^4' N. and 77° 14' E. 
Passing within three miles of Ambala town and touching British terri- 
tory, it traverses the Native State of Patiala, where it receives the 
Sarasvvati, enters Hissar District, and finally loses itself in Bikaner 
territory near Hanumangarh, formerly called Bhatnair. The river was 
once an affluent of the Indus, the dry bed of the old channel being still 
traceable. It is not a perennial stream, but depends on the monsoon 
rainfall for its supply. At present every village through which the 
stream passes in its u[)per course diverts a [jortion of its waters for 
irrigation, and no less than 10,000 acres in Ambala District alone arc 


supplied from tliis source. The dams thus erected check the course of 
the stream, while the consequent deposit of silt, greatly facilitated by 
the dams, has permanently diminished the power of the water to force 
its way across the dead level of the Karnal or Patiala plains. Near 
Jakhal station on the Southern Punjal) Railway a District canal, the 
Rangoi, takes off from the main stream, and irrigates an average of 
12,000 acres annually. The J^ikaner Darbar constantly complained 
that the dams constructed in Hissar District prevented the water of 
the river from entering their territory; and in 1896 it was decided to 
construct a weir at the lower end of the Dhanur lake at Otu, which 
supplies two canals, one on the north and the other on the south bank. 
The work was completed at a cost of 6 lakhs, of which the Bikaner 
vState contributed nearly half. The two canals are nearly 95 miles in 
length (5ii miles in Bikaner and about 43^ in British territory), and 
have more than 23 miles of distributaries. They form the most 
important irrigation works in the Bikaner State, and have supplied 
about 10,000 acres annually since 1897-8. 

The Ghaggar water, in or near the hills, when used for drinking, 
produces disastrous results, causing fever, enlarged spleen, and goitre ; 
families are indeed said to die out in the fourth generation, and the 
villages along its banks are greatly under-populated. Only the prospect 
of obtaining exceptional returns for their labours can induce cultivators 
to settle in such an unhealthy region. During the lower portion of its 
course in Hissar District the bed of the river is dry from November to 
June, and yields excellent crops of wheat and rice. Even in the rains 
the water-supply is very capricious, and from time to time it fails 
entirely except in the immediate neighbourhood of the hills. 

Ghaggar Canals. — An Imperial system of minor canals in the 
Punjab, taking (jff from the Ghaggar. Owing to the waste of water in 
the lakes and swamps of that river, and the insanitary condition to 
which the low-lying lands in the valley below Sirsa were reduced, it was 
agreed between the British Government and the State of Bikaner that 
the Dhanur lake, about 8 miles from Sirsa, should be converted into a 
reservoir by the construction of a masonry weir at Otu, and that 
irrigation should be effected by two canals, the northern and southern, 
taking off from each end of the weir, with a combined capacity of 
1,000 cubic feet per second. The Bikaner State was to share the 
canal supplies and meet a prop(^rtionate part of the cost. The canals 
were constructed with famine labour in 1896-7, and began to irrigate in 
the monsoon of 1897. The areas commanded in British and Bikaner 
territory are 130 and 117 square miles, and the irrigable areas are 53 
and 35 square miles, respectively. There are 95 miles of main canals 
and 24 of distributaries ; and the total capital outlay to the end of 
Mar^h, 1904, was 6-3 lakhs, of which 2-8 lakhs was debited to Bikaner. 


These canals are never likely to show any return on their (•a])ital eost, 
as only part of the irrigated area is assessed to canal occupiers' rates, 
the remainder being assessed to land revenue only. 

Ghagra.— River in the United Provinces and Bengal. .S^^Gogra. 

Ghanaur. —Southern fa/is'i/ of the Pinjaur nizdmaf, Patiala State, 
I'unjab, lying between 30° 4' and 30° 29' N. and 76° 29' and 76° 50' E., 
with an area of 186 square miles. The population in 1901 was 45,344, 
e()m[\ared with 49,842 in 1891. The /r/Z/jv/ contains 171 villages, of 
which Ghanaur is the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903 4 amounted to 2 lakhs. 

Ghatal Subdivision. — Northern subdivision of Midnapore District, 
Bengal, lying between 22° 28' and 22° 52' N. and 87° 28' and 87° 53' E., 
with an area of 372 square miles. The subdivision slopes back from 
the bank of the Rupnarayan ; the soil is a rich alluvium, but much of 
its area is liable to floods, and though excellent crops are obtained, the 
inliabitants suffer greatly from malaria. The population in 1901 was 
324,991, compared with 327,902 in 1891, the density being 874 persons 
per square mile. It contains five towns, Ghatal ({)opulation, 14,525), 
its head-quarters, Chandrakona (9,309), Khirpai (5,045), Ramji- 
I'.AXPUR (10,264), and Kahrar (9,508): and 1,042 \illages. 

Ghatal Town. -Head-(juarters f)f the subdivision of the same 
name in Midnapore District, Bengal, situated in 22^ 40' N. and 87° 43' 
E., on the Silai river near its junction with the Rupnarayan. Popu- 
lation (1901), 14,525. A Dutch factory was formerly situated here. 
Ghatal is an important trade centre and is connected with Calcutta b\ 
a daily service of steamers. Cloth and tasar silk are manufactured. 
Il was constituted a municipality in 1869. I'he income and ex- 
penditure during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 7,700 and 
Rs. 7,400 respectively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,400, mainly 
from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 9,300. The town contains the usual public offices : a sub-jail has 
accommodation for iS prisoners. 

Ghatampur.— Southern fa/isli of Cawnpore District, United 
Pro\inces, conterminous with the pargaiia of the same name, lying 
along the Jumna, between 25° 56' and 26° 19' X. and 79° 58' and 
80^ 21' E., witli an area of 341 square miles. Population increased 
from 117,797 in 1891 to 124,662 in 1901. There are 233 villages, but 
no town. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,76,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 44,000. The density of population, 366 persons per 
square mile, is the lowest in the District. The fa/is'i/ is divided into 
two portions by the small stream called Non. 'J'he northern half is a 
tract of fertile loam, while the southern is occupied by soils resembling 
those found in Bundelkhand, and is much cut up in parts by wild 
and bare ra\ines. In 1903-4 the area under culti\ation was 216 


s([uare miles, of which 62 are irrigated. The Bl\ognipur branch of 
the Lower Ganges Canal supplies five-sixths of the irrigated area. 

Ghats, The (etymologically, *a pass through a mountain,' or ' land- 
ing-stairs from a river ' ; in this case the " passes ' or ' landing-stairs ' 
from the coast to the inner plateau).— Two ranges of mountains, form- 
ing the eastern and the western walls which support the triangular 
table-land of Southern India. The Eastern Ghats run in fragmentary 
spurs and ranges down the east side of the Peninsula, receding inland 
and leaving broad tracts between their base and the coast. The West- 
ern Ghats form the great sea-wall for the west side of the Peninsula, 
with only a narrow strip between them and the shore. At one point 
they rise in precipices and headlands out of the ocean, and truly 
look like colossal ' landing-stairs ' from the sea. The Eastern and the 
Western Ghats meet at an angle in the Nilgiris, and so complete the 
liiree sides of the interior table-land. The inner plateau has an 
elevation seldom exceeding 2,000 to 3,00c feet. Its best-known hills 
are the Nilgiris ('blue mountains '), which contain the summer capital 
of Madras, Ootacamund (7,000 feet). The highest point is Anaimudi 
peak in Travancore State (8,837 feet), while Dodabetta in the Nilgiri 
District reaches 8,760 feet. This wide region of highlands sends 
its waters chiefly to the east coast. The drainage fr<jm the northern 
edge of the three-sided table-land enclosed by the Ghats falls into the 
Ganges. The Narbada runs along the southern base of the Vindhyas 
which f(jrm that edge, and carries their drainage due west into the 
Gulf of Cambay. The Tapti flows almost parallel to the Narbada, a 
little to the southward, and bears to the s'ame gulf the waters from 
the S.\Ti>URA Hills. But from this point, proceeding southwards, the 
Western Ghats rise into a high unbroken barrier between the Bombay 
coast and the waters of the inner table-land. The drainage has there- 
fore to make its way right across India to the eastwards, now twisting 
round hill ranges, now rushing down the valleys between them, until 
the rain which the Bombay sea-breeze drops upon the Western Ghats 
fuially falls into the Bay of Bengal. In this way the three great rivers of 
the Madras Presidency — the Godavari, Kistna, and Cauvery— rise in 
the mountains overhanging the Bombay coast, and traverse the whole 
breadth of the central table-land before they reach the ocean on the 
eastern shores of India. 

The entire geography of the two coasts of the Peninsula is determined 
by the characteristics of these two mountain ranges. On the east, the 
country is comparatively open, and everywhere accessible to the spread 
of civilization. It is here that all the great kingdoms of Southern India 
fixed their capitals. Along the west, only a narrow strip of lowland 
intervenes between the barrier range and the seaboard. The inhabitants 
are eut off from communication with the interior, and have been left to 


develop a civilization of their own. Again, the east coast is a com- 
paratively dry region. Except in the deltas of the great rivers, the 
crops are dependent upon a local rainfall which rarely exceeds 40 
inches in the year. The soil is poor, the general elevation high, and the 
mountains are not profusely covered witli forest. In this region the 
chief aim of the Forest department is to preserve a sufficient supply 
of trees for fuel. 

On the west all these physical conditions are reversed. The rivers 
are mere hill-torrents, but the south-west monsoon brings an unfailing 
rainfall in such abundance as to clothe even the hill slopes of the 
southern portion with a most luxuriant vegetation. The annual fall all 
along the coast from Surat to Malabar averages 100 inches, which in- 
creases to 300 inches high up among the mountains. \\'hat the western 
coast loses in regular cultivation it gains in the natural wealth of 
its primaeval forests, which display the most magnificent scenery in all 
India and supply most valuable timber. 

(For further information see Ghats, Eastern, and Ghats, Western.) 

Ghats, Eastern. — The triangular table-land of Southern India is 
flanked and upheld by two ranges of mountains, which run roughly 
parallel to its eastern and western seaboard and eventually meet in the 
high plateau of the Nilgiris. These are known by the generic names of 
the Eastern and Western Ghats, though various portions of them bear 
local appellations. The Eastern Ghats are a disjointed line of small 
confused ranges which begin in Orissa, pass into Ganjam, the northern- 
most District of the Madras Presidency, and run through a greater or 
less extent of all the Districts which lie between Cianjam and the Nilgiri 
plateau. They are about 2,000 feet in elevation on an average, and 
their highest peaks are less than 6,000 feet. In Ganjam and Vizaga- 
patam they run close to the shore of the Bay of Bengal, but as they 
travel southwards they recede farther inland, and leave a stretch of 
low country from too to 150 miles wide between their easternmost 
spurs and the sea. To the west of them lies a level upland plain, 
averaging from 1,000 to 2,000 feet in height, one section of which is 
known as the Deccax. 

The Eastern Ghats belong to no one geological formation, and the 
rocks of which they consist vary in structure and origin with the country 
through which they pass. The various sections of the range, indeed, 
differ greatly in other characteristics also. In the Agency tracts of the 
three northernmost Districts, Ganjam, Vizagapatam, and Godavari, the 
range consists of a confused tangle of low and very malarious hills, which 
have an annual rainfall of from 50 to 80 inches, and are covered with a 
sparse forest valuable only for the sal {Shorea robustd) and teak it con- 
tains. In these inhospitable hills, parts of which go by the local name 
of the M.\i,iahs, dwell several backward \\\\\ tribes whirli are not met 


with elsewhere, such as the Khonds, who ahnost within Hving memory 
practised human sacrifice to secure favourable crops ; the Savaras, who 
still use bows and arrows ; the shy Koyis of the Godavari Agency ; and 
other smaller communities. The chief peak in this part of the range is 
Mahendragiri in Ganjam, which is close on 5,000 feet above the sea. 

Farther south, in Kurnool District, the range widens out to form the 
Nallamalai Hills. Here the annual rainfall is only from 30 to 40 
inches, the forest is more sparse, and the peaks are less bold than in 
the Agencies, scarcely ever exceeding 3,000 feet. Malaria still infests 
them, however, and they are likewise inhabited by primitive people, 
the Chenchus of the Nallamalais differing altogether ethnologically 
from the dwellers in the plains below them. 

Still farther southwards, in Cuddapah, the Eastern Ghats are known 
as the Palkonda Hills, and by other local names. Here they are 
less malarious, though uninhabited, and the forest growth upon 
them has changed and contains much of the valuable red-sanders 
tree {Pferocarpus santalinus). 

In North Arcot, Salem, and Coimbatore the range is very broken 
and contains no well-marked lines, until in the last-named District the 
Biligiri-Ra\(;an Hilf.s, which lie close to the Nilgiri plateau, are 

Few rivers rise in the range. In the north, where the rainfall is 
heaviest, the Rushikulva and the Langulya and one or two consider- 
able tributaries of the Godavari have their sources among its valleys ; 
but farther southwards no streams of importance flow from it. It is 
not usually a watershed. The various great rivers which rise in or 
near the moister Western Ghats—the Godavari, Ki.stna, Penner, 
PoNNAiYAR, and Cauvery — have all forced their way through the 
many gaps which occur in its long course. 

Ghats, Western. — A range of mountains about 1,000 miles in 
length, forming the western boundary of the Deccan and the water- 
shed between the rivers of I'eninsular India. The Sanskrit name 
is Sahyadri. The range, which will be treated here with reference to 
its course through Bombay, Mysore and Coorg, and Madras, may be 
said to begin at the Kundaibari pass in the south-western corner 
of the Khandesh District of Bombay Presidency, though the hills 
that run eastward from the pass to Chimtana, and overlook the lower 
Tapti valley, belong to the same system. From Kundaibari (21° 6' N. 
and 74° 11' E.) the chain runs southward with an average elevation 
which seldom exceeds 4,000 feet, in a line roughly parallel with the 
coast, from which its distance varies from 20 to 65 miles. For about 
100 miles, up to a point near Trimbak, its direction is somewhat west 
of south ; and it is flanked on the west by the thickly wooded and 
unhealthy table-land of Pcint, Mokhada, and Jawhar (1,500 feet). 


which forms a step and a barrier between the Konkan lowlands and 
the plateau of the Deccan (about 2,000 feet). South of 'I'rimbak the 
scarp of the western face is more abrupt : and for 40 miles, as far 
as the Malsej pass, the trend is south-by-east, changing to south-by-west 
from Malsej to Khandala and Vagjai (60 miles), and again to south- 
by -east from here until the chain passes out of the Bombay Presidency 
into Mysore near Gersoppa (14° 10' N. and 74" 50' M.). On the 
eastern side the Ghats throw out many spurs or lateral ranges that 
run from west to east, and divide from one another the valleys of the 
Godavari, Ehlma, and Kistna river systems. 'I'he chief of these cros.s- 
ranges are the Satmalas, between the 'lapti and Godavari valleys ; 
the two ranges that break off from the main chain near Harischandra- 
garh and run south-eastwards into the Nizam's Dominions, enclosing 
the triangular plateau on which Ahmadnagar stands, and which is the 
watershed between the Godavari and the Bhima : and the Mahadeo 
range, that runs eastward and southward from Kamalgarh and passes 
into the barren uplands of Atpadi and Jath, forming the watershed 
between the BhIma and the Kistna systems. North of the latitude 
of Goa, the Bombay part of the range consists of eocene trap and 
basalt, often capped with laterite, while farther south are found such 
older rocks as gneiss and transitional sandstones. The flat-topped 
hills, often crowned with bare wall-like masses of basalt or laterite, are 
clothed on their lower slopes with jungles of teak and bamboo in the 
north; WxXh Jdnilnf/ {Eugenia Jambolana), ain {Ter?nina/ia fofiieniosa), 
and nana {Lagerstroemia parvifiora) in the centre : and with teak, black- 
wood, and bamboo in the south. 

On the main range and its spurs stand a hundred k)rts, many of 
which are famous in Maratha history. From north to south the most 
notable points in the range are the Kundaibari pass, a very ancient 
trade route between Broach and the Deccan ; the twin forts of Salher 
and Mulher guarding the Babhulna pass ; Trimbak at the source of 
the holy river (jodavari ; the Thai pass by which the Bombay- Agra 
road and the northern branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
ascend the Ghats ; the Pimpri pass, a very old trade route south 
between Nasik and Kalyan or Sopara, guarded b\- the twin forts of 
Alang and Kulang : Kalsubai (5,427 feet), the highest peak in the 
range; Harischandragarh (4,691 feet) ; the Nana pass, a very old route 
between Junnar and the Konkan ; Shivner, the fort of Junnar ; 
Bhimashankar, at the source of the Bhima ; Chakan, an old Musalman 
stronghold ; the Bhor or Khandala pass, by which the Bombay-Poona 
road and the southern branch of the (keat Indian Peninsula Railway 
enter the Deccan, and on or near which are the caves of Kondane, 
Karli, Bhaja, and Bedsa ; the caves of Nadsur and Karsambla below 
the Vagji pass : the forts of Sinhgarh and Purandhar in the spurs south 


of Poona ; the forts of Raigarh in the Konkan and of Pratapgarh 
between the new Fitzgerald ghat road and the old Par pass ; the hill 
station of Mahabai.eshwar (4,717 feet) at the source of the Kistna ; 
the fort and town of Satara ; the Kumbharli pass leading to the old 
towns of Patan and Karad ; the Amba pass, through which runs the 
road from Ratnagiri to Kolhapur ; the forts of Vishalgarh and Panhala ; 
the Phonda pass, through which runs the road from Deogarh to 
Nipani ; the Amboli and the Ram passes, through which run two made 
roads from \^engurla to Belgaum ; Castle Rock, below which passes 
the railway from Marmagao to Dharwar: the Arbail pass on the road 
from Karwar to Dharwar; the Devlmane pass on the road from Kumta 
10 Hubli ; and the Gersoppa Falls on the river Sharavati. 

On leaving the Bombay Presidency, the A\'estern Ghats bound the 
State of Mysore on the west, separating it from the Madras District 
of South Kanara, and run from Chandragutti (2,794 feet) in the north- 
west to Pushpagiri or the Subrahmanya hil' (5,626 feet) in the north 
of Coorg, and continue through Goorg into Madras. In the west of 
the Sagar fd/uk, from Govardhangiri to Devakonda, they approach 
within 10 miles of the coast. From there they trend south-eastwards, 
culminating in Kudremukh (6,215 feet) in the south-west of Kadur 
District, which marks the watershed between the Kistna and Gauvery 
systems. They then bend east and south to Coorg, receding to 
45 miles from the sea. Here, too. numerous chains and groups of 
lofty hills branch off from the Ghats eastwards, forming the complex 
series of mountain heights south of Nagar in the west of Kadur Dis- 
trict. Gneiss and hornblende schists are the prevailing rocks in this 
section, capped in many places by laterite, with some bosses of granite. 
The summits of the hills are mostly bare, but the sides are clothed 
with magnificent evergreen forests. Ghat roads to the coast have been 
made through the following passes : Gersoppa, Kollur, Hosangadi, and 
Agumbi in Shimoga District; Bundh in Kadiir District: Manjarabad 
and Bisale in Hassan District. 

In the Madras Presidency the \\'estern (ihats continue in the same 
general direction, running southwards at a distance of from 50 to 
100 miles from the sea until they terminate at Cape Comorin, the 
southernmost extremity of India. Soon after emerging from Coorg 
the)' are joined by the range of the Eastern Ghats, which sweeps 
down from the other side of the Peninsula ; and at the point of 
junction they rise up into the high plateau of the Nilgiris, on which 
stand the hill stations of Ootacamund (7,000 feet), the summer capital 
of the Madras Government, Coonoor, Wellington, and Kotagiri, 
and whose loftiest peaks are Dodabetta (8,760 feet) and Makurti 
(over 8,000). 

Immediatelv south of this plateau the raiige, which now runs between 


the Districts of Malabar and Coinibatore, is interrupted hy llic remark- 
able Palghat Gap, the only break in the whole of its length. This is 
about 1 6 miles wide, and is scarcely more than r,ooo feet above the 
level of the sea. The Madras Railway runs through it, and it thus 
forms the chief line of communication between the two sides of this 
part of the peninsula. South of this gap the Ghats rise abruptly again 
to even more than their former height. At this point they are known 
by the local name of the Anaimalais, or 'elephant hills,' and the 
minor ranges they here throw off to the west and east are called 
respectively the Nelliampathis and the Palni Hills. On the latter 
is situated the sanitarium of Kodaikanal. Thereafter, as they run 
down to Cape Comorin between the Madras Presidency and the Native 
State of Travancore, they resume their former name. 

North of the Nllgiri plateau the eastern flank of the range merges 
somewhat gradually into the high plateau of Mysore, but its western 
slopes rise suddenly and boldly from the low coast. South of the 
Palghat Gap both the eastern and western slopes are steep and rugged. 
The range here consists throughout of gneisses of various kinds, 
flanked in Malabar by picturesque terraces of laterite which shelve 
gradually down towards the coast. In elevation it varies from 3,000 
to 8,000 feet above the sea, and the Anaimudi Peak (8,837 feet) in 
Travancore is the highest point in the range and in Southern India. 
The scenery of the Western Ghats is always picturesque and frequently 
magnificent, the heavy evergreen forest with which the slopes are often 
covered adding greatly to their beauty. Large game of all sorts 
abounds, from elephants, bison, and tigers to the Nllgiri ibex, which 
is found nowhere else in India. 

Considerable areas on the Madras section of the range have been 
opened up by European capital in the last half-century for the cultiva- 
tion of tea, coffee, cinchona, and cardamoms. Its forests are also 
of great commercial value, bamboos, black-wood l^Dalbergia /otifo/ia), 
and teak growing with special luxuriance. The heavy forest with 
which the range is clothed is the source of the most valuable of the 
rivers which traverse the drier country to the east, namely the Cauvery, 
Vaigai, and Tambraparni ; and the waters of the Periyar, which until 
recently flowed uselessly down to the sea on the west, have now been 
turned back by a tunnel through the range and utilized for irrigation 
on its eastern side. 

Before the days of roads and railways tlie Ghats rendered com- 
munication between the west and east coasts of the Madras Presidency 
a matter of great difficulty ; and the result has been that the people 
of the strip of land which lies between them and the sea differ widely 
in appearance, language, customs, and laws of inheritance from those 
in tlie eastern part of the Presidency. On the range itself, moreover. 


are found several primitive tribes, among whom may be mentioned the 
well-known Todas of the Nilgiris, the Kurumbas of the same plateau, 
and the Kadars of the Anaimalais. Communications across this part 
of the range have, however, been greatly improved of late years. 
Besides the Madras Railway already referred to, the line from 
Tinnevelly to Quilon now links u{) the two opposite shores of the 
Peninsula, and the range is also traversed by numerous ghat roads. 
The most important of these latter are the Charmadi ghCxt from 
Mangalore in South Kanara to Mudgiri in Mysore ; the Sampaji ghat 
between Mangalore and Mercara, the capital of Coorg ; the roads from 
Cannanore and Tellicherry, vvhich lead to the Mysore plateau through 
the Perumbadi and Peria passes ; and the two routes from Calicut to 
the Nilgiri plateau up the Karkiir and Vayittiri-Gudalur gJidts. 

Ghaziabad Tahsil. — South-western tahs'tl of Meerut District, 
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Jalalabad, Loni, and 
Dasna, and lying between 28° 2>li' ^^I'ld 28° 56'' N. and 77° 13' and 
77^ 46' E., with an area of 493 square miles. The Jumna forms the 
western boundary. The population rose from 247,141 in 1891 to 
276,518 in 1901. The tahsil contains 332 villages and 9 towns, of 
which the most important are Ghaziabad (population, 11,275), the 
tahsil head-quarters, Pilkhua (5,859), Shahdara (5,540), and FarId- 
NAGAR (5,620). In 1903-4 the demand for land revenue was Rs. 
4,85,000, and for cesses Rs. 80,000. 'i'he tahsil is one of the i)oorcst 
in the District, the density of population being only 562 persons j^er 
square mile, while the District average is 654. The Hindan passes 
through the western portion and the Chhoiya, a tributary of the East 
Kali Nadr, through the eastern. The worst tract, a sandy area cut up b)- 
ravines, lies between the Hindan and the Jumna ; but the north-east 
corner, which forms a badly-drained basin, is also very poor. On the 
other hand, communications by both railway and road are excellent. 
The tahsil is well supplied by irrigation from the Upper Ganges and 
Eastern Jumna Canals. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 349 
square miles, of which 180 were irrigated. Indigo is a more important 
crop here than elsewhere, while sugar-cane is less grown than in the 
rest of the District. 

Ghaziabad Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Meerut District, United Provinces, situated in 28° 40' N. and 
77*^ 26' E., on the grand trunk road from Calcutta to Peshawar, and a 
junction for the East Indian, North-Western, and Oudh and Rohilkhand 
Railways. Population (1901), 11,275. I*^ ^^'^^ founded in 1740 by the 
Wazir Ghazl-ud-din, son of Asaf J ah, ruler of the Deccan, and was 
formerly called Ghazi-ud-dTn-nagar. In 1763 Suraj Mai, the Jat Raja 
of Bharatpur, met his death at the hands of the Rohillas near this place. 
In May, 1857, a small British force from Meerut encountered and 

222 C.TIA/.IABAI) /Vir.V 

defeated the Delhi rebels, who had marched out U) hold ihc passage of 
the Hindan. The main site contains two broad metalled bazars at right 
angles, with masonry drains and good brick-built shops. Extensions 
have recently been made, including two fine markets, called Wrightganj 
and Wycrganj, after the (Collectors who founded them. The police 
station and town hall are located in the large sarai built by GhazT-ud-dln. 
There is also a dispensary. Near the station the railway companies 
have built several barracks and houses. The Church Missionary 
Society and the American Methodists have branches here. Ghaziabad 
has been a municipality since 1868. During the ten years ending 1901 
the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 13,000. In [903-4 the in- 
come was Rs. 17,000, chiefly derived from octroi (Rs. 13,000) ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 18,000. There is a considerable trade in grain, 
hides, and leather. The town contains an Anglo-vernacular school, 
supported by the Church Missionary Society, with 120 pupils in 1904, 
a tahsili school with 147, eight aided primary schools with 211, and a 
girls' school with 27 pupils. 

Ghazipur District. — District in the Benares Division of the United 
Provinces, lying on both banks of the Ganges, between 25° 19' and 
25° 54' N. and 83° 4' and 83° 58' E., with an area of 1,389 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Azamgarh and Ballia ; on the 
east by Ballia and the Shahabad District of Bengal ; on the south by 
Shahabad and Benares ; and on the west by Jaunpur. No hill or 
natural eminence is to be found within the District ; but both north 
and south of the Ganges the country may be divided 
asoects '"^° '^'^ upland and a low-lying tract. The higher 

land marks the banks of ancient streams which have 
now disappeared. GhazTpur is very thickly inhabited and closely 
cultivated ; and its villages contain numbers of small collections of 
houses scattered in all parts, instead of being concentrated in a central 
site, as in the western Districts. The Ganges flows through the 
southern portion of the District in a series of bold curves. It is joined 
by the Gumti after a short course in the west, and in the south-east by 
the Karamnasa, which for 18 miles forms the boundary between 
Ghazi})ur and Shahabad. Smaller streams flow across the northern part 
of the District from north-west to south-east. The Gang! and Besu 
join the Ganges midway in its course, while the Mangai and Chhoti 
Sarju unite beyond the limits of the District, and subsequently fall into 
the Ganges. 

No rocks are exposed anywhere in (jhazTpur, and the formation is 
purely Gangetic alluvium. Ka?ikar or calcareous limestone and saline 
efflorescences are common. 

The District is well wooded, but its flora presents no peculiarity. The 
trees are largely of cultivated varieties, such as the mango, bamboo. 


and various fruit trees. There are a few patches of jungle, in which 
dhak {Buteafrondosd) is the most conspicuous tree. 

The country is too densely populated and too well cultivated to 
harbour many wild animals. The 7iilgai and antelope are the only 
large game. The ordinary kinds of water-fowl are found on some of 
the tanks, and fish are plentiful in the Cianges and its tributaries. 

As compared with other Districts in the United Provinces, Ghazlpur 
is hot and damp ; but the temperature is not subject to the extremes 
recorded farther west. 

The annual rainfall averages 40 inches, the amount received in 
different parts of the District varying very little. From year to year, 
however, fluctuations are considerable. In 1887 the fall was only 
16 inches, while in 1894 it was as much as 59 inches. 

Tradition refers the foundation of the city of Ghazlpur to a mythical 
her(\ Gadh, who is said to have called his stronghold GadhTpur. 
Nothing definite is known of the early history of the 
District, which was, however, certainly included in the 
kingdom of the ( iuptas of Magadha in the fourth and fifth centuries 
A.u. Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim, in the seventh century, found 
a kingdom called Chen-Chu in this neighbourhood, the site of the 
capital of which has not been satisfactorily identified. He noted 
that the soil was rich and regularly cultivated, and that the towns and 
villages were close together. A long blank follows, which can only be 
filled by speculation. 

In 1 1 94 Bihar and the middle Ganges valley vvere conquered by 
Kutb-ud-din, the general of Muhammad GhorT, first Musalman ' 
emperor of Delhi. He had defeated and slain the Hindu champion, 
lai Chand, the Rathor Raja of Kanauj, in the Jumna ravines of Etawah ; 
and the whole country as far as Bengal lay at his mercy. During the 
succeeding century w^e hear little of the present District ; but about the 
year 1330 the city of Ghazlpur was founded (according to a probable 
tradition) by a Saiyid chief, named Masud, who slew the local Hindu 
Raja in battle. Sultan Muhammad Tughlak thereupon granted him 
the estates of his conquered enemy, with the title of Ghdzi, which gave 
the name to the newly-founded city. From 1394 to 1476 Ghazlpur was 
incorporated in the dominions of the Shark! dynasty of Jaunpur, who 
maintained their independence for nearly a century as rivals to the 
rulers of Delhi. After their fall, it was reunited to the dominions of the 
Delhi Sultans, and was conquered like the surrounding country by 
the Mughal emperor, Babar, after the battle of Panlpat in 1526. In 
1539, however, the southern border of the District, close to Buxar in 
Shahabad, was the scene of a decisive engagement between the Afghan 
prince Sher Shah and Humayun, the son of Babar, in which the latter 
was ut-terly defeated and driven out of tlie country. 

2 24 GJ/A/JJ'LK Dli^TRlCT 

Shcr Shah's victory settled the fate of Gha/.Ti)ur for the next twenty 
years. It remained in the undisturbed possession of the Afghans, not 
only through the reigns of the three emperors belonging to the Suri 
dynasty, but throughout the restored supremacy of Humayun. It was 
not till the third year of Akbar that Gha/ipur was recovered for the 
Mughal throne b\ Khan Zanian, governor of Jaunpur, from whom the 
town of Zamania derives its name. After his rebellion and death in 1 566, 
the District was thoroughly united to the Delhi empire, and organized 
under the Subah of Allahabad. During the ])almy days of Akbar's 
successors the annals of Ghazipur are purely formal and administrative, 
until the rising of the Nawabs of Oudh at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century. In 1722 Saadat Khan made himself practically indepen- 
dent as viceroy of Oudh. About 1748 he appointed Shaikh Abdullah, 
a native of the District, who had fled from the service of the governor at 
Patna, to the command of Ghazipur. Abdullah has left his mark in 
the city by his splendid buildings. His son, Fazl All, succeeded him, 
but after various vicissitudes was expelled by Raja Balwant Singh of 
Benares. Balwant Singh died in 1770, and the Nawab was compelled 
by the English to allow his illegitimate son, Chet Singh, to inherit his 
title and principality. In 1775 the suzerainty of the Benares province 
was ceded to the British by the Nawab WazTr, Asaf-ud-daula. l"he new- 
government continued Chet Singh in his fief until the year 1781, when 
he rebelled and was deposed by Warren Hastings. 

In 1857 order was preserved till the mutiny at Azamgarh became 
known on June 3. The fugitives from Azamgarh arrived on that day, 
and local outbreaks took place. The 65th Native Infantry, however, 
remained stanch, and 100 European troops on their way to P]enares 
were detained, so that order was tolerably re-established by June 16. 
No further disturbance occurred till the news of the mutiny at Dina- 
pore arrived on July 27. The 65th then stated their intention of join- 
ing Kuar Singh's force ; but after the rebel defeat at Arrah they were 
quietly disarmed, and some European troops were stationed at Ghazi- 
pur. No difficulties arose till the siege of Azamgarh was raised in 
April, 1858, when the rebels came flying down the Gogra and across 
the Ganges to Arrah. The disorderly element again rose, and by the 
end of June the eastern half of the District was utterly disorganized. 
In July a force was sent to Ballia, which drove the rebels out of the 
Ganges-Gogra Doab, while another column cleared i\\e parganas north 
of the Ganges. The parganas south of the river remained in rebellion 
till the end of October, when troops were sent across, which expelled 
the rebels and completely restored order. 

The whole District abounds in ancient sites, where antiquities have 
been discovered ranging from stone celts, through the Buddhist epoch, 
to the latef Hindu jieriod. In j)articular, a valuable pillar inscription 




and an inscribed seal of the Gupta kings of Magadha have been found 
at Bhitri, and another inscribed pillar of the same period (now at 
Benares) at Pahladpur. A few Muhammadan buildings of interest 
stand at Bhitri, Ghazipur Town, and Saidpur 

The District contains 7 towns and 2,489 villages. The population 
increased between 1872 and 1891 ; but a series of adverse seasons from 
1893 to 1896 caused a serious decrease in the next 
decade, chiefly through deaths from fever and migra- 
tion. The numbers at the four enumerations were as follows : (1872) 
832,635, (1881) 963,189, (1891) 1,024,753, and (1901) 913,818. It is 
probable that the Census of 1872 understated the actual population. 
More emigrants are supplied to Eastern Bengal and Assam from this 
District than from any other in the United Provinces. There are four 
tahsl/s — Ghazipur, Muhammadabad, Zamania, and Saidpur— each 
named from its head-quarters. The only municipal town is Ghazipur, 
the District head-quarters. The chief statistics of population in X901 
are given below : — 


Ghazipur . 
Zamania . 

District total 


mber of 























tu . 

■^ oj 


E.Q - . 
a; _ — 



MC Soo 

1- -^ c .; 

rt - CT> 

« Ci Kl £ 



u 3 ^ c 

a S "^ 


|- rt D. S ri 

Z 2 ^ 


&H 0. 



- 16.4 



- 9.9 



- 3-7 




- 11.7 


- 10.8 


About 90 per cent, of the population are Hindus and nearly 10 per 
cent. Mu.salmans. The District is very thickly populated in all parts. 
Almost 97 per cent, of the total speak the BhojpurT dialect of Bihari^, 
and the remainder Hindustani. 

The most numerous Hindu castes are the Ahirs (graziers and culti- 
vators), 145,000; Chamars (leather-workers and labourers), 117,000; 
Rajputs or ChhattrTs, 78,000; KoirTs (cultivators), 66,000; Brahmans, 
63,000 ; Bhars (labourers), 45,000 ; Bhuinhars (agriculturists), 38,000 ; 
and Binds (fishermen and cultivators), 28,000. The Bhuinhars are 
a high caste, corresponding to the Babhans of Bihar. The KoirTs, 
Bhars (an aboriginal race), and Binds (akin to the Kahars) are found 
only in the east of the United Provinces and in Bihar. The District is 
essentially agricultural, 7 1 per cent, of the population being supported 
by agriculture, and 5^ per cent, by general labour. Brahmans, Rajputs 
or Chhattris, and Bhuinhars own nearly two-thirds of the land, and 
' Specimens are given m Journal, A sialic Society of Bengal, 1884, p. 232. 

VOL. XII. g 




Musalmilns about one-fifth. The three high castes of Hindus named 
above cultivate about two-fifths of the area held by tenants, and lower 
castes al)Out half. 

Out of 329 native Christians in 1901, the Anglican communion 
claimed iii, the Lutherans 63, and Presbyterians 42. The Lutheran 
Mission has been established at Ghazipur town since 1855, and the 
Zanana Mission since 1890. 

The usual soils are found in the ujjland areas, varying from light 
sandy to loam and clay. In some places, and especially in the east of 
the District, the soil is black, resembling the rich 
black soil of Bundelkhand in its physical qualities. 
In the wide valley of the Ganges large stretches of rich alluvial soil are 
found, which produce excellent spring crops without irrigation. The 
District is within the area in which blight attacks the spring crops. 

The ordinary tenures found in the permanently settled Districts 
of the United Provinces exist in Ghazipur. Many inahah are of 
the variety called ' complex,' and instead of including a single village 
{mauza) or part of a village extend to several villages. The weakness 
of joint responsibility, and the large number of co-sharers who desire 
to collect rent and pay revenue separately instead of through a repre- 
sentative, render the revenue administration very difficult. The main 
agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles : — 






Ghazipur . 
Saidpiir . 
















Rice and barley are the chief food-crops, covering 209 and 230 
square miles, or 22 and 24 per cent, of the total cultivated aiea. Peas 
and viasur (161 square miles), gram (117), kodon (89), ar/ia?- (82), 
wheat (61), and bdjfa (60) are also largely cultivated. Barley is 
grown chiefly on the uplands, and pure wheat, pure gram, and mixed 
wheat and gram in the lowlands. Sugar-cane (35 square miles) and 
poppy (26) are important crops. Melons are grown in sandy alluvial 
deposits, and close to Ghazipur town 200 or 300 acres of roses supply 
material for the manufacture of scent. 

The area under cultivation increased by about 1 1 per cent, between 
1840 and 1880; but there has been no pei"manent increase since then, 
and within the last twenty years no improvements have been noted 
in agricultural practicx'. Poppv is more largely grov.-n. and the area 


under gram has increased ; hut, on the other hand, indigo cultivation, 
which was formerly important, is rapi€lly dying out, and a smaller area 
is planted with sugar-cane. The cultivation of tobacco for the English 
market was introduced at Ghazipur in 1876, but has been abandoned. 
Few advances are made under the Land Improvement and Agricul- 
turists' Loans Acts. Out of a total of Rs. 60,000 advanced between 
i8go and 1900, Rs. 49,000 was lent in the single year 1896-7. In 
four years since 1900 P.s. 10,000 was advanced. 

lliere is no particular breed of cattle, and the best animals are 
imported. Two selected bulls are at present maintained by the 
(^ourt of Wards for the improvement of the local stock. A stud farm 
was maintained at Ghazipur for many years, but was closed about 
1873, and only inferior ponies are now bred. Sheep and goats are 
plentiful, but the breed is not peculiar. 

Out of 365 square miles irrigated in 1903-4, 259 were irrigated from 
wells, 93 from tanks, and 13 from streams. The rivers are of little use, 
owing to their depth below the surrounding country. Swamps or jh'ils 
are used as long as there is any water left in them ; but they dry up 
by December, and then wells take their place. The wells are usually 
worked by bullocks, which raise water in leathern buckets. Many of 
the tanks are artificial, but all are of small size. In the rice tracts 
water is held up by small field embankments. Irrigation is required for 
the spring crops in all parts, except in the black soil and the alluvial 

Kankar is found throughout the District, except in the alluvial 
deposits of the Ganges, and is used for metalling roads and making 
lime. Saltpetre and carbonate of soda are extracted from saline 
efflorescences or reh. 

There are few manufactures. Sugar is refined, and coarse cotton 

cloth is woven in small quantities for local use. 

Ghazipur Town, however, contains two important „ ^^ ^.*°. 

' . ' ^ communications. 

industries — the preparation of opium for export, 
and the distillation of otto of roses and other perfumes. 

The District exports sugar, oilseeds, hides, perfumes, opium, and occa- 
sionally grain ; and imports piece-goods, yarn, cotton, salt, spices, and 
metals. Ghazipur town was once the chief trading centre in the eastern 
portion of the Ganges-Gogra Doab, and also traded with the Districts 
north of the Gogra and with Nepal. The opening of the Bengal and 
North-Western Railway through Gorakhpur deprived it of the trans- 
Gogra trade, and the Doab traffic has been largely diverted by other 
branches. River traffic has now decreased considerably, and only 
bulky goods, such as grain and Mirzapur stone, are carried by boat. 
.Saidpur, Zamania, and Ghazipur are the chief trading centres ; but the 
recent-railway extensions are changing the direction of commerce. 

Ci 2 


Ghazlpur is now well supplied with railways. For many years the 
main line of the East Indian Railway, which crosses the District south 
of the Ganges, was the only line ; a branch was subsequently made 
from Dildarnagar to Tari Ghat on the Ganges opposite Ghazlpur town, 
as a Provincial railway. Between 1898 and 1904 the tract lying north 
of the Ganges was opened up by the Bengal and North-Western Railway 
(metre gauge), one line running north and south from Benares to 
Gorakhpur, while another passes cast and west from Jaunpur to Ballia, 
the junction being at Aunrihar. Communications by road are also 
good. There are 587 miles of roads, of which 96 are metalled. 'I'he 
latter are in charge of the Public Works department, but the cost of 
maintenance of all but 21 miles is charged to Local funds. The main 
lines are those from Ghazlpur town to Gorakhpur (with a branch to 
Azamgarh), to Benares, and to Buxar. Avenues of trees are maintained 
on 91 miles. 

The District has suffered from no serious famine since the com- 
mencement of British rule. In 1783 there was great scarcity in the 
. province of Benares, and Warren Hastings described a 

scene of desolation from Buxar to Benares. Distress 
was felt in 1873-4 and more severely in 1877-8; but although relief 
works were opened, few people came to them. The District suffered 
from an excess of rain in 1894, and a deficiency in 1895 and 1896. 
Prices rose very high; but the spring crop of 1897 was abundant and 
the cultivators sold their crops at high prices, while the labouring 
classes are accustomed to seek employment in distant parts of India. 

The Collector is usually assisted by a member of the Indian Civil 

Service, and by five Deputy-Collectors recruited in India. An officer 

, . . . of the Opium department is responsible for operations 
Administration. . . t^- ^ • ^ • ,,• • . \. , ^ a- r 1 

in the District, in addition to the large staff of the 

factory. A tahsildar is posted at the head-quarters of each tahsll. 

There are three District Munsifs, a Sub-Judge, and a District Judge 
for civil work. The District of Ballia is included in the Civil and also 
111 the Sessions Judgeship of Ghazlpur. The people of Ghazlpur are 
exceedingly litigious and rather quarrelsome, while the excessive sub- 
division of land and the large area subject to alluvion and diluvion 
are the causes of many disputes. Offences against the peace are 
thus common, and even serious crimes, such as arson, occur frequently. 
On the other hand, professional dacoity is almost unknown. 

The District was ceded to the British in 1775 as part of the province 
of Benares, and its revenue administration was included in that of 
Benares District up to 18 18, when a separate District of Ghazlpur 
was formed. This comprised the present District of Ballia, which was 
not separated till 1879. The land revenue was permanently settled 
between 1787 and 1795; and the changes made subsequently have been 



due to the resumption of revenue-free land, to the assessment of land 
which had previously escaped, and to alluvion and diluvion. The 
permanent settlement was made without any survey, and did not include 
the preparation of a record-of-rights. The necessity for both of these 
operations was obvious, and between 1839 and 1841 a survey was made, 
on the basis of which a record-of-rights was drawn up. At the same 
time land which had escaped at the permanent settlement was assessed. 
As the papers prepared between 1840 and 1842 were not periodically 
corrected, they soon fell into confusion, and an attempt was made in 
1863 to revise them. In 1879, however, a complete revenue resurvey 
was carried out, and a revised record was subsequently prepared which 
has had a very beneficial effect in settling disputes. Annual papers arc 
now maintained by ihe pairaaris, as in the rest of the Provinces. The 
revenue assessed in 1795 was 8-5 lakhs; and the demand for 1903-4 
was 10-3 lakhs, falling at the rate of Rs. 1-4 per acre over the whole 
District, and varying from R. i to Rs. 2 ii (W^treni parganas. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 

1 880-1. 




Land revenue 
Total revenue 






There is only one municipality, Ghazipur Town, but five towns are 
administered under Act XX of 1856. Outside the limits of these, 
local affairs are managed by the District board, which had in 1903-4 a 
total income of Rs. 98,000, of which Rs. 42,000 was derived from 
local rates. The expenditure was a lakh, including Rs. 56,000 spent 
on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police has a force of 3 inspectors, 
77 subordinate officers, and 313 constables, distributed in 15 police 
stations, besides 130 municipal and town police, and 1,653 rural and 
road police. The District jail, which also accommodates prisoners 
from Ballia, had a daily average of 435 inmates in 1903. 

The population of Ghazipur compares fairly well with other Districts 
as regards literacy, 3-2 per cent. (6-2 males and 0-2 females) being able 
to read and write in 1901. In the case of Musalmans, the proportion 
rises to 4-3 per cent. The number of public schools increased from 
123 with 5,133 pupils in 1880-1 to 182 with 8,712 pupils in 1900-1. 
In 1903-4 there were 202 such schools with 10,449 pi^'pils, of whom 
447 were girls, besides 50 private schools with 257 pupils. One of the 
public schools is managed by Government, and 102 by the District 
and municipal boards. Out of a total expenditure on education of 
Rs. -46,000, Local funds provided Rs. 40,000, and fees Rs. 3,roo. 


There are 8 hospitals and dispensaries, with accouunodatit)n for 
72 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 59,000, 
including 1,400 in-patients, and 3,500 operations were performed. 
The total expenditure was Rs. 11,000, from Local funds. 

About 24,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting a proportion of 26 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is 
compulsory only in the municipality of Ghazipur. 

[\V. Oldham, Memoir on Ghazecpoor District (1870 and 1876); 
District Gazetteer (1884, under revision) ; ^^^ Irvine, Report on Revision 
of Records (Ghazipur, 1886).] 

Ghazipur Tahsil. — Head-quarters tahsil of Ghazipur District, 
United Provinces, comprising the pargcmas of Ghazipur, Pachotar, and 
Shadlabad, and lying north of the Ganges, between 25° 23' and 25° 53' 
N, and 83° 16' and 83° 43' E., with an area of 391 square miles. Popu- 
lation fell from 319,385 in 1891 to 266,871 in igoijthe rate of decrease 
being nearly 20 per cent. There are 824 villages and only one town, 
GhazIpur (population, 39,429), the District and tahs'il head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,66,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 49,000. The density of population, 683 persons per square 
mile, is slightly above the District average. Besides the Ganges, the 
Gangi, Besa, and Mangai drain the tahsil, flowing across it from 
north-west to south-east. In the northern portions rice is largely grown, 
and there are considerable tracts of barren nsar land from which 
carbonate of soda {sajji) is collected. The area under cultivation in 
1903-4 was 236 square miles, of which 143 were irrigated. Wells 
supply nine-tenths of the irrigated area, and tanks the remainder. 

Ghazipur Town. — Head-quarters of the District and ta/isli of the 
same name, United Provinces, situated in 35° 35' N. and 83° 36' E., 
on the left bank of the Ganges, aiid on a branch of the Bengal and 
North-^^'estern Railway, and also connected by a steam ferry with the 
terminus of a branch of the East Indian Railway on the opposite 
side of the river. Population (1901), 39,429. The town was founded, 
according to Hindu tradition, by Raja Gadh, an eponymous hero, from 
whom it took the name of Gadhipur ; but it more probably derives its 
name from the Saiyid chief, Masud, whose title was Malik-us-Sadat 
Ghazi. Masud defeated the local Raja and founded Ghazipur about 
1330. For its history and Mutiny narrative see GhazIpur District. 

The town stretches along the bank of the Ganges for nearly 2 
miles, with a breadth from north to south of about three quarters of 
a mile. The massive walls of the old palace, called the Chahal Situn 
or ' forty pillars,' the numerous masonry g/iats, and a mud fort form 
striking features in tlie appearance of the river front. Masud's tomb 
and that of his son are plain buildings ; and the only other antiquities 
are the tank and tomb of I'ahfir Khan, governor in 1580, and the garden. 

GHAZm 231 

tank, and tomb of x\l)dullah, governor in tlie eighteenth century. Ab- 
dullah's palace, which was still intact at the time of Bishop Heber's 
visit, is now in ruins, though a gateway still remains. The tomb of 
Lord Cornwallis, who died here in 1S05, consists of a domed quasi- 
Grecian building with a marble statue by Flaxman. GhazTpur is the 
head-quarters of the Opium Agent for the United Provinces, and the 
opium factory is situated here, to which are consigned the poppy pro- 
ducts, opium leaf, and trash of all the districts in the United Provinces. 
The factory occupies an area of about 45 acres, and its main function is 
to prepare oijium for the Chinese market, where it is known as Benares 
opium. Opium for consumption in the United Provinces, the Punjab, 
Central Provinces, and part of the supply for Bengal, Assam, and Burma 
are also prepared here, besides morphia and its salts, and codeia for the 
Medical department in all parts of India. During the busy season, 
from April to June, about 3,500 hands are employed daily; while at 
other times the number varies from 500 ^o 2,000. Ghazlpur was con- 
stituted a municipality in 1867. During the ten years ending 1901 the 
income and expenditure averaged Rs. 40,000 and Rs. 39,000 respec- 
tively. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 45,000, chiefly from octroi 
(Rs. 31,000) and rents (Rs. 6,000). The expenditure in the same year 
was Rs. 46,000. The town is no longer an important trade centre, as 
the tract north of the Ganges, which it formerly served, is now traversed 
by railways. Besides the manufacture of opium, the chief industry is 
that of scent-distilling. Roses are grown close to the town, and rose- 
water and otto of roses are largely manufactured. There are about 
14 schools, attended by 1,400 pupils. GhazTpur is the head-quarters 
of the Lutheran Mission in the District^ and contains male and female 

GhazipurTahsiL— South-central /(///.v/Y of Fatehpur District, United 
Provinces, comprising \\'\& pargaiias of Ghazlpur, Aya Sah, and Mutaur, 
and lying between 25° 41' and 25° 55' N. and So° 31' and 81° 4' E., 
with an area of 277 sc^uare miles. Population fell from 92.389 in 189 1 
to 91,222 in 1901. There are 151 villages, but no town. The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,95,000, and for cesses Rs. 31,000. 
The density of population, 329 persons per square mile, is the lowest in 
the District. The tahsil lies along the Jumna, and the soil for some 
distance from that river resembles the poorer soils of Bundelkhand. 
In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 158 scjuare miles, of which 
39 were irrigated. The Fatehpur branch of the Lower Ganges Canal 
supplies nearly half the total irrigation, but in the northern part tanks 
or Jhils are used. Irrigation from wells is insignificant. 

Ghazni. — Chief town of the district of the same name in the Kabul 
province of Afghanistan, situated in t,t,° 44'' N. and 68" 18^ E., 92 miles 
from Kabul, and 221 from Kandahar; 7,279 feet above the sea. 


Ghazni is celebrated in Indo-Afghan history as the seat of the 
Ghaznivid dynasty which furnished the first Muhammadan ruler of a 
united and aggressive Afghanistan. The dynasty dates from Alptagin, 
a Turkish slave who had risen to high office under the Samanids ; but 
its real founder was Sabuktagin, a former slave of Alptagin and the 
husband of his daughter. Under Sabuktagin's son, the famous Mahmiid 
of Ghazni, who reigned from 998 to 1030, and made many expeditions 
into India, the dominion of the Ghaznivids stretched from Lahore to 
Samarkand and Ispahan, and Ghazni was adorned with splendid 
buildings and a university. After Mahmud's death the usual process 
of decline set in; and Ghazni was destroyed in 1153 by Ala-ud-dln 
Husain, of the Afghan house of Ghor (hence styled Jahdn soz, the 
'world incendiary '), who spared only the tombs of Sultan Mahmud and 
two of his descendants. From this time Ghazni lost its pristine im- 
portance, and in the subsequent historic vicissitudes of Afghanistan it 
was generally connected with Kabul. 

In the first Afghan War Ghazni w^as stormed by the British troops 
in July, 1839, ^""^ occupied till December, 1841, when, concomitantly 
with the disasters in Kabul, the garrison was forced to surrender. In 
1842 it was again occupied by General Nott, who, after dismantling 
the fort, carried off the celebrated gates \ which Mahmud is said to 
have removed from the Somnath temple in Gujarat in 1024, and which 
still closed the entrance to his tomb. Ghazni was twice visited by a 
British force in 1880 : namely, in April by Sir Donald Stewart, on his 
march from Kandahar to Kabul ; and in August by Lord Roberts, on 
his march from Kabul to Kandahar. On the former occasion an 
Afghan force was defeated in the vicinity of the town. Ghazn! is now 
a decayed town of no military strength, and contains only about 1,000 
inhabited houses. It is situated on the left bank of the Ghazni river, 
on the level ground between the river and the termination of a spur 
which here runs east and west from the Gul Koh range. It may be 
described as an irregular square, having a total circuit of about i^ miles. 
It is surrounded by a wall, about 30 feet high, built on the top of a 
mound in part natural and in part artificial, and flanked by towers at 
irregular intervals. 'l"he city is composed of dirty, irregular streets of 
houses several storeys high. The inhabitants are Afghans, Hazaras, 
and a few Hindu traders. The chief trade is in corn, fruit, madder, 
and the sheep's wool and camel's-hair cloth brought from the adjoining 
Hazara country. Posfins are its sole manufacture. The climate of 
Ghazni is very cold, snow often lying on the ground from November 
to February. During the summer and autumn fevers of a typhoid 
type are very prevalent and fatal. Three miles to the north-east of 

' These are now preserved in the fort at Agra. The wood, however, is deodar, not 
sandal ; and it is certain that they cannot have come from Somnath. 

GHOR 233 

the present town are the ruins of the old city. The only remains 
of its former splendour are two minarets, 400 yards apart, each 100 feet 
high and 12 feet in diameter ; they are said to mark the limits of the 

Gheria. — Port in Rafnagiri District, Bombay. See Vijayadurg. 

Ghod. — Village in the Khed idhika of Poona District, Bombay, 
situated in 19° 2' N. and 73° 53' E., about 25 miles north of Khed town. 
Population (1901), 5,720. Ghod is the head-quarters of the Ambegaon 
petha^ and contains an old mosque, with a Persian inscription recording 
that it was built about 1580 by one Mir Muhammad. In 1839 a band 
of Kolis threatened the petty divisional treasury at Ghod. Mr. Rose, 
Assistant Collector, gathered a force of peons and townspeople, and 
successfully resisted the repeated attacks of 150 insurgents who be- 
sieged them the whole night. The town contains two schools with 
350 boys and 75 girls. 

Ghodbandar. — Port in the Salsette taluka of Thana District, Bom- 
bay, situated in 19° 17' N. and 72° 54' E., on the left bank of Bassein 
creek, 10 miles north-west of Thana, and supposed to be the Hippohira 
of Ptolemy. Population (1901), 646. The customs division called 
after Ghodbandar comprises five ports : namely, Rai Utan, Manori, 
Bandra, Vesava, and Ghodbandar. The total trade of these five ports 
in 1903-4 was 7| lakhs, of which 2^ lakhs represents imports and 
5^ lakhs exports, the last consisting of rice, stone, lime, sand, coco-nuts, 
salt, fish, and firewood. The imports are hardware, cloth, groceries, 
rice, oil, molasses, butter, tobacco, gunny-bags, .y^w-hemp, and timber. 
Under the Portuguese, Ghodbandar stood a siege by the Maratha 
Sivaji, who appeared before it in 1672. In 1737 it was captured by 
the Marathas, and the Portuguese garrison put to the sword. Fryer 
(1675) calls the town Grebondel. A resthouse on the shore has ac- 
commodation for 50 travellers. There are some Portuguese architec- 
tural remains. 'Phe traders in Ghcjdbandar are i^grls, Kohs, Muham- 
madans, and Christians, and most of them trade on borrowed ca})ital. 

Ghodna. — One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab. See Balsan. 

Ghodnadi. — Town in the Sirur tahika of Poona District, Bombay. 
See SiKUR Town. 

Gholghat. — Ruined fort in Hooghly District, Bengal. See Hooghlv 


Ghoosery. — Suburb of Howrah city in Howrah District, Bengal. 
See Ghusuri. 

Ghor. — A ruined city in Afghanistan, situated in a valley never 
visited by any European, about 120 miles south-east of Herat in the 
Taimani country, of which the Ghorat forms a large part. The 
Ghorat, which is so called from the two valleys of the Ghor-i-Taiwara 
and. the Ghor-i-Moshkan, has an area of about 7,000 square miles. 

234 GHOK 

It is divided from the Northern Tainiani country hy the watershed 
of the Farrah Rud. The general elevation is ahout 7,000 feet. It is 
inhabited by Tainianis, Moghals, and Tajiks, of whom the Taimanis 
are the most numerous. The total population has been roughly com- 
puted at 8,000, but this number is at least doubled during the summer 
months by the influx of Durranis from the Pusht-i-Rud and Sabzawar. 
The climate of the Ghorat in winter is severe, but the summer and 
autumn are delightful. The inhabitants trade in wool, ,i,'//7, cheese, 
grain, hides, horses, sheep, cattle, woollen blankets, and harak or 
woollen cloth. There are no manufactures. 

Ghor is celebrated as the seat of the Afghan famih' who, after a long 
and bitter feud with the Sultans of Ghazni, eventuall\- overthrew^ them 
(11 53), and later extended their conquests over the whole of Northern 
India as far as the delta of the Ganges. The origin of this dynasty 
has been much discussed. The prevalent, and apparently the correct, 
opinion is that both they and their subjects were Afghans. In the 
time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, Ghor was held by a prince whom 
Firishta calls Muhammad Suri Afghan. The territory of Ghor was 
treacherously seized by Mahmud and converted into a dependency. 
Later, Kutb-ud-din Sur, the chief of Ghor, who had married a daughter 
of Sultan Bahram of Ghazni, was put to death by the Sultan. His 
death was avenged by his brother Saif-ud-din, who captured Ghazni. 
Bahram fled, but soon returned at the head of an army, and, having 
taken Saif-ud-din prisoner, put him to death by torture. The quarrel 
was then espoused by a third brother, Ala-ud-din, who defeated 
Bahram and gave up Ghazni, at that time perhaps the noblest city 
in Asia, to flame, slaughter, and devastation. All the superb monu- 
ments of the Ghaznivid kings were demolished, except the tombs 
of Sultan Mahmud and two of his descendants. 

After Ala-ud-dln had satiated his fury at Ghazni, he returned to 
Ghor, where he died in i 156, and was succeeded by his son Saif-ud-din, 
whose reign lasted for only one year. At his death the throne passed 
to the elder of his cousins, Ghiyas-ud-din, who associated his brother, 
Muhammad Shahab-ud-din, better known as Muhammad Ghori, in the 
government. Ghiyas-ud-din retained the sovereignty during his life, 
but he seems to have left the conduct of military operations almost 
entirely to Shahab-ud-dln. Under these two princes Ghor reached 
the zenith of its greatness, and on their death rapidly sank into 
insignificance. The conquests of Muhammad Ghorl far exceeded 
those of Mahmud of Ghazni, but he had neither the culture nor the 
general talents of that great prince. Accordingly, while the name of 
Mahmud is yet one of the most celebrated in Asia, that of Muhammad 
of Ghor is scarcely known beyond the countries over which he ruled. 
The whole of Northern India was brought under subjugation by 



Muhammad Ghorl and his generals. The empire of Ghor during his 
hfetime extended from Khorasan and Seistan on the west to the delta 
of the Ganges on the east ; from Khwarizm, the Khanates of Turkistan, 
the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayas on the north to Baluchistan, the 
Gulf of Cutch, Gujarat, and Malwa, on the south. Ghiyas-ud-din died 
in 1202, and his more famous brother was murdered on the banks 
of the Indus in 1200 by a band of Ghakhars. Muhammad of Ghor 
was succeeded by his nephew, Mahmild ; but though the latter's 
sovereignty was acknowledged by all, the kingdom broke at once into 
practically separate states, which were scarcely held together even in 
name by his general supremacy. 'Hie most important and lasting 
of these was the kingdom of Delhi, which started into independent 
existence under the Slave dynasty. On Mali mud's death five or six 
years later, there was a general civil war throughout all his dominions 
west of the Indus, and these countries were soon subdued by the kings 
of Khwarizm. Ghazni was taken in 1215, and Firoz Koh at an earlier 
period. The Ghorids appear, however, to ha\e partially recovered 
from this temporary extinction, for there is evidence that in the 
fourteenth century Herat was defended by Muhammad Sam Ghori 
against a successor of Chingiz Khan. At a later period Timur in his 
memoirs mentions a certain Ghiyas-ud-din as ruler of Khorasan, Ghor, 
and Ghirjistan, and in many places calls him Ghorl. The famous Sher 
Shah, who temporarily expelled Humayun from India and introduced 
many of the administrative reforms popularly ascribed to Akbar, was 
possibly connected with this house. 

The most important ruins, of which the country is full, are those 
at Yakhan Pain, a short march south-west of Taiwara. These have 
been described as the remains of an ancient city covering a large extent 
of ground, and comprising massive ruins of forts and tombs. This was 
probably the Ghor taken by Mahmud of Ghazni, and the scat of the 
Ghorid princes. Ruins of less note are everywhere numerous ; among 
these there would appear to be some of Buddhist origin in Vaman. 

Ghora. — State in Central India. See Johat. 

Ghorabari. — Tdliika of Karachi District, Sind, Bombay, lying 
between 23° 55' and 24° 34' N. and 67" 22' and 68'' 2' E., with an 
area of 566 square miles. The population rose from 30,518 in 1891 
*^o 34,736 in 1 90 1. The tdhika contains one town, Keti (population, 
2,127), ^i''d 93 villages. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 78,000. It includes the Keti inahal^ the population 
of which is 8,499. The head-quarters are at Kotri Allahrakhio, The 
soil of the tdluka^ which is narrow and straggling in shape, is alluvial ; 
and in the south, below the town of Keti Bandar, there is a wide 
expanse of mud flats, liable to frequent flooding by the sea. Irrigation 
is provided by the Baghiar, Ghar, Marho, Nasir W'ah, and Makri \\'ah 


canals. The principal crop is rice ; bdjm, barley, and sugar-cane are 
also grown. 

Ghora Dakka. — vSmall cantonment in Hazara District, North-West 
Frontier Province, situated in 34° 2' N. and 73° 25'' E., on the road 
between Dunga Gali and Murree, 3 miles from the former and 15 
from the latter place. During the summer months it is occupied 
by a detachment of British infantry. 

Ghoraghat. — Ruined city in the head-cjuarters subdivision of 
Dinajpur District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25° 15' N. 
and 89° 18' E., on the west bank of the Karatoya river. Some ruins 
are connected by legend with Virat Raja of the Mahabharata, in 
whose court Yudhishthira with his four brothers and wife found exile. 
There are also the remains of a strong military and administrative 
outpost established under Muhammadan rule at the end of the fif- 
teenth century by Ala-ud-din Husain. 

[Martin (Buchanan), Eastern I?idia, vol. ii, pp. 678-81.] 

Ghorasar {Ghoddsar). — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Ghosi. — North-eastern fahsll of Azamgarh District, United Pro- 
vinces, lying between 25° 57' and 26° 19' N. and 83° 21' and 83° 
52' E., with an area of 368 square miles. The tahs'il was formed in 
1904 by transferring ihe. parganas of Natthupur and GhosI from Sagri 
tahsl/, and portions of the pargana of Muhammadabad from the iahs'il 
of that name. Population according to the Census of 1901 is 260,840, 
and the density is about the District average. There are 519 villages 
and two towns : Dohrighat (population, 3,417) and Kopaganj 
(7'039)- The demand for land revenue is Rs. 2,72,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 46,000. The tahsll lies between the Gogra and the Chhoti Sarju 
and Tons, and thus includes a considerable area of low-lying kachhdr 
land, which is subject to fluvial action. 

Ghotki Taluka. — Tdhika of Sukkur District, Sind, Bombay, lying 
between 27° 40' and 28° 11' N. and 69° 4' and 69° 35' E., with an area 
of 518 square miles, including the Pano Akil mahal {16^ square miles). 
The population rose from 67,743 in 1891 to 72,019 in 1901. The 
taluka contains one town, Ghotki (population, 3,821), the head- 
quarters; and 129 villages. The density, 139 persons per square mile, 
is much above the District average. The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 2-2 lakhs. The taluka is liable to floods, and 
depends for the irrigation of its jotvdr and wheat upon small canals 
leading direct from the Indus. The zaminddrs are mostly small 
holders and impoverished. Much forest land fringes the banks of 
the river. 

Ghotki Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name in 
Sukkur District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 28° N. and 69° 21' E., on 
the North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 3,821. The Muham- 


madan residents are chiefly Pathans, Malaks, Saiyids, Muchis, and 
Lobars, and the Hindus principally Banias. Ghotki was founded 
about 1747. The mosque of Pir Musan Shnh, the founder of the place, 
113 feet long by 65 feet broad, and decorated with coloured tiles, is the 
largest in Sind, and of great sanctity. Local trade is chiefly in cereals, 
indigo, wool, and sugar-cane. The Lobars (blacksmiths) of Ghotki 
are famed for their metal-work ; wood-carving and staining are also 
very creditably executed. The municipality, constituted in 1855, had 
an average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 8,045. I^"* 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,500. The town contains a dispensary 
and two schools, attended by 172 boys and 6 girls. 

Ghund. — A fief of the Keonthal State, Punjab, lying between 31° 2' 
and 31° 6' N. and 77° 27' and 77° 33' E., with an area of 28 square 
miles. The population in 1901 was 1,927, and the revenue is about 
Rs. 2,000. A tribute of Rs. 250 is paid to the Keonthal State. The 
present chief, Thakur Bishan Singh, exercises full powers, but sen- 
tences of death require the confirmation of the Superintendent, Simla 
Hill States. 

Ghuram {Kuliram, or Ramgarh). — Ancient town in the Ghanaur 
tahsil, Pinjaur ?iizdinaf, Patiala State, Punjab, situated in 30° f N. and 
76° 33' E., 26 miles south of Rajpura. Population (1901), 798. 
Tradition avers that it was the abode of the maternal grandfather 
of Rama Chandra, king of Ajodhya. \n historical times Kuhram 
is first mentioned as surrendering to Muhammad of Ghor in 11 92. 
It remained a fief of Delhi during the early period of the Muhammadan 
empire, but fell into decay. Extensive ruins mark its former greatness. 

Ghusuri. — Northern suburb of Howrah city in Howrah District, 
Bengal, containing jute and cotton-mills, jute-presses, and rope-works. 
The last, founded a century ago, forms the oldest factory industry 
in the town. Ghusuri is a permanent market, with a large trade in 
agricultural produce. 

Gidar Dhor. — River in Baluchistan. See Hingol. 

Gidhaur. — Village in the Jamui subdivision of Monghyr District, 
Bengal, situated in 24° 51' N. and 86'^ 12' E. Population (1901), 
1,780. Gidhaur is the present seat of one of the oldest of the noble 
families of Bihar. Their original home was at the foot of the hills 
near the village of Khaira ; and the ruins of an old stone fort and 
other buildings may still be traced in the scrub jungle there. Close 
by are the remains of a large masonry fort, known as Naulakhagarh, 
the erection of which is by local tradition ascribed to Sher Shah, but 
which may once have been the seat of the family. The founder was 
Blr Bikram Singh, a Rajput who emigrated from his home in Central 
India about the thirteenth century, and, after slaying a local Dosadh 
ruler who held sway over large estates in the neighbourhood, estab- 


lished the (lidhaur Raj. Raja Puran Ma], eighth in descent from 
Bir Bikram Singh, built tlie great temple of Jiaidyanath. The present 
head of the family is Sir Ravancswar Prasad Singh, K.C.I. E. 

Gigasaran.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Gilgit. — Head-quarters of a scattered district or wazdrat of the 
Kashmir State, situated in 35° 55' N. and 74° 23' E., at an elevation 
of 4,890 feet above sea-level. The wazdrat stretches south to Astor 
and the northern slopes of the Burzil, follows the Astor river to its 
junction with the Indus, and then runs north along the Indus to Bunji. 
It was once a flourishing tract, but never recovered from the great flood 
of 1 84 1, when the Indus v>as blocked by a landslip below the Hatu 
Pir, and the valley was turned into a lake. Opposite Bunji is the 
valley of Sai, and 6 miles farther up the Gilgit river ftvlls into the Indus. 
Gilgit is about 24 miles from the Indus, and has a considerable area 
of fertile irrigated land. The wazdrat now includes the tract known 
as Haramush on the right bank of the Indus, and numerous valleys 
leading down to the Gilgit river. To the north the boundary reaches 
Guach Pari on the Hunza road, and up the Kargah nullah as far as 
the Bhaldi mountain to the south in the direction of Darel. From 
Gilgit itself mountain roads radiate into the surrounding valleys, and 
its geographical position now, as in ancient times, renders the fort on 
the right bank of the Gilgit river an important place. A suspension 
bridge connects Gilgit with the left bank, which is here as barren as 
the right bank is fertile. The ancient name of the site under its Hindu 
Ras was Sargin. Later it was known as Gilit, which the Sikhs and 
Dogras corrupted into Gilgit, but to the country people it is familiar 
still as Gilit or Sargin Gilit. It lies in the most mountainous region 
of the Himalayas. Within a radius of 65 miles there are eleven peaks 
ranging from 18,000 to 20,000 feet; seven from 20,000 to 22,000 feet ; 
six from 22,000 to 24,000 feet; and eight from 24,000 to 26,600 feet. 
At their bases the mountains are barren and repellent, but at 7,000 feet 
there are fine forests of juniper and fir. Above these are the silver 
birch, and above all vegetable growth lie sweep after sweep of glacier 
and eternal snow. 

The pencil cedar is found from 14,400 feet down to 6,000 feet, and 
sometimes reaches a girth of 30 feet. Finns exceha grows between 
9,500 and 12,000 feet. The edible pine is common in Astor, and 
ranges from 7,000 to 10,000 feet. The useful birch-tree is common, 
and grows as high as 12,500 feet. The tamarisk does well in the 
barren valleys up to 6,000 feet. Roughly speaking, the upper limit 
of vegetation around Gilgit is 16,200 feet ; above this the rocks are 
stained with lichens. 

Here are found the wild goats {Capra sibmca and C. fa/co/ieri), he 
ibex and wdrkhor and their deadlv fo(\ the beautiful snow ounce 


(yFelis ufia'a), and occasionally the wild dog {Cyo?i rutilaits.). The red 
bear ( Ursiis isabellimis), the snow-cock ( Tetraogalhis Jiiinalayamis), and 
the grey partridge are common ; and many of the migratory birds of 
India — wild geese, duck, and quail— pass up and down in the autumn 
and spring. Below the forest on the lower and more barren hills, nume- 
rous flocks of wild sheep {Ovis vignei and O. Jiahiira) are met with. 

The climate is healthy and dry. At Gilgit itself it is never very cold 
and snow seldom lies for more than a few hours. In the summer 
it is hot owing to the radiation from the rocky mountains, but it 
is cool compared with the climate of Northern India. The rainfall is 
very light. 

The remains of ancient stone buildings and Buddhist carvings 
suggest that Gilgit was once the seat of a Hindu kingdom, or a 
Buddhist dynasty, while traces of abandoned cultivation point to the 
fact that the population in early times was far larger than it is at 
present. For many centuries the inhabitants of (iilgit have been 
Muhammadans, and nothing definite is now known of their Hindu 
predecessors. Tradition relates that the last of the Hindu Ras, Sri 
Badat, known as Adam-Khor, the ' man-eater,' was killed by a Muham- 
madan adventurer, who founded a new dynasty known as Trakhane. 
Sri Badat's rule is said to have extended to Chitral, and the intro- 
duction of Islam seems to have split up the kingdom into a number 
of small states carrying on a fratricidal warfare and incessant slave- 
raiding. The Trakhane dynasty is now extinct, though it is claimed 
that the present titular Ra of Gilgit has a slight stain of Trakhane 
blood. In the early part of the nineteenth century we find Yasln 
giving a Ra to Gilgit. He was killed by the ruler of Punial, who in 
turn was killed by Tair Shah, chief of Nagar. Tair Shah was succeeded 
by his son, who was killed by Gauhar Aman, ruler of Yasln. For the 
subsequent history of Gilgit see Kashmir. The history of Astor, or, 
as the Dogras call it, Hasora, is intimately connected with that of 
Skardu. More than 300 years ago GhazI Mukhpun, a Persian adven- 
turer, is said to have married a princess of the Skardu reigning family. 
The four sons born of this union became Ras of Skardu, Astor, Rondu, 
and Kharmang respectively, and from them are descended the families 
of the present chiefs of those places. The independence of Astor 
ceased at the Dogra conquest. The present titular Ra of Astor is the 
lineal descendant of Ghazi Mukhpun. The Dogra rule has secured 
peace to the country, but it will be long before the country recovers 
entirely from the desolating slave-raids of Chilas. 

The wazdrat contains 264 villages, with a population, according to 
the Census of 1901, of 60,885. The pressure on the cultivated area is 
great, the density being 1,295 P^'' square mile. The people of Astor 
and Jlilgit would be surprised if they were told that they were Dards 

240 L;iLG/r 

living in Dardistan, and their neighbours of Hunza-Nagar and Yasin 
would be equally astonished. If consulted, they would probably 
describe their country as Shlnaka, or the land of the Shins, where 
ShTna is the spoken language. They are an Aryan people, stoutly 
built, cheery, honest, frugal, and sober. They are devoted to polo, 
and are fond of dancing. The inhabitants of Astor wear a peculiar 
head-dress, a bag of woollen cloth, half a yard long, which is rolled 
up outwards at the edges until it gets to the size to fit comfortably 
to the head, round which the roll makes a protection from cold or from 
sun nearly as good as a turban. Their houses are small, with very 
small doors, and are usually built out from the mountainside. Warmth 
is the one consideration. The Astoris have some very peculiar 
customs. Drew notices that they hold the cow in abhorrence. They 
will not drink cow's milk, nor will they burn cow-dung, the universal 
fuel of the East, and in a pure Shin village no one will eat fowls or 
touch them. They practise inoculation for small-pox, their one 
epidemic. The people of Astor are Musalmans, two-thirds being of 
the Sunni persuasion, and the rest being either Shiahs or Maulais. 
There is no religious intolerance among them. 

Drew mentions the following caste divisions : Ronu, Shins, Yashkun, 
Kremins, and Dums. As regards the Ronu caste, he says that there 
are a small number of families in Gilgit. Biddulph, in his Tribes 
of the Hindu Koosh, says that it forms 6 per cent, of the Gilgit popula- 
tion, and that it is the most honoured caste of all, ranking next to 
Mukhpuns or the Raja caste of Dardistan. 

The majority of the Astoris belong to the Yashkun caste, and the 
Shins are few in number, under 3,000. They are more numerous in 
Gilgit, the total number of Shins being, according to the last Census, 
7) 733' The Shins are regarded with great respect by the Yashkuns 
and the other castes. The Yashkuns claim the Shins as their fore- 
fathers. The Shins give their daughters to Ronus and to Saiyids, 
but take wives from the Yashkuns. 

Far away in Central Ladakh in the Hanu valley live other Dards 
of the Buddhist religion. They have retained the Aryan type of the 
country whence they came, and its Shina dialect, but they wear the 
pigtail and the Ladcikhi cap. It is said that, though Buddhist by name, 
they really worship local spirits and demons. They practise polyandry, 
but they will not eat with Tibetan Buddhists, and, like the Shins in 
Dardistan, they hold the cow^ in abhorrence. 

In Gilgit, as in Astor, there are few social subdivisions, for the 
people are forced to depend on themselves for most wants of life. The 
language spoken is Shina, though only a small percentage of the 
population is Shin. The religion is Muhanimadan, Shiahs prepon- 
derating. There is an entire absence of fanaticism. The national 


character is mild, and the men are unwarlike. The Gilgiti is attached 
to his home and his family, and is an industrious cultivator. Both 
men and women are strongly built, of a fairer complexion than the 
people of India. The women paint their faces with a kind of thin 
paste, to keep the skin soft and to prevent sun-burn. They are fond 
of flowers, and decorate their caps with irises and roses. 

The cultivation is of a high character. The fields are carefully tilled, 
heavily manured, and amply irrigated. In (lilgit itself good rice is 
grown, and crops of wheat, barley, maize, millet, buckwheat, pulses, 
rape-seed, and cotton are raised, while fruit is plentiful. There is very 
little grazing land, and cattle are scarce. Lucerne grass is largely 
cultivated for fodder. 

In the cold dry climate of Astor cultivation is carried on up to an 
elevation of 9,000 feet. It depends entirely on irrigation by little 
channels known as kul. The chief crops are wheat, barley, peas, 
maize, millet, and buckwheat. The people pay great attention to 
fodder and cultivate lucerne grass. Cultivation is precarious in Astor, 
as the crops frequently do not ripen owing to the cold, and there are 
several vegetable pests in the shape of worms. 

Many of the streams are rich in gold, especially those which flow 
from Hunza and Nagar and from the Indus above Chilas. Gold-washing 
is carried on in the winter chiefly by the poorer members of the 
population, though the work is often remunerative. At Chilas entire 
families live by the work. The gold is of fair cjuality, the best being 
twenty carats. The Bagrot valley is celebrated for gold-washing, and 
contains many signs of mineral wealth. 

'I'he only manufacture is the weaving of woollen cloth {pattu)^ but 
this is for home use, and not for sale. Trade does not flourish. The 
local wants are few, and the only chance of Gilgit becoming an impor- 
tant commercial centre lies in the opening of a trade route to Yarkand. 
'l"he chief staple of trade is salt. Russian chintz is brought down from 
Yarkand, and is said to be more durable than the English article. 

The most important roads are those leading to India. The t^n-foot 
road over the Burzil and Raj Diangan passes is described in the 
article on Kashmir. By that route Gilgit lies at a distance of 390 miles 
from the present railway base at Rawalpindi. An alternative line has 
been opened over the Babusar pass, which brings Gilgit within 250 
miles of the railway at Hasan Abdal. This line, besides being shorter, 
has the advantage of only crossing one snow [)ass, instead of two, or 
practically three, if the winter snow at Murree is taken into con- 
sideration. The routes to the north are mere tracks when the military 
roads connecting Gilgit with the out[)osts at Gupis and Hunza have 
been passed. 

There is a daily postal service with India by the Burzil pass and 



Kashmir, and the telegraph hne follows the same route. Both services 
work well in spite of heavy snow and destructive avalanches, and arc 
maintained by the Government of India. There is a weekly postal 
service from Gilgit to Chilas and Gupis, and a fortnightly ])Ost be- 
tween Gilgit and Kashghar, via the Kilik pass in the summer, and the 
Mintaka in the winter. 

The Gilgit ivazdrat is in charge of a AN'azir Wazarat. Crime is slight ; 
there is no jail and no police organization. Police duties are carried 
out by the levies and a few soldiers of the Kashmir regular troops. 
There is little litigation, and the chief preoccupation of the WazTr is the 
question of supplies to the garrison at Gilgit, provided by an excellent 
system of transport from Kashmir. In 1891-2, at the time of the 
Hunza-Nagar expedition, the garrison had a force of 2,451 ; in 1895, 
when the Chitral disturbances broke out, it consisted of 3,373 troops; 
and the present garrison numbers 1,887, including a mountain battery 
and two infantry regiments, and sappers and miners. A school is 
maintained at Gilgit. 

A land revenue settlement of Astor and Gilgit has been made. It 
■was impossible to introduce a purely cash assessment owing to the 
State's requirements in grain, but many inequalities and abuses were 
removed, and, on the whole, the condition of the villagers is satis- 

A British Political Agent resides at Gilgit. He exercises some 
degree of supervision over the Wazir of the Kashmir State, and is 
directly responsible to the Government of India for the administration 
of the outlying districts or petty States of Hunza, Nagar, Ashkuman, 
Yasin, and Ghizar, the little republic of Chilas, and also for relations 
with Tangir and Darel, over which valleys the Punial Ras and the 
Mehtarjaos of YasIn have partially acknowledged claims. These States 
acknowledge the suzerainty of Kashmir, but form no part of its terri- 
tory. They pay an annual tribute to the Darbar : Hunza and Nagar in 
gold ; Chilas in cash (Rs. 2,628) ; Askuman, YasTn, and Ghizar in grain, 
goats, and ghl. The relations of the Political Agent with the outlying 
States are eminently satisfactory. No undue interference takes place in 
the administrations, and the people are encouraged to maintain their 
customs and traditions intact. Besides the military garrison, furnished 
by the Kashmir State, there is a small but extremely efficient force of 
local levies armed with Snider carbines. They are drawn from Hunza, 
Nagar, Punial, Sai, and Chilas. 

Gingee {Gingi). — A famous rock-fortress in the Tindivanam (d/i/k 
of South Arcot District, Madras, situated in 12° 15' N. and 79° 25' E., 
on the road from Tindivanam to Tiruvannamalai. The interest of the 
place is chiefly historical. The existing village is a mere hamlet, with 
a population (1901) of only 524. The fortress consists of three strongly 


defended hills — Rajagiri, Kistnagiri, and Chandraya Drug — connected 
by long walls of circumvallation. The most notable is Rajagiri, on 
which stands the citadel. It is about 500 or 600 feet high, and consists 
of a ridge terminating in a great overhanging bluff facing the south, and 
falling with a precipitous sweep to the plain on the north. The citadel 
is on the summit of this bluff. At the point where the ridge meets the 
base of the bluff, a narrow and steep ravine gives a difficult means of 
access to the top. On every other side it is quite inaccessible, the sides 
of the rock rising sheer from the base to a great height. Across this 
ravine the Hindu engineers built three walls, each about 20 or 25 feet 
high, and rising one behind the other at some little distance, which 
rendered an attack by escalade in that direction almost impracticable. 
The way to the summit leads through the three walls by several gate- 
ways ; but at the very top this portion of the rock is divided by a 
narrow chasm 24 feet wide and 60 feet deep from the main mass of 
the hill, and the only way into the citadel is across this chasm. The 
fortifiers of the rock artificially prolonged and heightened it,, threw 
a wooden bridge across, and made the only means of ingress into the 
citadel through a narrow stone gateway facing the bridge and about 30 
yards from it, which was fortified on the side of the citadel with flank- 
ing walls, fitted with embrasures for guns and loopholed for musketry. 
It has been said with truth that in the conditions of warfare then 
existing this gateway could have been held by ten men against ten 

It is not known with certainty who constructed the fort, but historical 
accounts and the nature of the buildings point to the conclusion that 
the credit of building it belongs mainly, if not entirely, to the ancient 
Vijayanagar dynasty. The round towers and cavaliers show traces of 
European supervision, and some of the more modern embrasures were 
the work of the French. The great lines of fortifications which cross 
the valley between the three hills, enclosing an area of 7 square miles, 
were evidently built at different periods. In their original form, each 
consisted of a wall about 5 feet thick, built up of blcjcks of granite and 
filled in with rubble ; but subsequently a huge earthen rampart, about 
25 or 30 feet thick, has been thrown up behind these walls, and 
revetted roughly on the inside with stone, while at intervals in this 
rampart are barracks or guard-rooms. 

Several ruins of fine buildings are situated within the fort. Of these 
the most remarkable are the two temples, the Kalyana Mahal, the 
gymnasium, the granaries, and the uigdh. There are various picturesque 
mantapavis, or buildings supported on stone pillars, on each of the hills, 
and a large granary on the top of Kistnagiri. The most attractive ruin 
of all, perhaps, is the Kalyana Mahal, which consists of a square court 
surrounded by rooms for the ladies of the governor's household. In the 

R 2 

2 44 GINGEE 

middle of this court is a scjuare tower of eight storeys, about 80 feet 
high, with a pyramidal roof. The first six storeys are all of the same 
size and pattern : namely, an arcaded veranda running round a small 
rotjm about 8 feet square, and communicating with the storey above by 
means of small steps. The room on the seventh storey has now no 
veranda, but there are indications that one formerly existed. The top- 
most room is of smaller size than the others. 

The principal objects of interest in the fort are the great gun on the 
top of Rajagiri ; the Raja's bathing-stone, a large smooth slab of granite, 
1 5 square feet and about a foot thick, which lies near the spot where the 
l)alace is said to have stood ; and the prisoners' well. This last is 
a singular boulder about 15 or 20 feet high, poised on a rock near the 
Chakrakulam reservoir, and surrounded by a low circular brick wall. 
It has a natural hollow passing through it like a well ; and the bottom 
ha\ing been blocked up with masonry, and the upper edges smoothed 
with a little masonry work plastered with lime, a natural dry well was 
formed. Intc; this prisoners are said to have been thrown and allowed 
to die of starvation. The top of the boulder can be reached only by 
means of a ladder, and the hollow in it has now been filled in with 
rubbish. The metal of which the gun is made shows little or no rust. 
It has the figures 7560 stamped on the breech. A little to the south 
of Rajagiri is a fourth hill called Chakkili Drug. The summit is 
strongly fortified, but these defences are not connected with those 
of the other hills. 

Clingee is familiar to the Tamil population throughout Southern 
India by means of a popular ballad still sung by wandering minstrels, 
which has for its object the story of the fate of the genius loci, \ )esing 
Raja. According to the ballad, this Desing was an independent ruler 
of Gingee who paid no tribute to any power. The emperor Aurangzeb 
had remitted all payment, as a reward for his skill in managing a horse 
that no one else could ride. The Nawab of the Carnatic was jealous 
of the Raja's independence, and on his refusing to pay tribute invaded 
his territory. In the fight that followed Desing Raja, though at first 
apparently successful owing to supernatural interference, was eventually 
defeated and killed. His wife the Rani committed sail, and the Nawab, 
out of respect for her memory, built and named after her the town of 
Ranipet in North Arcot District. As mentioned above, Gingee was a 
stronghold of the Vijayanagar dynasty, which was at the height of its 
|)rosperity at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and was finally 
overthrown by the allied Muhammadan Sultans of the Deccan in 1565 
at the battle of Talikota. It was not till 1638, however, that Banda- 
ullah Khan, the Bijapur general, with the assistance of the troops of 
Golconda, captured the fort. The division of the Bija})ur army which 
effected this caj)ture was commanded by Shahjl, father of the famous 



SivajT. In 1677 tlie tort fell to Si\nji by stratagem, and rt-mained 
in Maratha hands for twenty-two years. In 1690 tlie armies of tlie 
Delhi emperor under Zulfikar Khan were dispatched against Gingee, the 
emperor being bent upon the extirpation of the Maratha power. The 
siege was prolonged for eight years, but the fort fell in 1698, and after- 
wards became the head-quarters of the Musalman standing army in the 
province of Arcot. In 1 750 the French under M. Bussy captured it by 
a skilful and daringly executed night surprise, and held it with an 
efficient garrison for eleven years. Captain Stephen Smith took the place 
after a five weeks' siege in 1761. In 1780 it was surrendered to Haidar 
All, and it played no part of importance in the subsequent campaigns. 

Gingee long enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most un- 
healthy localities in the Carnatic. The French are said by Orme to 
have lost 1,200 European soldiers during their eleven years' tenancy of 
it. There is no trace, however, of any burial-ground where these men 
were interred. The spread of cultivation and attention to sanitary 
improvements seem to have made the locality more salubrious, for 
its character for malaria is not now considered remarkable. The 
fortress is entirely deserted. The Government has made an annual 
grant for the preservation of the ruins, and has recently issued orders 
for the preparation of estimates for the complete repair and restoration 
of some of the main buildings in the fort. 

Gir. — Range of hills in Kathiawar, Bombay, extending over 40 miles 
in length, commencing from a point about 20 miles north-east of Diu 
island. Captain Grant of the Indian Navy was captured in 1813 by an 
outlaw named Bawa-Vala, who kept him a prisoner on these hills for two 
and a half months. The region consists of a succession of rugged 
ridges and isolated hills covered with forest. It has long been famous 
as the haunt of a particular variety of lion which some few years ago 
was in danger of extermination. Latterly, however, they have been 
protected to such an extent that their numbers have risen to about 
seventy, and they have on many occasions killed cattle and even 
attacked solitary villagers. 

Giria. — Site of battle-field in the Jangipur subdivision of Murshidabad 
District, Bengal, situated in 24° 30' N. and 88° 6' E., to the south of 
Sutr. It is famous as the scene of two important battles : the first in 
1740, when All Vardi Khan defeated Nawab Sarfaraz Khan, and won 
for himself the government of Bengal; the second in 1763, when 
Nawab Mir Kasim, after declaring war on the East India Company, 
was finally defeated and the governorship was conferred for the second 
time on Mir Jafar. 

Giriak. — \'illage in the Bihar subdivision of Patna District, Bengal, 
situated in 25° 2' N. and 85° 32' E., on the Panchana river, and con- 
nected with Bihar town by a metalled road. Population (1901), 243. 

24C-' GIRL IK 

South-west of the village, and on the opposite side of the river, stands 
the peak at the end of the double range of hills commencing near 
Gaya, which General Cunningham identifies with Fa Hian's solitary 
mountain, suggesting at the same time that its name is derived from 
Ekigri, or ' one hill ' ; but his views have not met with universal accept- 
ance. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton has described the ruins of Giriak, which 
are full of archaeological interest. Tliey were originally ascended from 
the north-east, and remains still exist of a road about 12 feet wide, 
paved with large blocks, and winding so as to procure a moderate 
gradient. At the west end of the ridge, a steep brick slope leads up to 
a platform, on which are some granite pillars, probably part of an 
ancient temple. East of the ridge is an area 45 feet square, called the 
chabutra of Jarasandha, the centre of which is occupied by a low 
square pedestal, supporting a solid brick column 68 feet in circum- 
ference and 55 feet in height. It is popularly believed that Krishna 
crossed the river at this point on his way to challenge Jarasandha to 
combat, and a bathing festival is held at the spot annually in the month 
of K5rtik to commemorate the event. 

[M. Martin, Easter?i India, vol. i, pp. 78-80 ; and Archaeological 
Survey of India Reports, vol. i, pp. 16-34, and vol. viii.] 

Giridih Subdivision. — Eastern subdivision of Hazaribagh District, 
Bengal, lying between 23° 44' and 24° 49' N. and 85° 39' and 86° 34' E., 
with an area of 2,002 square miles. The northern portion of the sub- 
division consists of hilly country and undulating uplands, which merge 
in the valley of the Barakar on the south and of the Sakri river on the 
north. To the south there is a second hilly tract, in which Parasnath 
Hill is situated, and along the southern boundary is the valley of the 
Damodar. The population in 1901 was 417,797, compared with 
401,811 in 1891, the density being 209 persons per square mile. It 
contains one town, Giridih (population, 9,433), the head-quarters ; and 
3,408 villages. Important coal-fields belonging to the East Indian 
Railway are situated in the neighbourhood of Glrldih town. Parasnath 
Hill is a well-known place of pilgrimage for the Jains. 

Giridih Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Hazaribagh District, Bengal, situated in 24'^ 10' N. and 
86° 22' E. Population (1901), 9,433. Giridih is connected by a 
branch with the main line of the East Indian Railway at Madhu- 
pur, and is the centre of the Karharbari coal-field {see Haz.\ribagh 
District). GirTdlh was constituted a municipality in 1902. The 
average income since its constitution has been Rs. 3,000, and the 
expenditure Rs. 2,900. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 5,600, mainly 
derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 5,200. The town contains the usual subdivisional ofiices, and 
a sub-jail with accommodation for 21 prisoners. 


Giri Raj (' The royal hill ' ; called Annakfit in early Sanskrit litera- 
ture). — A sandstone hill, about 4 or 5 miles long, near the town of 
GoBARDHAN, in Muttra District, United Provinces, between 27° 28' 
and 27° 31' N. and 77° 26' and 77° 29' E. The rock rises abruptly 
from the alluvial plain, and runs north-east and south-west with an 
average elevation of 100 feet. On the north, it ends in the Manas! 
Ganga tank at Gobardhan. According to Hindu fable, Indra, enraged 
at being deprived of his usual sacrifices, caused violent storms to pour 
down on the people of Braj, who were protected by Krishna by means 
of this hill, which he held aloft on the tip of his finger for seven days 
and nights. Pious pilgrims may still be seen measuring their length in 
the dust the whole way round it, while the hill is reckoned so holy that 
the main road, which crosses it at its lowest point, is carried over by 
a paved causeway. 

Girishk. — An old fort in the Kandahar province of Afghanistan, 
situated in 31° 45' N. and 64° 37' E., on the right bank of the 
Helmand river, 78 miles from Kandahar and 329 from Herat (via 
Farrah) ; 3,641 feet above the sea. The town is insignificant, and 
owes all its importance to being the head-quarters of the Hakim of the 
Pusht-i-Rud district. A small Afghan garrison lives outside the fort. 
Girishk was occupied by the British from 1839 till 1842, and for the 
last nine months of that period amid great difficulties, by a native force 
of 200 Sindls, Punjabis, and Hindustanis, under a fine Indian soldier 
named Balwant Singh. This small garrison held their own against 
from 10,000 to 15,000 Durranis, and the defence was one of the most 
brilliant exi)loits of the campaign, (lirishk was again occupied for a 
short period by a British force in the beginning of 1879. 

Girnar. — Sacred hill, with ruined temples, in Kathiawar, Bombay, 
situated in 21° 30' N. and 70^' 42' E., about 10 miles east of Junagarh 
town. The hill rises to about 3,500 feet above .sea-level and has five 
principal peaks : Amba Mata, which is crowned by the temple of that 
goddess ; Gorakhnath, the highest of all, which is 3,666 feet above the 
sea; Oghad Shikhar ; Guru Dattatraya; and Kalka's peak, which till 
quite recently was the resort (jf Aghoris or Mardikhors, a degraded 
order of ascetics who profess to recognize no distinctions in the purity 
of food and have been known to eat human flesh. The fortress and 
part of the old palace of the Ghudasamas is still standing. There 
are three famous kiaids or reservoirs, the Gau Mukhi, Hanuman Dhara, 
and Kamandal Kund. The great rock Bhairav Jap forms a most 
picturesque feature of the hill. A little distance from the foot of the 
hill lies Vamansthali, the ancient capital, while Balisthan, the modern 
Bilkha, lies immediately at its base. The ancient name of the hill was 
Ujjayanta or Girvar. It forms one of the sacred seats of the Jains, only 
seccrnd in importance to Palitana. A rock at the foot of the hill 


is covered with a set of Asoka's inscriptions, 250 i',. c. Another 
inscription (a.d. 150) relates how the local monarch Rudra Daman 
defeated the kinp; of tlie l^eccan ; while a third (a.d. 455) records the 
bursting of the embankment of the Sudarsana tank and the rebuilding 
of a bridge which was destroyed by the flood. There are, however, 
no remains of any ancient city, temples, or ruins of a corresponding 
age to these inscriptions, and but for their dates the place would have 
seemed to be unknown before the tenth century. 

There are six panxbs or resthouses on the ascent to the temple of 
Neminath. The temple of Amba Mata, which crowns the first peak 
of the hill, is much resorted to by newly-married couples of the 
different subdivisions of the Brahman caste. The bride and bride- 
groom have their clothes tied together, and, attended by their male and 
female relatives, present coco-nuts and other offerings to the goddess, 
whose favour is sought to secure a continuance of wedded felicity. 
The Junagarh State has recently erected a fine flight of steps to the 
top of the hill. Mr. James Fergusson, in his History of Indian and 
Eastern Architecture (1876, pp. 230 232), thus described the architec- 
tural features of Girnar : — 

'The principal group of temples at Girnar, some sixteen in number, 
is situated on a ledge about 600 feet from the summit and nearly 
3,000 feet above the level of the sea. The largest and possibly the 
oldest of these is that of Neminath. An inscription upon it records 
that it was repaired in a.d. 1278, and unfortunately a subsequent 
restorer has laid his heavy hand upon it, so that it is difficult now 
to realize what its original appearance may have been. The temple 
stands in a courtyard measuring 195 feet by 130 feet over all. Around 
the courtyard are arranged 70 cells with a covered and enclosed passage 
in front of them, each of which contains a cross-legged seated figure 
of the Tirthankar to whom the temple is dedicated (Neminath), and 
generally with a bas-relief or picture representing some act in his life. 
Immediately behind the temple of Neminath is a triple one, erected 
by the brothers Tejpala and Vastupala, who also erected one of the 
principal temples in Abu.' 

Girwa. — A branch of the Kauriala river in Nepal and Oudh. 
The Kauriala bursts through a gorge in the Himalayas called ShTsha 
Pan!, or 'glass water,' and a little below this point divides into two, 
the western branch retaining the name Kauriala, while the eastern 
is called Girwa. The latter is now the more considerable, though 
it was formerly the smaller of the two. In its upper course the (jirwa 
is a rapid stream with a pebbly bed ; but it becomes navigable at 
Dhanaura before entering British territory, and grain, timber, ginger, 
pepper, and ghl are carried down it from Nepal. It reunites with the 
Kauriala a few miles below Bharthapur in Bahraich District. 

Girwan. — TaJisll o{ Band.i District, United Provinces, conterminous 


with pat\^afia Sihonda, lying l)et\veen 24° 59' and 25'^ 28' N. and 
80° 17' and 80^ 34' E., with an area of 334 sciuare miles. Population 
fell from 85,528 in 1891 to 77,706 in 1901. There are 179 villages 
and one town, Kalinjak (population, 3,015). The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,19,000, and for cesses Rs. 19,000. The 
density of population, 233 persons per square mile, is the highest in 
the District. In the west flows the Ken, which is fringed with ravines ; 
l)ut the tahs'il is on the whole fertile. In 1903-4 only 2 square miles 
were irrigated, out of 168 square miles under cultivation. The Ken 
Tanal, when completed, will serve a large area in this lahs'il. 

Goa Settlement, — Portuguese Settlement on the western coast of 
India, within the limits of the Bomhay Presidency, lying between 
14° 53' and 15° 48' N. and 73"^ 45' and 74'^ 34' E., with an area of 
3,370 square kilometres or 1,301 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by the river Terekhol or Araundem, separating it from the 
Savantvadi State : on the east by the range of the A\'estern (Ihats, 
separating it from the Districts of Belgaum and North Kanara : on 
the south by North Kanara ; and on the west by the Arabian Sea. 
Extreme length from north to south, 62 miles ; greatest breadth from 
east to west, 40 miles. Goa forms a compact block of foreign territory 
on the coast of the Bombay Presidency surrounded by British Districts. 
It comprises the island of Ooa or Ilhas, acquired in 15 10, and the 
provinces of Salsette and Bardez, acquired in 1543. These three form 
the Velhas Conquistas or 'old conquests.' The districts of Pernem, 
Bicholim or Batagram, Satilri, Ponda or Antruz, Zambaulim or 
Panchmal, Canacona or Advota, are called the Novas Conquistas 
or ' new conquests,' and were acquired in the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. The island of Anjidiv, situated opposite the port 
of Karwar in the British District of North Kanara, forms administra- 
tively a portion of the province of (ioa. It was acquired by the 
Portuguese in 1505. 

Goa is a hilly country, especially that portion which was most 
recently acquired, known as the Novas Conquistas. Its distinguishing 
feature is the Western Ghats, or Sahyadri moun- 
tains, which, after skirting a considerable portion asDects 

of the north-eastern and south-eastern boundaries, 
branch off westwards across the territory into numerous spurs and 
ridges. Of the isolated peaks with which these ranges of mountains 
are studded, the most conspicuous are : on the north, Sonsagar, 
3,827 feet above sea-level ; Catlanchimauli, 3,633 feet ; Vaguerim, 
3,500 feet ; Morlemchogor, 3,400 feet, all in the Satari mahd! or 
district ; on the east and west, Sidnato at Ponda, Chandarnate at 
Chandrowadi, Consid at Astagrar, and Dudsagar at Embarbacem. 

Th"e territory is intersected by numerous rivers, which are generally 


navigable. The eight principal rivers are as follows. The Terekhol 
or Araundem, so called from the fortress of that name guarding its 
estuary, has its source in the Western Ohats in the Savantvadi State, 
flows south-west for 14^ miles, and, after forming the northern boundary 
of the district of Pernem, and also of the territory of Goa, discharges 
its waters into the Arabian Sea. The Chapora or Colvalle, 18 miles 
long, rises at the Ram ghat, and, after separating the districts of Bardez, 
Bicholim, and Sanquelim from Pernem, takes a zigzag direction to the 
south-west through the villages of Salem, Revora, and Colvalle, and 
empties itself into the sea close to the village of Chapora. The Baga, 
only I mile long, rises in Bardez, and passes a redoubt of the same 
name. The Sinquerim, i\ miles long, also rises in Bardez close to 
the village of Pilerne, and, after describing almost a right angle, west- 
wards and southwards, and forming the peninsula of Aguada, falls into 
the bay of the same name. The Mandavi, 38^ miles in length, is the 
most important stream in the territory, both the ancient and modern 
metropolis being situated on its banks. It rises at the Parvar ghat in 
the district of Satari, runs first north-west of Ponda, and then south-west 
of Bicholim and Bardez, and, after forming several islands and passing 
Panjim or New Goa, discharges its waters into the Bay of Aguada ; 
its principal offshoots pass the villages of Mapu(^a, Tivim, and Assonora, 
watering the districts of Bicholim, Sanquelim, and Zambaulim, and 
are locally known by those names. The Juari, 39 miles in length, 
rises at the foot of the Dighy ghat in the district of Embarbacem, runs 
northwards, separating Salsette from Ponda, and falls into the Bay 
of Marmagao ; like the Mandavi, it has numerous offshoots, one of 
which joins the former river between Marcaim and Sao Lourenqo, after 
forming the island of Tissuadi. The Sal, 15 miles long, runs close 
to the town of Margao, and discharges itself into the sea near the fort 
of Betul. The Talpona, 7 miles long, rises at the Amba ghat in 
the district of Astragar, and, running westwards through the district of 
Canacona, falls into the sea near the small fort of Talpona. The 
boats by which these rivers are navigated are called tonas, and the 
ferries across them are designated passagens. 

The territory of Goa possesses a fine harbour, formed by the pro- 
montories of Bardez and Salsette. Half-way between these extremities 
projects the caho (' cape ') from the island of Goa, dividing the harbour 
into two anchorages, known as Aguada and Marmagao. Both are 
capable of accommodating safely the largest shipping from September 
to May. Aguada is virtually closed to navigation during the south-west 
monsoon, owing to the high winds and sea, and the formation of sand- 
banks in the estuary of the Mandavi at that period ; but Marmagao is 
accessible at all times. A consequence of the intersection of numerous 
rivers is the formati(jn of many islands, of which the larger number 18. 


Laterite is the stone most abundant throughout the territory. The 
geological resources of Goa have not yet been scientifically explored. 

The climate is hot, and the rainfall for the ten years ending 1902, 
as registered by the Metec^rological department, averaged 90 inches. 
The prevailing diseases are intermittent and remittent fevers, diarrhoea, 
and dysentery. 

Certain inscriptions corroborate the evidence of the Puranas that 
(ioa was in ancient times known under the various names of Goman- 
chala, Gomant, Goapuri, Gopakapur, and Gopaka- 
patanua. The accounts handed down from antiquity 
teem with legendary tales, on which little reliance can be placed. In 
the Sahyadri Khanda of the Ska/ida Piirdna it is recorded that at an 
early period the Aryans settled in Goa, having been brought by Parasu 
Rama from Trihotrapur or Mithila, the modern Tirhut. Some of the 
inscriptions referred to above show that Goa afterwards passed under 
the sway of the Kadambas of Banavasi, whose first king, Trilochana 
Kadamba, is supposed to have flourished in about a. d. 119-20. This 
dynasty continued to rule until 131 2, when Goa fell for the first time 
into the hands of the Muhammadans, under Malik Kafur. They were, 
however, compelled to evacuate it in 1370, having been defeated by 
Vidyaranya Madhav, the prime minister of Harihara of Vijayanagar, 
under whose successors Goa remained for about a hundred years. 
In 1470 it was conquered by Mahmud Gawan, the general of 
Muhammad II, the thirteenth Bahmani Sultan of the Deccan, and 
incorporated into the dominions of that sovereign. Goa became 
subject to the Adil Shahi dynasty reigning at Bijapur about the time 
that Vasco da Gama landed at Calicut in 1498. This dynasty retained 
possession until February 17, 1510, when Goa was captured by Affonso 
de Albuquerque. 

The Portuguese fleet, consisting of 20 sail of the line, with a few 
small vessels and 1,200 fighting men, hove in sight of the harbour. 
A holy mendicant or jogi had lately foretold its conquest by a foreign 
people from a distant land, and the disheartened citizens rendered up 
the town to the strangers. Eight leading men presented the keys of 
the gates to Albuquer(]ue on their knees, together with a large banner 
which was unfurled only on state occasions. Mounted on a richly 
caparisoned steed, Albuquerque entered the city in a triumphal pro- 
cession, drums beating, trumpets sounding, with the Portuguese banners 
carried by the flower of the Lisbon nobility and clergy at the head, 
amid the acclamations of an immense multitude, who showered upon 
the conqueror filigree flowers of silver and gold. Albuquerque behaved 
well to the inhabitants, but was shortly afterwards expelled by the 
Bijapur ruler. Yusuf v\dil Shah, Sultan of Bijapur, marched against 
the place with a considerable force, and after several sanguinary 

252 (JO.l SFTTr.F.ArF.XT 

contests, it'iook it iVoni llie Portuguese on August 15 of the same year. 
Reinforced, however, hy the large armament which opportunely arrived 
from Portugal about tiiis time, Albu(iuer([Ut; liastened back to Goa 
with his fleet, and conquered it a second time on November 25. With 
28 ships, carrying 1,700 men, he forced his way into the town after 
a bloody assault, in which 2,000 Musalmans fell. l''or three days the 
miserable citizens were given over as a prey to every atrocity. The 
fifth part of the plunder, reserved for the Portuguese crown, amounted 
to two lakhs of rupees. Albu(]uerque promptly occupied himself in 
fortifving the place, embellishing the city, and establishing the 
Portuguese rule on a firm basis. 

From this time (loa rapidly rose in importance, and eventually 
became the metropolis of the Portuguese Empire in the East, which 
is said to have comprehended an area of about 4,000 square leagues. 
In 1543, during the governorship of Martim Affonso, who came to 
India together with the celebrated St. Francis Xavier, the two important 
districts or inahdls of Bardez and Salsette were ceded to the Portuguese 
by Ibrahim Adil Shah, who, however, not long afterwards, attempted 
to regain them, but was foiled in his endeavours by the intrepidity 
of Dom Joao de Castro. To provide against any future invasion on 
the part of the Muhammadans, the eastern part of the island of Goa 
was protected by means of a long wall. In 1570 All Adil Shah 
besieged the city with an army of 100,000 men ; but it was so bravely 
defended by the little garrison under the Viceroy, Dom Luiz de Athaide, 
that the Muhammadan army, greatly thinned in numbers, retreated 
precipitately after a tedious siege of ten months' duration. About this 
period the Portuguese were alarmed by the appearance on the coast 
of India of a new enemy. The Dutch, having shaken off the Spanish 
yoke, assumed a warlike attitude towards the Portuguese, owing to the 
intimate connexion between Portugal and Spain. 

The subsequent history of the town has been one of luxury, ostenta- 
tion, and decay. After enduring a siege by the Sultan of Bijapur, and 
suffering from a terrible epidemic, Goa reached the summit of its 
prosperity at the end of the sixteenth century. In the early years 
of the English Company, Goa Dourada, or 'golden Goa,' seemed 
a place of fabulous wealth to the plain merchants who were destined 
to be the founders of British India. ' Whoever hath seen Goa, need 
not see Lisbon,' said a proverb of that day. Indeed, if the accounts 
of travellers are to be trusted, Goa presented a scene of military, 
ecclesiastical, and commercial magnificence which has had no parallel 
in the British capitals of India. The descriptions that have been 
recorded of Calcutta in the eighteenth and during the first quarter of 
the nineteenth century, leave behind them a feeling of insignificance 
compared with the accounts of Goa, written nearly three hundred years 


ago. To find a parallel, we must go to the travellers' tales regarding 
Agra and Delhi during the zenith of the Mughal prosperity. The 
brilliant pomp and picturesciue display of Goa was due to the fact that 
it was not only a flourishing harbour, but also the centre of a great 
military and ecclesiastical power. The Portuguese based their dominion 
in India on conquest by the sword. They laboured to consolidate 
it by a proselytizing organization, which throws the missionary efforts 
of every other European power in India into the shade. The result 
has proved how rotten was this basis, and how feebly cemented was 
the superstructure reared upon it. But during the greatness of Goa 
it had all the splendours which the Church and a powerful military 
court could cast around it. 

After the genius of Albuquerque and the energies of the early viceroys 
had s[)ent themselves, their armaments constituted a vast idle popula- 
tion in the capital. The work of conquest was over, and it left behind 
it a gay and wealthy society of conqueroi ^ who had nothing to do. 
Every Portuguese in India, says a traveller, set up as a ' Fidalgo ' {sic). 
These gentlemen had to be anmsed. There were no hcjtels or inns in 
the city, but many boarding-houses and gambling saloons. The latter, 
writes a voyager in the seventeenth century, were sumptuously furnished, 
and paid a heavy tax to the Government. People of all classes fre- 
quented them, and entertainments were provided for the lookers-on 
'^y j'^'yglt:!'''; dancing-girls, nmsicians, wrestlers, and native actors or 
buffoons. 'Those who were inordinately fond of gambling stayed there 
sometimes for days together, and were provided with board and 
lodging.' Such gambling-houses were not places for respectable women, 
and while the male society thronged their saloons, the Portuguese ladies 
were rigorously shut up at home. The flimily income was derived from 
the labcjur of slaves ; and as no ' Fidalgo ' (5/V) could follow a trade 
or calling without disgrace, so neither could his wife busy herself in 
domestic affairs witht)ut losing her social importance. The society of 
G(ja, therefore, divided itself into two idle populations — an idle i^oini- 
lation of men in the streets and gambling-houses, and an idle population 
of women in the seclusion of their own homes. This was one of the 
first results of the intensely military spirit, with its contempt for peaceful 
forms of industry, on which rested the Portuguese power in India. The 
ladies of Goa soon obtained an unenviable notoriety in books of travel. 
Excluded from male society, they spent their time in indolence, 
quarrelling, and frivolous pursuits. A European zaiid/ia life grew up, 
and brought with it some very ugly consequences. A lady valued 
herself in her female coterie upon the number and the daring of her 
intrigues. Almost every traveller who visited Goa during its prime tells 
the same curious story regarding the rashness with which the Portuguese 
matrous pursued their amours. Both Pyrard and Linschoten relate, in 


nearly the same words, how the ladies (jf Goa were wont \.o stupefy 
their husbands with dhaiiira, and then admit their lovers. 'J'he perils 
of such interviews became almost necessary to give a zest to their 
profligacy, and the Goanese became a byword as the type of an idle, 
a haughty, and a corrupt society. Strangers are inclined to laugh at 
Englishmen for adhering in India to the British costumes devised for 
a more temperate zone. There can be no doubt that the Dutch in 
Java have adapted their clothing much better to the climate than the 
English in Calcutta. But the very rigidity with which English society 
in India insists upon matters of dress is not without its value. It forms 
a perpetual check upon the tendency to fall into the slipshod habits of 
Oriental domestic life. In Goa these habits were carried to an extreme 
length. At home, both ladies and gentlemen dressed very much like 
the natives, except for the large rosaries which they wore round their 
necks. While untidy and careless in their dress at home, they made an 
ostentatious display when they stirred abroad. ^Vhen a gentleman rode 
out, he was attended by a throng of slaves in gay and fenciful liveries, 
some holding large umbrellas, others bearing richly inlaid arms ; while 
the horse itself was loaded with gold and silver trappings, the reins 
studded with precious stones, with jingling silver bells attached, and the 
stirrups wrought into artistic shapes in gilt silver. The poor followed 
the example of the rich, and resorted to amusing makeshifts to maintain 
an air of dignity and grandeur. The gentlemen who lived together in 
a boarding-house had a few suits of silk clothes between them in 
common. These they used by turns when they went out and hired a 
man to hold an umbrella over them as they strutted through the streets. 
Holland, having thrown off the Spanish yoke, began to assert herself 
in the East. While the British East India Company was struggling 
into existence during the last years of Elizabeth, the Dutch was preparing 
to dispute with the Portuguese for the supremacy in the Indian Ocean. 
In 1603 they blockaded Goa. The attempt proved abortive; but it 
left behind it a struggle between the two nations which, during the next 
seventy years, shattered and dismembered the Portuguese power in 
India. One by one the Portuguese possessions fell into the hands of 
the Dutch ; their fleets were captured, or driven within the shelter of 
their forts, and their commerce was swept from the seas. Goa suffered 
not only from these disasters, but also from a return of the fever which 
had afflicted the city in the preceding century. It broke out again in 
1635 and raged for several years. Towards the end of this visitation 
the Dutch once more blockaded Goa in 1639, but were again com- 
pelled to withdraw. 

A period of pride and poverty followed, during which the splendour of 
the previous century was replaced by shabby devices to conceal the 
decay that had blighted the Portuguese power. In 1648 Tavernier 


admired the architectural grandeur of Cloa, but was struck with the 
indigence of several Portuguese families whom he had seen in affluence 
and prosperity during his first visit. He says that many who had six 
years previously enjoyed an ample income, were now reduced to the 
necessity of secretly begging alms. 

'Yet they did not put aside their vanity. The ladies were particularly 
observed going in palanquins to seek charitable relief, attended by 
servants who conveyed their messages to the persons whose assistance 
they implored.' 

'The city,' says Thevenot in 1666, 'is great and full of beautiful 
churches and convents, and well adorned with palaces. There were 
few nations in the world so rich as the Portuguese in India ; but their 
vanity is the cause of their ruin.' 

In 1675 Dr. Fryer described Goa as ' Rome in India ' : — 

' looks well at a distance — stands upon seven hills ; everywhere 
colleges, churches, and glorious structures ; but many houses disgracing 
it with their ruins.' 

The Portuguese, indeed, were becoming unable to hold their capital 
even against the native banditti. In 1683 it narrowly escaped fiilling 
into the hands of Sambhajl at the head of his roving Marathas, who 
plundered up to the very gates of the city. All hopes of resistance 
were abandoned, when a powerful Mughal force suddenly made its 
appearance from the Ghats, and compelled the Marathas to come to 
terms. This unexpected deliverance was ascribed to the miraculous 
interposition of St. Francis Xavier. Subsequently the Bhonslas from 
the State of Savantvadi invaded Goa territory ; but though at the 
outset they obtained partial successes, they were eventually defeated by 
the Portuguese, who conquered frcjm them the islands of Corjuem and 
Ponelem, and destroyed their fortress at Bicholim. To defend the 
place against future inroads, the Viceroy, Vasco Fernandes Cesar de 
Menezes (17 12-7), built a fortress on the frontiers of Bardez, and 
ancjther at Chapora. During the administration of the Count of 
Sandomil (1732-41), the Portuguese became once more involved in a 
war with the Marathas and lost some of their most important possessions 
towards the north of Goa. In 1741 the Marathas invaded the penin- 
sulas of Bardez and Salsette, and threatened the city of Goa itself. At 
the same time the Bhonslas of Savantvadi availed themselves of the 
opportunity to overrun the settlement. At that critical period a new 
Viceroy arrived at Goa, the Marquis of Louri(;al, bringing with him from 
Europe a reinforcement of 12,000 men. With this army he encountered 
and defeated the Marathas at Bardez with great slaughter, captured the 
celebrated fortress of Ponda and other minor forts, and compelled 
them to retire from Goa. He then marched against the Bhonslas, and 
forced them to sue for peace, making their cliief, Khem Savant, a 


tributary of the Portuguese. Shortly afterwards, however, the Bhonslas 
renewed hostilities, but were defeated by the Marcjuis of Castello Novo, 
who coiKiuercd Alorna (whence his later title), Tiracol, Neutim, Rarini, 
and Sancjuelim or Satari. 

In 1750 the Marathas attacked the fortress of Neutim, which they 
closely invested both by sea and land. The Viceroy, the Marquis of 
Tavora, hastened to the relief of the place with all his available forces, 
and compelled the enemy to raise the siege, after which he turned his 
arms against the king of Sonda, and captured the fortress of I'iro 
(Sadasivgarh). His successor, the Count of Alva, prosecuted successfully 
for a time the war against the Marathas, but eventually lost Rarim 
and Neutim, and was killed at the siege of one of the fortresses which 
had fallen into the hands of the enemy. About this period the Court 
of Lisbon sent peremptory orders to the Viceroy, the Count of Ega, to 
restore the fortresses of I'iro and Ximpem to the king of Sonda, and 
Bicholim, Sanquelim, and Alorna to Khem Savant III. Subsequently, 
however, the former allowed the Portuguese to possess themselves of 
Ponda, with the adjacent territory of Zambaulim, Cabo de Rama, and 
Canacona, during the time that his dominions were invaded by Haidar 
All. After some years of repose, Khem Savant again attempted to 
disturb the Portuguese ; but being defeated, he had to surrender to 
them Bicholim, Sanquelim or Satari, Alorna, and Pernem. 

The decay of the capital had become so notorious- that the Portuguese 
Government in Europe determined to rebuild it at a great cost. After 
a century of fruitless efforts and foolish expenditure, Old Goa still lay 
in ruins, and the renmants of the population drew themselves together 
at Panjim or New Goa, at the mouth of the river. The changes in 
the river itself had contributed to render Old Goa still more unhealthy 
than before, and to make the navigation of its channels dangerous 
even for the comparatively small class of ships which the Portuguese 
employed. Uuring the eighteenth century the decayed settlement, 
instead of being a centre of military pomp and courtly display, had 
become a burden on the Home Government, and cost Portugal a 
considerable sum of money annually. It required a force of 2,000 
European soldiers to protect it from the Marathas, the privates 
receiving a miserable subsistence of rice and fish, and the captains 
drawing a salary of Rs. 6 a month. Such commerce as survived 
was in the hands of the Jesuits. This fraternity still preserved the 
traditions, and something of the energy, of the proselytizing era. 
Alexander Hamilton, early in the eighteenth century, declared that he 
counted from a neighbouring hill nearly eighty churches and convents. 
He gives the number of Roman Catholic priests at 30,000 for the city 
and settlement. The native merchants had been driven away by 
oppressions and insults; and during the -first half of the last century 


the Jesuits monoixjli/.ed the remnants of' the trade which still clung 
to the capital. In 1739, when the territory was overrun by the 
Marathas, the nuns and monks had streamed forth in panic to the 
refuge of Marmagao. Nevertheless, high offices and military com- 
mands were still lavished among the poverty-stricken remnants of the 
Portuguese in India. All the talk at Goa was about fine titles. ' A 
post which would be filled by a small tradesman everywhere else 
needed a general.' 

From 1794 to 18 15 the Government of Goa and other Portuguese 
settlements in India received little attention from the Court of Lisbon, 
owing to various causes, the chief of which was the invasion of the 
Iberian Peninsula by the French. To protect Goa against any con- 
tingency, an English auxiliary force garrisoned the two fortresses 
commanding the port, until the general peace in Europe after the 
battle of Waterloo. In 181 7 the Viceroy, the Count of Rio Pardo, 
repelled the inroads of the predatory forces from the Savantvadi State, 
capturing the fortresses of Uspa and Rarim. This Governor was, how- 
ever, deposed in consequence of a revolution which took place in Goa 
in 1 82 1. In 1835 a native of the place, named Bernardo Peres da 
Silva, was appointed Governor and Prefect of the Portuguese State of 
India by l^ona Maria II, in reward for his adherence to the House 
of Braganza during the usurpation of Dom Miguel. But his reforms in 
Goa during the seventeen days of his government ended in an cvieutc 
and his flight to Bombay. 

For about sixteen years after this event Goa was undisturbed by 
either external foes or internal dissensions, except for a brief military 
revolt, which resulted in the deposition of the Governor, Lopez de 
Lima. During the administration of Pestana, in 1844, the distur- 
bances at Savantvadi, and the shelter afforded at Goa to the rioters 
who had fled thither, threatened for a time to bring about a rupture 
with the British Government of Bombay. In 1852 the Ranis of 
Satari, headed by DipajT, revolted. In 1871 a rebellion broke out 
among the native army at Goa, in consequence of the Portuguese 
authorities making a stand against its exorbitant demands. To 
suppress this insurrection the Court of Lisbon dispatched a reinforce- 
ment, accompanied by the king's own brother, Dom Augusto. On 
the restoration of peace the native regiments that had revolted were 
disbanded. The former army has not been reorganized, as native 
regiments could only be dangerous to the handful of European troops, 
and the peace maintained throughout India by the British supremacy 
renders them unnecessary for any practical purposes. In 1895, in 
consequence of the Government failing to comply with the demands 
of some Goa troops, who were being dispatched to Mozambique to 
ciuell the revolted Kaffirs, a mutiny broke out among the infuntry, 




'J'he Ranis of Satari joined the mutineers, and i)eace was not restored 
until the arrival of an expedition from Lisbon under the command of 
His Highness the Infante, Dom Affonso Henri(|ues. A general 
amnesty was finally granted in 1897. In lyoi the Ranis again broke 
out, the revolt commencing with the murder of an officer at Val[)()y 
in Satari on November 6. The murderers and many of the leading 
Ranis were secured and punished, the Ranis being transported to 
Timor with any members of their families who were willing to share 
their exile. 

The population of Goa proper in 1800, i.e. the Velhas without 
the Novas Conquistas, was 178,478. The whole poi)ulation of the 
Velhas and Novas Conquistas, according to the 
Census of 185 1, was 363,788, giving a density of 
343 persons per square mile. The population of the territory of Goa 
in 1881 was 445,449, which had increased to 475,513, or by 6 per 
cent., in the twenty years ending 1900. The number of towns and 
villages, and population of the districts, in 1900, are given in the 
following tables : — 



Districts. Towns. 





Old Conquests : 







Salsette . 






Biirdez . 






New Conquests : 

Pernem . 




















Sanguem . 





Quepem . 










Island of Anjidiv . 










The towns in the territory of Goa are Nova Goa or Panjim {see 
Goa City) with a population of 9,325 ; Margao, population 12,126; 
and MAPU9A, population 10,733. 

The distribution by religion is : Christians, 262,648 ; Hindus, 
200,144 : Mu.salmans, 8,431. In the Velhas Conquistas, Christians 
form 91 per cent, of the population ; in the Novas Conquistas, the 
Hindus are about equally numerous. The Christians of Goa still very 
largely adhere to caste distinctions, claiming to be Brahmans, Charados, 
and low castes, which do not intermarry. The Hindus are largely 
Maratha, and do not differ from those of the adjacent Konkan 
Districts of Bombay. 

.Ml classes of the people, except Europeans, use the Konkani dialect 



of Marathi, with some admixture ot" Portuguese words. Ikit the ofticial 
language is Portuguese, which is commonly spoken in the capital and 
the principal towns, as well as by all educated persons. 


Details of popuiat 

on (so far 

as available). 









Civil condition. 









Widowers 1 

and ' 


12 years. 

12 years. 


Old Conquests: 










Salsette . 


















New Conquests : 

Pernem . 


























Pond a 









Sangueni . 









Quepem . 









Canacoiia . 

• • 







Island of Anjidiv . 

















Nearly all the Christians profess the Roman Catholic religion 
and are subject in spiritual matters to an Archbishop, who has the 
titles of Primate of the East and Patriarch of the East Indies, and 
exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction also over a great portion of British 
India. His nomination rests with the King of Portugal, subject to 
confirmation by the Pope. The Christians of Daman and Diu are 
subject to a bishop, who bears the titles of Bishop of Daman and 
Archbishop of Cranganore. There are numerous Christian churches 
in Goa, mostly built by the Jesuits and the Eranciscans prior to the 
extinction of the religious orders in Portuguese territory. The chief 
of these is the cathedral or metropolitan church, called the Se 
Primacial e Patriarchal de Goa. The religious orders have Ijcen 
abolished in Portuguese India, and the churches are under the charge 
of secular priests, all of whom are natives of Goa. The Catholics of 
Goa are very regular in the fulfilment of religious duties, and celebrate 
the chief festivals sanctioned by the Catholic Church with much 
devotion and pomp. Hindus and Muhammadans now enjoy perfect 
liberty in religious matters, and have their own places of worship. The 
chief Hindu temples are those of Mangesh, Malsha, Santadurga, 
Kapleshwar, Nagesh, and Ramnath, all of which are situated in the 
Novas Conquistas. In the early days of Portuguese rule the obser- 
vance of Hindu usages and the worship of Hindu gods in public were 
rigorously suppres.sed. 

At the conquest of Goa by Affonso de Albucjuerciue in r5io the 

s 2 

26o G'O.i sr.'iTi.r..Mi:.\T 

village coninuiiiities, among which the inhabitants were distributed, 
were found to be in the enjoyment of certain immunities from taxation 
and othei privileges. Albuquerque carefully maintained the con- 
stitution of the villages, and avoided all appearance of fresh taxation. 
The same policy was followed by his successors ; and in 1526 a register 
was compiled, called fonil Jos i/sos e costiuiies, containing the peculiar 
usage and customs of the communities, and the privileges enjoyed by 
them from time immemorial. This register served as a guide-book 
to subsequent administrators. But in time the communities were 
burdened with additional impost.s, and placed under certain restric- 
tions. At present they are under the supervision of the Government, 
which appoints in each district {concelho) of the Velhas Conquistas 
an officer called Administrador das Communidades, to watch rigidly 
over their proceedings. They are precluded from spending even the 
smallest sum without Government sanction, and have to pay certain 
contributions to the parish churches. Each village community has a 
tax-collector {sacador) and a clerk (escrivdo). There is, however, no 
village headman. On questions affecting the interests of a whole 
\ illage, a sort of paiuliayat or council is held, composed of one or 
more members of each clan ivangor), and the decisions are determined 
by the majority of votes. In the Velhas Conquistas a great portion 
of the land is held by the village communities, which, after paying the 
rent and other Government taxes, divide the annual produce among 
themselves ; while in the Novas Conquistas the lands are distributed 
among the vangors, who cultivate them and enjoy their net produce. 
The total number of village communities is 222. 

Of the entire territory of Goa one-third is said to be under culti- 
vation. A regular land survey is at present in progress, pending the 
completion of which statistical details of cultivation 
and crops are not available. The soil is chiefly 
argillaceous, but also contains light sand and more or less decayed 
vegetable matter. In many parts it is full of stone and gravel. Its 
fertility varies according to quality and situation in reference to the 
supply of water. Manure, consisting of ashes, fish, and dung, is largely 
employed. As a rule, the Velhas Conquistas are better cultivated than 
the Novas Conquistas. In both these divisions of the Goa territory 
a holding of fifteen or sixteen acres would be considered a good-sized 
farm, though the majority of holdings are of smaller extent. 

The staple produce of the country is rice, of which there are two 
harvests : the winter crop, called sorodio ; and the summer crop or 
vangana^ raised by means of artificial irrigation from the rain-water 
accumulated in reservoirs, ponds, and wells. For the sorodio crop the 
field is ploughed before the commencement of the monsoon, the .seed 
scattered in May or June, and the crop harvested in September ; while 


as regards the vaugana, the ploughing operations begin in October, 
the sowing in November, and the harvesting in February. Rice is 
cultivated in low lands {cazana or cantor) situated near the banks of 
rivers, slopes of hills {mo/Ioy\, stiff grounds {liulpan or di/ii/'), and 
sandy soils {quero). The quantity of rice produced is barely sutificient 
to meet the local demand for two-thirds of the year. Next to rice, the 
culture of coco-nut palms is deemed most important, from the variety 
of uses to which the products are applied. They grow in luxuriant 
groves on all lands not hilly or serviceable for the production of rice, 
and along the sea-coast. Areca palms are chiefly cultivated in the 
Novas Conquistas on lands irrigated from rivulets. Hilly places and 
inferior soils are set apart for the cultivation of such cereals as 
nachiiiim {Do/ic/ios Infionts), tird {Phasfo/i/s radiati/s), kiiliia [Dolic/ios 
unijion/s), orio (^Panicum ifa/icio/i), //uuig [Phaseo/i/s Mungo), tori 
[Cytisi/s Cajan). Of fruit trees, the most important are mango, jack, 
and cashew. Among the various kinds of vegetables are potato, 
radishes, yams, melons, cucumber, bendes {Abeliiiosthiis esculent us), &c. 
Besides these, chillies, ginger, turmeric, onion, and certain vegetables 
of daily consumption are extensively cultivated in some villages. 

The condition of the agricultural classes in the Velhas Conquistas 
has improved during the last thirty years, owing partly to the general rise 
in price of all kinds of agricultural produce, and partly to the current 
of enn'gration to British territories. In the Novas Conquistas, how- 
ever, the cultivators are said to have been reduced to great want and 
misery through the oppression of the landowners. 

There is a branch of the Banco Nacional Ultramarino of Lisbon at 
Panjim. Money can be borrowed from wealthy proprietors or religious 
confraternities at five per cent. In districts inhabited by Hindus, 
however, the current rate of interest is about ten per cent. Land- 
owners not unfrequently advance petty sums, or their equivalent in 
kind, without interest, to such of the cultivators or labourers as are 
their dependents or live in their ' oarts ' ( pa/mares), deducting the debt 
by monthly instalments from the wages due. In the Novas Conquistas 
the rate of interest charged for an advance of grain is generally half 
as much as the value of the advance. 

Stately forests are found in the Novas Conquistas. The ' reserved ' 
and other forests scattered over an area of 30,000 hectares or 116 
square miles have an aggregate value of 70 lakhs, 
according to the Report of the Forest Committee. 
The wasteful practice of kumri or shifting cultivation has denuded 
them of valuable trees, but this form of tillage is now kept under strict 
contnjl by the state. In 1903-4 the total revenue derived from the 
forests, excluding timber supplied to Government for state works, was 
Rs. 24,t)oo, wliile the expenditure amounted to Rs. 10,500. 

2 62 (;0A SETJ'f.KAfENT 

Iron is found ;U Sataii, Perneni, and especially in the i)i()\in(L' of 
Zambaulim. Two claims to work mines in the Sangheni district iiave 
been registered, but have not yet been definitely allowed. 

In the days of its glory Goa was the chief entre[)6t of commerce 

between the East and West, and was especially famous as the centre of 

the trade in horses with the Persian Gulf. But with 

„ ^ . .• „^ the downfall of the Portuguese empire it lost its 
communications. . . p >■ 

commercial importance, which began to decline after 
the fall of Vijayanagar, and its trade has now dwindled into insignifi- 
cance. Few^ manufacturing industries of any importance exist ; but the 
country is not devoid of skilful artisans, such as goldsmiths, carpenters, 
blacksmitlis, shoemakers, &c. Some of the articles produced are dis- 
posed of privately, while others are exposed for sale at the annual and 
weekly fairs held in various places. The principal exports are coco- 
nuts, betel-nuts, mangoes, water-melons, jack and other fruits, cinnamon, 
pepper, salted fish, gum, coir-work, firewood, fowls, and salt. Of these, 
the last forms one of the principal sources of profit, the numerous salt- 
pans that exist yielding a large quantity of salt over and above the local 
demand. The chief articles imported are : rice, cloth, refined sugar, 
wines, tobacco, glass-ware, hardware, and other miscellaneous goods. 
The total imports by land and sea into Goa in 1903-4 were valued at 
50 lakhs, and the exports at 14 lakhs. The value of the imports 
largely exceeds that of the exports, thus causing a drain of money 
which would certainly have materially affected the financial condition 
of Goa, had not a stream of coin flowed constantly into the country 
from the savings of those of its inhabitants who reside temporarily in 
British territory. In 1903-4 the customs revenue amounted to 5 lakhs. 
The total number of vessels of every kind that entered the port of 
Goa in the same year was 2,874, while the number of those that left 
was 2,814. 

A line of railway now connects Marmagao with the Southern 
Mahratta Railway, the length of line to Castle Rock being 51 miles, 
of which 49 miles lie in Goa territory. Several new roads have 
recently been made, and others are in course of construction. There 
are 19 roads, complete and incomplete. Of these, the chief runs north- 
wards from Verem, opposite Panjim, through the villages of Pilerne, 
Saligao, Parra, Mapuga, and Assonora, meeting at Sankarwalle the 
road constructed in British territory. There are also several municipal 

There is one telegraph office in Goa, at Panjim, maintained jointly 
by the British and Portuguese Governments. The head-quarters of 
the post office are also at Panjim, with branches at Margao, Mapu(;a, 
Ponda, Bicholim, Chinchinim, and Pernem. 

Goa is seldom subject to great floods, though some of its districts 


occasionally suffer from partial inundation during heavy rainfall. In 

times of droue;ht the agricultural classes sustain ^ 

, , , , 1-1 Famine. 

iieavy loss, but the people at large are supplied, 

though at great cost, with rice from British territory. It is only when 

a general famine occurs beyond the frontier that signs of extreme 

distress are visible among the inhabitants of Goa. Formerly the 

country was frequently subject to famine. The years 1553, 1570, and 

1682 are said to have been seasons of great scarcity. In subsequent 

years the constant incursions of the Marathas occasioned much distress. 

Goa is regarded as an integral portion of the Portuguese empire, 

and, with Daman and Diu, forms, for administrative purposes, one 

province subject to a Governor-General, who is . . . . ^ ^. 

1 ,• , , , ,-• r 1^ , J Administration. 

appomted directly by the King ot Portugal, and 

holds his office for five years. Besides his civil functions, he is invested 
with the supreme military authority in the province. His personal staft 
consists of two aides-de-camp, and a secretaiy styled the Chief Secretary 
of the Governor-General of Portuguese India, and likewise appointed 
by the King. Although he is the chief executive functionary, the 
Governor-General cannot, except in cases of emergency, impose new 
taxes, or abolish the existing ones, contract loans, create new appoint- 
ments, or reduce the old ones, retrench the salaries attached to them, 
or generally incur any expenses not sanctioned by law ; nor can he, 
under any circumstances, leave the province without the special per- 
mission of the Home Government. 

In his administration the Governor-General is aided by a Council 
composed of the Chief Secretary, the Archbishop of Goa (or, in his 
absence, the chief ecclesiastical authority exercising his functions), the 
judges of the High Court, the two highest military officers in Goa, 
the Attorney-General, the Inspector da Fazenda, the Health Officer, 
and the President of the municipal chamber or corporation of the 
capital (Camara Municipal das Ilhas). As a rule, all the members 
give their opinions, and vote in every matter on which they are con- 
sulted by the Governor-General. There are also five other Juntas or 
councils, called the Junta Geral da Provincia (general council of the 
province), the Conselho da Provincia (the council of the province), 
the Conselho Technico das Obras publicas, the Conselho-inspector de 
Instruc(;ao publica, and the Conselho da Agricultura. The first of 
these is composed of the Chief Secretary, the Archbishop or his sub- 
stitute, the Attorney-General, the Inspector da Fazenda, the Director 
of Public Works, the Health Officer, a Professor of the Medico-Surgical 
College, a Professor of the Lyceum, a Professor of the Normal School, 
and a representative from each of the municipal corporations of the 
province. This Junta discusses and decides all questions relating to 
publi-e works, and the expenses necessary for their execution, the 


preservatiDii of public liealtli, the establishment of schools, the altera- 
tion of customs duties, &c. The Governor-General is empowered to 
suspend the operation of any resolution passed by this Junta, pending 
a reference to the Home Ciovernment. The other councils are of 
inferior importance. 

In addition to this machinery of administration, there arc subor- 
dinate agencies for the local government of the different districts. In 
connexion with these agencies, the entire territory of (ioa is divided 
into two tracts, known as the Velhas and Novas Conquistas (old and 
new conquests). The former tract is subdivided into three districts 
{conceihos), namely, the Ilhas, Bardez, and Salsette ; and each of these 
again into parishes, of which there are 85 in all. J^very district has 
a municipal corporation, and is placed under the charge of a func- 
tionary called Administrador de Concelho. This officer is appointed by 
the Governor-General, and is entrusted with duties of an administrative 
character, besides those connected with the public safety and health. 
Every parish has likewise a minor council, called Junta da Parochia, 
presided over by a magistrate, called re^j;edor, whose duties are to 
inspect and direct the police establishments of the parish, keep a strict 
surveillance over liquor-shops, gaming-houses, &c., open wills and 
testaments, and report generally everv important occurrence to the 
Administrador. .Similarly in each of the seven divisions into which 
the Novas Conquistas are subdivided there is an officer called 
Administrador de Concelho. Of the above-named seven divisions, the 
first is Pernem ; the second, Sanquelim : the third, Ponda ; the fourth, 
Sanguem, or Astagrar and Embarbacem ; the fifth, Quepem, ox Bally, 
(^handrowadi, and Cacora ; the sixth, Canacona with Cabo de Rama; 
and the seventh Satari, which forms a military command and is adminis- 
tered by the military commandant in the same way as other divisions 
by the Administrador. Each of the subdivisions of the Velhas and 
Novas Conquistas is also known by the name of ' province.' The 
offices of Governor, Chief .Secretary, Attorney-General, and some other 
important ones are almost invariably filled by Europeans. As stated 
above, there are three municipalities in the Velhas Conquistas, the 
chief being that of the Ilhas. The municipal receipts in 1903-4 
amounted to 1^ lakhs. 

Goa and its dependencies in India, namely, Daman and Diu, to- 
gether with Mac^ao and Timor, constitute for judicial purposes but one 
judicial district. This district is divided into Comarcas, which are sub- 
divided mio /uigcidos municipacs and Juizes po/>i//an's. In each of the 
^\e Jitli^ados of Portuguese India there is a judge, with an establishment 
consisting of a sub-delegate of the Attorney-General, one clerk, two or 
more bailiffs, and a translator or interpreter. All these officials are 
paid by Government, and are besides entitled to fees, except ihe clerks, 


who receive fees onl)'. 'I'lie judge holds liis sitting twice a week for the 
purpose of deciding civil and criminal cases within his jurisdiction. 

There are 11 1 Jiiizes popularcs, and 6 Jiiizes de direito de conuxrcn. 
'\\\^Jiiiz€s de direito have a staff composed of a delegate of the Attorney- 
(leneral, three clerks, one interpreter and translator, an accountant, 
four or five bailiffs, all of whom, except the clerks and accountant, 
receive, in addition to certain fees, fixed salaries. A judge of this class 
exercises ordinary and extraordinary jurisdiction in matters both civil 
and criminal. He is required to go on circuit annually to ihe Jii/gados, 
where he hears complaints against subordinate functionaries, examines 
their proceedings and registers, and sometimes tries those suits within 
his jurisdiction which may not have been submitted to his tribunal 
by the ordinary judges. The jurisdiction and duties of the Jiiizes de 
direito [xwA Juizes miinicipaes e pop u lares are regulated by special laws. 

The supervision of all judges is entrusted to a High Court (Tribunal 
da Rela(,:ao), whose seat is in Nova (ioa (New Goa), in consequence of 
which it is sometimes called Relacao de Nova Goa. This court con- 
sists of a chief justice (Presidente) and four puisne judges. 'I"he High 
Court has jurisdiction, both ordinary and extraordinary, in all cases, 
whether civil or criminal, and is invested with appellate powers. Its 
decisions are final in all suits except those relating to property exceeding 
in value Rs. 1,500. in which an appeal lies to the Supreme Tribunal 
of Portugal. 

The total revenue in ]c)03 4 was over 20 lakhs and the expenditure 
nearly 20 lakhs. The .sources of revenue are : land tax, customs and 
postal dues, seal and stamp duties, tobacco licences, taxes on liquor- 
shops, &c. Goa contains no mint ; and the only revenue from salt is 
very trifling, derived from eight pans at Diu. 

Previous to 187 1 Goa possessed a comparatively large native army ; 
but owing to the rebellion which broke out in that year it was dis- 
banded, and a battalion composed wholly of Europeans was obtained 
from Portugal. The force consisted in 1904 of 2,730 men of all ranks. 
'l"he strength of the police is 390 men. 'J'he total expenditure on the 
military and police forces is about one lakh. 

Of late years education has made considerable i)rogress in Goa. In 
1900 10 j)er cent, of the total population were literate. In 1903-4 
there were 121 primary schools, of which 98 were public and 23 private, 
with 4,945 pupils, of whom 1,255 ^^'^^e girls. The number of pupils in 
the National Lyceum or college at New Goa and several other schools 
of secondary education was 305. The Medico-Surgical College was 
attended by 88 pupils. Besides these, several other schools are under 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction. In addition to the Government Gazette, 
called Boletim Qlfieia/, there are twelve periodicals : namely, O I/e/a/da, 
yl India /'i>rtiii:^iie'.a, () ( itraniar, O Create, Notieias, Voz do /hroo. 

266 GO. I SETTl.EMKXr 

O Iudi(K O Bardi'zano, O /Yocio/in/is/d, O Diario dc Goa, Echo dc la 
Jfidia, and Orioiie. all edited in the PorUiguese language by nati\e.s. 
There is also an arc:haeological review, O Orieiitc Po/ii/i^uez. 

There are 3 hospitals, where 2,631 in-patients were treated in 1904. 
There are also 3 military hos[)itals, at Goa, Daman, and Diu. 'I"he 
most important charitable institutions are: the Santa Casa de Miseri- 
cordia (Holy House of Mercy) at Panjim ; Hospicio do Sagrado 
Coracao de Maria (Asylum of the Sacred Heart of Mary) at Margao ; 
and Asylo de Nossa Senhora dos Milagres (Asylum of our Lady of 
Miracles) at Mapuca. The fust dates from the conquest of Goa by the 
Portuguese, and maintains the hospital at Ribandar and two establish- 
ments for the reformation and education of females at Chimbel. 

[D. L. Cottineau de Kloguen, An Historical Sketch of Goa (Madras, 
1 831); J. N. Fonseca, Historical and Archaeological Sketch of Goa 
(Bombay, 1878); A. L. Mendes, A India Portugueza (Lisbon, 1886).] 

Goa City. — Capital of the Portuguese territory of the same name, 
situated in 15° 30' N. and 73" 57' E., near the mouth of the river 
INLandavi. Population of Old Goa (1900), 2,302, dwelling in 500 
houses; of Panjim or New Goa, 9,325, dwelling in 1,735 houses. 
Goa is properly the name of three cities, which represent successive 
stages in the history of Western India. I'he earliest of the three was 
an ancient Hindu city, before the invasion of the Muhammadans ; the 
second, known as Old Goa, was the first capital of the Portuguese, and 
is still the ecclesiastical metropolis of Roman Catholic India ; the 
third, commonly called Panjim, is the present seat of Portuguese 
administration. The original city of Goa (Cioa Velha), built by the 
Kadambas, was situated on the banks of the river Juari. No traces 
of buildings exist at this day. The next town of Goa (Velha Cidade 
de Goa), generally known to foreigners as Old Goa, situated about 
5 miles to the north of the Hindu capital, was built by the Muham- 
madans in 1479, nineteen years before the arrival of Vasco da Gama 
in India. This famous city, conquered by Albuquerque in 15 10, 
became the capital of the Portuguese empire in Asia ; as such, it was 
once the chief emporium of commerce between the East and the West, 
and enjoyed the same privileges as Lisbon. It reached the climax of 
its splendour during the sixteenth century ; but with the decline of the 
Portuguese power in the following century, it gradually began to lose 
its significance in every respect, save as an ecclesiastical metropolis. 

The frequent plagues by which the population was repeatedly thinned, 
together with the removal of the seat of Government to Panjim, and 
the suppression of the religious orders, contributed finally to effect its 
complete downfall. Instead of the 200,000 inhabitants which once 
formed its population, hardly 2,000 poverty-stricken creatures remain to 
haunt the few ecclesiastical edifices still standing. Foremost among 


the .sur\i\iiig edifices is the cathedral dedicated to St. Catherine by 
Albuquerque, in commemoration of his entry into (loa on the day of 
her festival. Built as a parochial church in 15 12, it was reconstructed 
in 1623 in its present majestic proportions, having been about a century 
before elevated to the rank of a primatial see, which it has ever since 
retained. Service is regularly held every day by the canons attached to 
the cathedral. The Convent of St. Francis, originally a Muhammadan 
mosque, converted into a church by the Portuguese, was the first 
structure consecrated to Christian worship in Goa. Its chief portal, 
curious as being the earliest of its kind in Portuguese India, has been 
preserved intact to this day, though the convent itself was rebuilt in 
1 66 1. The Chapel of St. Catherine was erected in 155 1 on the site of 
the gate of the Muhammadan city through which Albuquerque entered. 
The Church of Bom Jesus, conmienced in 1594, and consecrated in 
1603, is a splendid edifice, enjoying a wide renown for the magnificent 
tomb holding the remains of the apostle of the Indies, St. Francis 
Xavier, the events of whose life are represented around the shrine. 
The Convent of St. Monica, commenced in 1606 and completed in 
1627, was constructed for a community of nuns, the last of whom died 
in 1885. The Convent of St. Cajetan, erected in the middle of the 
seventeenth century by the Order of the Theatines, is noted for its 
resemblance to St. Peter's at Rome, and is in excellent preservation. 

Of the other historical edifices with which Old Goa was formerly 
embellished, few traces remain to give a conception of their pristine 
beauty and magnificence. The once renowned palace of the viceroys, 
the spacious custom-house, and many other public buildings, have been 
completely destroyed. The College of St. Roque, belonging to the 
Order of Jesus, the Senate-house, the once famous Palace of the Inqui- 
sition, the Church of the Miraculous Cross, the College of St. Paul, 
the Hospital of St. Lazarus, the Church and Convent of St. Augustine, 
as well as the college of the same name close by, the arsenal, the 
chapel of the Cinco Chagas (the ' five wounds '), and the ecclesias- 
tical jail, are all in ruins. The sites of the vanished buildings have 
been converted into coco-nut plantations, the ruins are covered with 
shrubs and moss, and the streets are overrun with grass. But though 
Old Goa has long since lost its civil importance, forming at present 
only a suburb of Panjim, its ecclesiastical influence as the see of the 
Primate of the East still remains; and, as long as it can boast of its 
noble monuments of Christian piety, and retains the shrine of the great 
Eastern evangelist, it will not cease to attract pilgrims from the most 
distant parts of the Catholic world. 

The history of Goa city has been given in the article on Goa Set- 
tlement. As far back as 1759, the ruin of the old city was complete. 
The-Governor changed his residence to Panjim, near the mouth of the 


river, and in the same year the Jesuits were expelled. With them went 
the last sparks of commercial enteri)rise. In 1775 the population, 
which at the beginning of the century had numbered nearly 30,000, 
was reduced to 1,600, of whom 1,198 were Christians. Goa remains in 
ruins to this day. Every effort to repeople it has failed, and Old Goa 
is now a city of fiiUen houses and of streets o\ergrown with jungle. 
Almost the only buildings which survive are the convents and churches, 
with miserable huts attached. In 1827 the Superior of the Augustinian 
Gonvent thus wrote: 'II ne reste plus de cette ville que le sacre : le 
profane en est entierement banni.' The stately mansions and magnifi- 
cent public buildings of Old Goa are now heaps of bricks covered with 
rank grass, and buried in groves of coco-nut palms. 

'The river,' wrote Dr. Russell in 1877, 'washes the remains of a great 
city — an arsenal in ruins ; palaces in ruins ; quay walls in ruins ; 
churches in ruins ; all in ruins. We looked and saw the site of the 
Inquisition, the bishop's prison, a grand cathedral, great churches, 
chapels, convents, religious houses, on knolls surrounded by jungle. 
We saw the crumbling masonry which once marked the lines of streets 
and enclosures of palaces, dockyards filled with weeds and obsolete 

New Goa, the present capital of Portuguese India, comprehends 
Panjim and Ribandar, as well as the old city of Goa, and is 6 square 
miles in extent. It is situated on the left bank of the river Mandavi, 
at a distance of about 3 miles from its mouth. The suburb of Ri- 
bandar is connected with the central quarter of Panjim b)- a causeway 
about 300 yards long, through which lies the main road leading to Old 
(ioa. Panjim occupies a narrow strip, enclosed by the causeway on the 
east, the village of St. Ignez on the west, the river on the north, and 
a hill which walls it on the south. In the last century it was a miser- 
able village, inhabited by a few fishermen dwelling in cadjan huts, and 
remarkable only for the fortress built by Yusuf Adil Shah, which is now 
transformed into a viceregal palace. As in the case of Bombay City, the 
surface has been gradually formed by filling up hollows and reclaiming 
large tracts of marshy land. 

Panjim was selected as the residence of the Portuguese Viceroy in 
1759, and in 1843 it was formally raised by royal decree to rank as the 
capital of Portuguese India. From the river the appearance of the 
city, with its row of public buildings and elegant private residences, is 
very picturesque ; and this first impression is not belied by a closer 
inspection of its neat and spacious roads bordered by decent houses. 
Of public structures, the most imposing are the barracks, an immense 
quadrangular edifice, the eastern wing of which accommodates the 
Lyceum, the Public J library, and the Government Press. The square 
facing this wing is adorned with a life-size statue of Albuquerque 


standing under u canoj))'. Tlie other buildings include the cathedral, 
the viceregal palace, the high court, the custom-house, the municipal 
chamber, the military hospital, the jail, the accountant-general's office, 
and the post office. For trade, &c., see Goa Skttlemen r. 

Goalanda. — Subdivision and village in Faridpur District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. See Goalundo. 

Goalpara District. —District of Eastern Bengal and x^ssam, forming 
the entrance to the upper valley of the Brahmaputra. It lies on both 
sides of the great river, extending from 25° 28' to 26° 54' N. and from 
89° 42' to 91° 6' E., with an area of 3,961 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by the mountains of Bhutan ; on the south by the Garo 
Hills: on the east by Kamrup ; and on the west by the Districts of 
Rangpur and Jalpaigurl and the State of Cooch Behar. The per- 
manently settled portion of the District (as distinguished from the 
Eastern Duars, which lie under the Bhutan hills) occupies the valley of 
the Brahmaputra, at the corner where the river leaves Assam proper 
and turns due south to enter the wide plain of Bengal. It is very 
irregularly shaped, extending for 65 miles along the northern bank 
of the Brahmaputra, and for 1 20 miles along its 

southern bank. The le\el land on the south bank ysica 

forms but a narrow slrij), in some parts not more 

than 8 miles across, being shut in by the ridges of the Garo Hills. On 

the north, the country is much broken up b}' low ranges of hills 

running north and south, and exhibits a pleasing diversity of forest, 

lake, and marsh, interspersed with rice-fields and villages surrounded 

by groves of fruit trees and bamboos. The largest sheets of water are 

the Tamranga and Dhalni bils, two picturesque lakes lying at the 

foot of the Bhairab hills in the east of the District, and the Dhir and 

Diple hth a little to the west of that range. 'Jlie Eastern Duars 

consist of a flat strip of country lying beneath the Bhutan mountains. 

The only elevated tract in these Duars is the Bbumeswar hill, which 

rises abruptly out of the plains to the height of nearly 400 feet ; but to 

the north they are shut in by the ranges of the Bhutan hills. The 

total area of the Duars is 1,570 square miles, nearly the whole being 

covered with sal forest and high grass jungle, among which are scattered 

the patches of cultivation that surround the villages of the Mechs, 

who inhabit this tract. 

The principal rivers on the north bank of the Brahmaputra are the 

Manas, with its tributary the Ai, the Champaimati, the Saralbhanga 

or Gaurang, the Gangia, and the Sankosh. All these rise in the 

Bhutan hills and are navigable by country boats for a portion of their 

course throughout the year. Several other minor streams become 

navigable during the rainy season. A peculiar tract of pebbles, gravel, 

and>>and, resembling the Bh.^uak tract in the Western Himalayas, 


borders the hills. The water of all the minor streams sinks into this 
during the greater part of the year, and does not again appear above 
ground till it reaches the alluvial clay. On the south bank the largest 
rivers are the Jinjir.-vm and Krishnai, which rise in the Garo Hills. 

Geologically, the District consists of an alluvial plain composed of 
a mixture of clay and sand, with numerous outliers of gneissic rock. 

As in the rest of Assam, enormous stretches of country are covered 
with high grass and reeds. The principal varieties are ikra {Saccharuni 
aritndifiaceum), nal {P/iragiiiifes Roxl>ia\i:;hii), and khagari {Saccharum 
spontaneum). Sal {Shorca robustd) is common, and khair {^Acacia 
Catechu) and sissu {Dalbergia Sissoo) are found in the west of the 
District, while evergreen forest clothes the foot of the hills. 

The larger fauna include elephants, rhinoceros, bison {Bos gai/nis), 
buffaloes, tigers, leopards, and bears, and various kinds of deer. Wild 
animals still do much damage; in 1904 they were responsible for the 
deaths of 685 animals and 12 human beings, though rewards were 
paid for the destruction of 257 tigers and leopards. Small game con- 
sists of partridges, jungle-fowl, florican, wild duck, quail, and peafowl. 

Fogs are not common, and the winter is milder and the spring hotter 
than in Upper Assam. In January, the coldest month of the year, the 
mean temperature is 63°. The rainy season, on the other hand, is 
comparatively cool, and in no month does the mean temperature 
exceed 83°. The Eastern Duars and the farai at the foot of the Garo 
Hills are excessively malarious, but the centre of the District is 
fairly healthy. 

Near the Brahmaputra the average annual rainfall is from 80 to 
90 inches ; but in the Eastern Duars, which are near the hills and 
covered with dense forest, it is 60 or 70 inches higher, (ioalpara, like 
the rest of Assam, is subject to earthquakes. At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century a village near Goalpara town is said to have been 
swallowed up in one of these convulsions of nature, and the great 
earthquake of 1897 did much damage. The town of Goalpara was 
wrecked and the masonry buildings at Dhubri were injured. The 
houses in the interior are, however, usually made of reeds and bam- 
boos ; and the majority of the people, especially on the south bank 
of the Brahmaputra, suffered more from the floods which followed 
than from the earthquake itself. The causes of these floods are 
somewhat obscure ; but it is believed that in places the level of the 
country sank, and that the silting up of the river-beds obstructed the 
natural drainage of the country. In 1900 a cyclone of extraordinary 
violence swept over a portion of the south bank. The path of the 
storm was only about 10 miles long and a quarter of a mile wide, but 
within this area everything was levelled with the earth, and 1 18 persons 
were killed or injured. 

poruLAiYo.y 271 

Little is known of the history of the earUer Hindu dynasties that 

reigned in the Assam Valley, and none of them was closely connected 

with Goalpara, At the beginning of the sixteenth 

1 T- 1 1 tT History, 

century the Koch race rose to power under Biswa 

Singh, whose son Nar Narayan waged war successfully against the 

Ahoms, and the Rajas of Cachar, Jaintia, Sylhet, and Tippera. Before 

his death the kingdom was divided ; and Goalpara, with Kamrup and 

Darrang, was made over to his nephew, Raghu Rai, who is claimed as 

the ancestor of the present Bijni family. Raghu Rai's son, Parlkshit, 

was defeated by the Muhammadans in 16 14, and the District was then 

incorporated in the Mughal empire, though the struggle between the 

Muhammadans and the Ahoms went on for some years longer. After 

the English obtained the dnvani of Bengal in 1765, Goalpara town 

continued to be a frontier outpost, and a considerable trade was 

carried on from there, and from Jogighopa on the opposite bank of 

the Brahmaputra, between European merchants and the Assamese. 

On both the north and south the District has been exposed to trouble 
from the tribes inhabiting the hills that form its boundaries. The 
country south of the river was continuously raided by the Garos, and 
hundreds of lives were taken, till the tribe was pacified by the posting 
of a European officer in the centre of the hills in 1866. The Eastern 
Duars originally formed part of the territories of the Hindu Rajas ; but 
during the conflicts between the Ahoms and the Muhammadans the 
Bhotias succeeded in establishing their sovereignty over this territory, 
and it was only ceded to the British after the Bhutan War of 1865. 
The permanently settled portions of (joalpara originally formed part 
of the District of Rangpur, but were transferred to Assam after the 
annexation of the valley in 1826. In 1867 the whole of what is now 
Goalpara District was included in the Commissionership of Cooch 
Behar, but in the following year it was placed for judicial purposes 
under the Judicial Commissioner of Assam. Finally, it was transferred 
to that Province when it became a separate Administration in 1874. 
There are hardly any objects of archaeological interest in the District. 

The population of Goalpara at each of the last four enumerations 
was : (1872) 387,341, (1881) 446,700, (1^91) 452,773> '^"d (1901) 
462,052. The large apparent increase in 1881 was 
chiefly due to the inaccuracy of the first Census, and 
since that date the population has advanced but slowly. This has been 
chiefly due to the ravages of a peculiarly malignant form of malarial 
fever known as kald azdr. The District is divided into two subdivi- 
sions, Dhubri and Goalpara ; and in the last named, the greater part 
of which lies south of the Brahmaputra, the population in 1901 was only 
about four-fifths of that recorded twenty years before. There are two 
towns in the District, Dhubri and Goalpara ; and 1,461 villages. The 


c; OAL I \ i A'. I I) IS TlUC T 

following table gives parlicukirs of area, towns and villages, and popu 
lation according to the Census of 1901 : — 




Area in square 


Number of 


Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 
persons able to 
read and , 






Goalpara . 


i 3,961 





+ 3-4 
— i-i 


District total 

2 1,461 



+ 2.0 


At the Census of 1901, 44 per cent, of the population returned them- 
selves as Hindus, 28 per cent, as Muhammadans, and 27 per cent, 
professed various forms of Animism. Goalpara is not a part of Assam 
proper ; and 69 per cent, of the population speak Bengali, while 18 per 
cent, speak Bodo or plains Kachari, the people in the Eastern Duars 
being exceptionally faithful to their tribal tongue. 

More than half the Hindu population are Rajbansis (115,800), but 
this is only a high-sounding name for the Hinduized section of the 
Koch or Bodo tribe. Brahmans and other respectable castes are not 
strongly represented. The principal unconverted tribes are the Mech 
(73,800), the Rabhas (27,100), and the Kacharis and Garos. All of 
these are descended from the Bodo stock, and resemble one another 
closely in appearance, manners, and customs. Agriculture is the staple 
occupation, supporting 84 per cent, of the population in 190 1. 

A branch of the American Baptist Mission is located at Goalpara, 
and two-thirds of the native Christians in 190 1 (3,429) were members 
of this sect. A colony of Christian Santals has also been planted by 
missionary enterprise near Dingdinga Hat, about 18 miles north of 

The soil consists of clay mixed in varying proportions with sand. In 
the submontane tract it assumes an ochreous shade, due to the presence 
of iron. There is a considerable difference between 
the conditions prevailing in the north and the south 
of the District. In the Eastern Duars the rice-fields are invariably 
irrigated from the hill streams, and, though the soil is sandy, the crop is 
generally a bumper one and is beyond till of flood. The perma- 
nently settled estates near the Brahmaputra are exposed to much injury 
from flood, and the harvest is far less certain ; but famine and scarcity 
are unknown over the whole District. The area under different crops 
in the permanently settled estates is not known ; but in 1903-4 it was 
estimated that the District contained 541 square miles under rice, 81 
square miles under mustard, 41 square miles under jute, 33 scjuare 
miles under pulse, and 16 square miles under wheat. Rice is of three] 




varieties — sd//, which is transplanted and yields a large out-turn of good 
grain ; Jjv/, which is usually sown broadcast and reaped before the 
floods rise ; and ^>oa, which is grown in marshy tracts, and sometimes 
has a stem nearly 20 feet in length. Wheat is raised in the east of 
Goalpara, but is only grown by foreigners in small patches in the other 
Districts of Assam. Garden crops include tobacco, vegetables, the/<7// 
or betel-vine, and the areca palm. 

In 1903-4 the total area of the District was distributed as follows : 
Settled, 2,634 square miles; unsettled, 1,327 scjuare miles ; cultivated, 
670 square miles : forests, 787 square miles. 

Goalpara has never been exploited in the interests of the tea industry. 
The tLastern Duars have an abundant rainfall, but the soil is rather 
sandy and the climate is said to be fatal to foreigners, while a large pro- 
portion of the land is covered with 'reserved' forest. In 1904 there 
were only four tea gardens in the District, with 700 acres under cul- 
tivation, which yielded 213,000 lb. of tea and gave employment to 
2 Europeans and 508 natives. 

It is impossible to trace the progress or decline of agriculture with 
any degree of accuracy ; but it is believed that the area under jute, 
tobacco, and wheat has considerably extended in recent years, whereas 
mustard has suffered from the floods, which leave the soil too wet and 
cold to allow the seed to germinate properly. 

l"he buffaloes are of a fairly powerful stock, but the farm bullocks are 
undersized and generally in poor condition. The villagers disregard all 
the laws of breeding and pay little attention to their animals ; and, 
though there is plenty of grazing ground on every side, the grass in the 
rainy season is very rank. 

Almost the whole of the rice crop in the P^astern Duars is artificially 
irrigated. The cultivators combine to dig channels, sometimes several 
miles in length, through which they bring the water to their fields. No 
irrigation works have, however, been constructed by Government, 
and for assessment purposes no distinction is drawn between irrigated 
and unirrigated land. 

The Goalpara forests are of considerable commercial importance. 

The Government Reserves in 1903-4 covered an area of 787 square 

miles, about 16^ sciuare miles of which are stocked _ 

with, pure sd/ (S/iOfra roi'iis/a). The principal forests, 

those of Ripu, Chirang, Eengtol, and Bijni, are situated at the foot of 

the Bhutan hills, about 36 miles from Dhubri. The Reserves are 

worked departmentally, as well as by private purchasers. The latter 

are usually local men, who take out permits for one or two hundred 

trees, which are logged in the forests, and towards the end of the rains 

brought down the various rivers to the Government depot at Bagribari 

and to "Other places on the Brahmaputra. The difficulties of transport 



are considerable, but they have been to some extent overcome by the 
purchase of 6 miles of portable tramway. I'he experiment has proved 
a success, and the length (jf line will probably be increased. Most of 
the timber is purchased by traders from Bengal, where it is largely used 
for boat-building. Much difficulty is experienced in obtaining the labour 
required for departmental working and for the clearance of fire lines, 
though forest villages have been established and trees are granted free 
in return for work done. In addition to the regular Reserves, there were 
in 1903-4 558 square miles of ' unclassed ' state forest, managed by 
the Revenue officials. Few good trees are left in this area, owing to 
the wasteful practice, formerly in \ogue, of levying revenue on the axe 
and not on the amount of timber extracted. A big trade in limber is 
also carried on by the '■.amlnddrs, as their forests, though containing 
fewer large trees, are more accessible than the Government Reserves. 
Other trees found in the District are k/iair {Acacia Catechu) and sissu 
{Dalbergia Sissoo) ; but they are, as a rule, only of sporadic growth, and 
are thus of little value from a commercial point of view. 

No minerals have been found in the District, except a little coal of 
inferior quality on the border of the Garo Hills. 

The manufactures of Goalpara are not of much importance, and con- 
sist of brass and bell-metal vessels, rough pottery, and basket-work. 
Gotton and silk cloths are also woven by the women 

^^^^.,„;,.ofj^^o O' the tamily, but not to the extent usual in Assam 
communications. •' ' _ 

proper. The silk cloths are sometimes sold, but the 
])roducts of the loom are often insufficient for home requirements, and 
have to be supplemented by European goods. Gold and silver orna- 
ments are also made, but only to order. 

The bulk of the trade of the District is carried on direct with 
(Calcutta. The principal exports are mustard seed, jute, timber, hides, 
fish, unhusked rice, silk cloth, betel-nuts, and cotton and lac obtained 
from the Garo Hills. The articles received in exchange are European 
piece-goods, salt, hardware, oil, tobacco, pulse, and mats. The chief 
centres of trade are Goalpara, Gauripur, Dhuhri, and Manirarchar. 
Bilasipara, on the north bank of the Brahma[)utra, about 27 miles east 
of Dhubri, is a large timber depot ; and a good deal of jute is exported 
from Patamari, a village nine miles south of that town. The principal 
markets to which the Garos come down to exchange their goods are 
lira, Nibari, and Da.mra. The natives of the District have little 
aptitude for commerce, and most of the business is in the hands of 
merchants from Rajputana or Bengal. The railway is not largely used 
for commercial purposes, owing to the necessity for transhipment at 
Sara Ghat; and the bulk of the traffic is by steamer or in country boats, 
which come up in large numbers to Goalpara. Internal trade is carried 
on at weekly markets, of which there are a large number, and at fairs 


held on the occasion of religious festivals. The Bhotias bring down 
a few ponies and a little rubber, but the total value of this trans- 
frontier trade is very small. 

The main artery of trade is the Brahmaputra, which flows through 
the District and receives numerous tributaries on either bank. At four 
stations on the river — namely, Dhubri, Bilasipara, Goalpara, and Dal- 
goma — passenger steamers call daily, and these are periodically visited 
l)y large cargo boats. The vessels are owned and managed by the 
India (General Steam Navigation Company and the Rivers Steam Navi- 
gation Company, Limited. Country boats are largely used during the 
rains to bring produce from the interior. The Eastern Bengal State 
Railway opened a line to Dhubri in 1902, and the railway is being 
continued through the north of the District to a point opposite Gauhati, 
the terminus of the Assam-Bengal Railway. Both the north and south 
trunk road run through the District, but the bulk of the land traffic 
goes by the local board road from Gauripur to Raha in Barpeta. 
Speaking generally, Goalpara is well supplied with means of communi- 
cation. Altogether 464 miles of unmetalled roads were maintained in 
1903-4, of which 225 miles were in the charge of the Public Works 
department. The larger rivers flowing from the Bhutan hills are still 
unbridged, and are crossed by ferries ; and steam ferries ply across the 
Brahmaputra between Dhubri and FakTrganj, and Jogighojxl and 

The District is divided into two subdivisions : Dhubri, which is under the 
immediate charge of the 1 )eputy-Commissioner ; and Goalpara, which is 

usually entrusted to a native magistrate. In addition ... 

. ,-. ^ ^, ^, rA- . „ . cr • Administration. 

to the Deputy-Commissioner, the District staff in- 
cludes three Assistant Magistrates, a Forest officer, and an Executive 
Engineer, who is also in charge of the Garo Hills District. 

The Deputy-Commissioner exercises the powers of a Sub-Judge, and 
the subordinate magistrates act as Munsifs. Appeals lie to the Judge 
of the Assam Valley, and from him to the High Court at Calcutta. 
Special arrangements have been made for the administration of civil 
justice in the Eastern l^uars, suited to the simple and uncivilized char- 
acter of the inhabitants. Whenever possible, disputes are decided by 
panchuyat, and the chief appellate authority is the Commissioner. 
The people of the District are of a peaceful and law-abiding character, 
and there is little serious crime. 

For revenue purposes, Goalpara consists of two distinct tracts : the 
area covered by the jurisdiction of the three thanas of Goalpara, Dhubri, 
and Karaibari as that jurisdiction stood in 1822 ; and the Eastern Duars. 
After the failure of Mir Jumla's expedition in 1663, Goalpara was the 
frontier District held by the Mughal government, and only a nominal 
tribute was taken from the border chieftains. This tribute was origin- 

T 2 



ally paid in kiiul ; but shortly before the Decennial Settlement of i 793 it 
had been commuted to a cash payment, which was acce[)ted, when the 
settlement was made permanent, as the land revenue demand of the 
estates from which it was drawn. The result is that an area of more 
than 2,373 square miles pays a revenue of only Rs. 11,411, which is 
less than half a farthing per acre, and probably does not exceed one- 
sixtieth part of the za??ii fidars' receipts. The Eastern Duars, which lie 
at the foot of the Bhutan hills, and cover an area of 1,570 square miles, 
were acquired from Bhutan in 1865, and are settled direct by Govern- 
ment with the ryots. Owing to the unhealthiness of the climate and 
the sparseness of the population, there is little demand for land in the 
Duars. The rates assessed are lower than those in force in Assam 
proper, and over the greater part of this area the revenue demand is 
Rs. 1-8 per acre for homestead and winter rice land and 12 annas for 
high land. The Rajas of BijNi and .Sidli are entitled to settlement of 
estates covering 130,000 and 170,000 acres respectively, in the Duars 
that bear their names, as they were held to have acquired rights over 
this land when under the Bhutan government. 

The land revenue and total revenue of the District, in thousands of 
rupees, is shown in the following table : — 

1 880-1. 

i8go-:. igoo-i. 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 







* Exclusi\ e of Forest receipts. 

Outside the municipalities of Dhubri and Goalpara, the local affairs 
of each subdivision are managed by boards under the chairmanship of 
the Deputy-Commissioner and Subdivisional officer. The expenditure 
of these boards in 1903-4 was a little over one. lakh, rather more than 
one-half of which was devoted to public works and one-fourth to 
education. The chief sources of income were the local rate and a 
substantial grant from Provincial revenues. 

For the purposes of the prevention and detection of crime the 
District is divided into nine investigating centres, the force in 1904 
consisting of 41 officers and 210 men, with 896 chaukiJars, or village 
watchmen. There is a jail at Dhubri which can accommodate 28 
males and 6 females, and a magistrate's lock-up at Goalpara. 

Education is still very backward in Goalpara. The number of pupils 
under instruction in 1 880-1, 1 890-1, 1 900-1, and 1903-4 was 2,922, 
4>93i) 7,241, and 6,801 respectively. During the past twenty-nine 
years the cause of education has, however, made some progress, and the 
number of pupils in 1903 4 was nearly three times that in 1874-5. 
At the Census of 1901, 2-7 per cent, of the population (4-9 males and 


0-2 females) were returned as literate. There were 215 primary and 
18 secondary schools in the District in 1903-4. The number of female 
scholars was 345. The enormous majority of the pupils under instruc- 
tion were only in primary classes, and the number of girls who have 
advanced beyond that stage is insignificant. Of the male population of 
school-going age 14 per cent, are in the primary stage of instruction, 
and of the female population of the same age less than one per cent. 
The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 69,000, of which 
Rs. 1 1,000 was derived from fees. 

The District possesses 3 hospitals and 11 dispensaries, with acc(;m- 
modation for 59 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 
93,000, of whom 600 were in-patients, and 1,400 operations were per- 
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 19,000, the greater part of which was 
met from Local and municipal funds. 

About 34 per 1,000 of the population were successfully vaccinated in 
1903-4, but this figure was much below the average for previous years. 
Vaccination is compulsory only in the towns of Dhubri and Goalpara. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, A Statistical Accoirnt of Assam, vol. ii (1879) ; 
E. A. Gait, ' The Koch Kings of Kamarupa,' Jounial of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, vol. Ixii, part i ; A. Mackenzie, History of the Relations 
of the Government with the Hill Tribes of the North-East Frontier 
(Calcutta, 1884) ; B, C. Allen, District Gazetteer of Goalpara (1906).] 

Goalpara Subdivision. — Subdivision of Goalpara District, Assam, 
lying between 25° 52' and 26° 30' N. and 90° 9' and 91^ 6' E., with an 
area of 1,002 square miles. The subdivision consists of a narrow strip 
of land between the Garo Hills and the Brahmaputra, with the south- 
eastern portion of that part of the District which lies on the north bank 
of the great river. Low hills project into the plains from the Garo 
range, and even appear on the other side of the Brahmaputra in the 
.Salmara thdna, where they reach a height of nearly 1,700 feet. Much 
of the country lies low, and there are numerous swamps and marshes, 
and some sheets of water, like the Kumarakata and Tamranga I'ils, 
which even in the dry season are of considerable size. The annual 
rainfall at Goalpara town averages 91 inches, but it is heavier towards 
the n(jrth. The subdivision was one of the first places in the Assam 
Valley to be attacked by kald azar, and between 1881 and 1891 the 
population decreased by 18 per cent. The populati(jn in the latter 
year was 134,523, and by 1901 it had fallen to 132,950, a further 
decrease of one per cent. The density of population is 133 persons 
per square mile, as compared with 117 in the District as a whole. 
Mustard and long-stemmed rice are grown on the marshes near the 
river, but much injury is done by floods, which have been particularly 
severe since the earthquake of 1897. Go.\lpara (population, 6,287) '^ 
the principal town and head-quarters of the subdivision, the magistrate 


in charge being usually a native of India. For administrative purposes 
the subdivision is divided into the thanas of Goalpara, Dudhnai, 
Lakhipur, and North Salmara, and contains 385 villages. The whole 
of the subdivision is permanently settled. 

Goalpara Town. — Town in the District of the same name, Assam, 
situated in 26° 10' N. and 90*^ 38' E., on the south bank of the 
Brahmaputra. Population (1901), 6,287. Prior to the annexation of 
Assam, Goalpara was a frontier station of the Company's territories, and 
a colony of Europeans who settled there forcibly acquired a monopol)- 
of the Bengal trade, and then engaged in lucrative transactions with the 
natives, who enjoyed a similar monopoly of the trade of Assam. The 
first attempt by the British to interfere in the internal affairs of the 
Assam kingdom was made by a salt-farmer named Raush, who in 1788 
dispatched 700 sepoys from Goalpara to aid the Raja against his re- 
volted subjects, but not one of these soldiers is said to have returned. 
A pile of masonry, the size of a small cottage, which covers the remains 
of Raush's two infant children, stands on the side of a low hill overlook- 
ing the river. A magnificent view is obtained from this spot over the 
\alley of the Brahmaputra, which is here much broken by low forest- 
clad hills and is bounded on the north by the snow-capped Himalayas. 
Most of the public ofifices stand on the hill, and have been rebuilt since 
the earthquake of 1897, which destroyed all masonry buildings and 
caused the native town, which stands on the plain at the west, to sink 
below flood-level. Embankments fitted with sluice-gates have recently 
been constructed to protect the town from the floods of the Brahmaputra ; 
but the lower parts are waterlogged by accumulations of rain-water, 
which cannot be drained off till the river falls, and the shops and houses 
present a very dilapidated appearance. In 1879 the head-quarters of 
the District were removed from Goalpara to Dhubri, and since that date 
it has been a subdivisional station. 

Goalpara was constituted a municipality in 1878. The receipts and 
expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 6,000, the 
chief source of income being house tax, and the main items of outlay 
conservancy and public works. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure 
were Rs. 7,200 and Rs. 6,300 respectively. In addition to the magis- 
trate's court and lock-up, the public buildings include a high school 
with an average attendance of 106 boys, and a dispensary with 18 beds. 
A branch of the American Baptist Mission is located in the town. Goal- 
para is connected by road with Gauhati and Dhubri, and is a pf)rt 
of call for steamers plying on the Brahmaputra. There is a consider- 
able export trade in jute, mustard, cotton, lac, and sal timber. The 
chief imports are salt, grain, oil, and cotton goods and twist. The 
wholesale trade is in the hands of Marwari merchants, but tiie majority 
of the retail shopkeepers arc Muhammadans from Dacca. 


Goalundo Subdivision. — Western subdivision of Faridpur District, 
li^Hslern Bengal and Assam, lying between 2^ 32' and 23° 55' N. and 
89° 1 9' and 89° 49' E., with an area of 428 square miles. The popu- 
lation in 1901 was 319,285, ct)mpared with 351,620 in 1891 ; the 
number of villages is 1,178, including Rajbari, the head-quarters. The 
subdivision, which is bounded on the north and east by the Padma, is 
a fertile alluvial tract possessing a rich, light loamy soil. The surface 
is high compared with that of the other subdivisions, but the climate is 
very unhealthy, malarial fever being prevalent, and the density of popu. 
lation (746 persons per square mile) is consequently less than elsewhere 
in the District. The subdivision is served by the eastern section of the 
Eastern Bengal State Railway, and by steamers. Goalundo Vili,agk 
is an important railway and steamer station and the focus of several 
trade routes ; other trade centres are Pangsa and Belgachi. 

Goalundo Village. — Village in the subdivision of the same name 
in Faridpur District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 23° 51' N. 
and 89° 46' E., near the junction of the main streams of the Padma, 
as the Changes is here called, and the Brahmaputra. Population (1901), 
5,036. Goalundo is the terminus of the Eastern Bengal State Railway 
and of several important steamer routes, and is a mart through which 
an enormous volume of trade passes. Daily services of steamers con- 
nect it with the railway systems at Narayanganj and Chandpur, and with 
the steamer services to .Madaripur, Barisal, Sylhet, and Cachar. There 
are also daily services of steamers up the Padma to Digha Ghat in the 
dry season, and Buxar in the rains, and up the Brahmaputra to Dibru- 
garh. Formerly Goalundo was situated exactly at the junction of the 
Padma and Brahmaputra, and an enormous sum was expended in pro- 
tecting the site from erosion. But in 1875 the spur was washed away : 
and since that date the terminus, though still called Goalundo, has 
shifted twice annually, the present site being 7 miles south of the former 
one. The subdivisional and railway head-quarters, which were formerly 
at Goalundo, have been removed inland to Rajbari. Goalundo con- 
tains a very large bazar and the railway and steamer officers' quarters, 
wliich follow the terminus in its wanderings. The trade is one of tran- 
shipment, the principal commodities dealt with being jute, oilseeds, and 
food-grains. An enormous quantity of hilsa fish is exported to Calcutta. 
The trade is mainly in the hands of Marwari and Bengali merchants. 
Coolies travelling to the Assam tea gardens pass through Goalundo, and 
an l^^migration officer is stationed here. 

Gobardanga. — Town in the Barasal subdivisicjn of the District 
of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22° 53' N. and 88° 45' 
H, on the east bank of the Jamuna river, with a station on the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway. Population (1901), 5,865. Tradition points to 
this 'place as the spot where Krishna tended his flocks; and the name of 


the adjoining village, Gaipur, is said to be abbreviated from Gojnpur, 
and to denote the city of gopinis or milkmaids, mistresses of Krishna. 
Sugar factories are numerous, and raw jute and molasses are exported. 
Ciobardanga was constituted a municipality in 1870. The income 
during the decade ending 1 901-2 averaged Rs. 3,600, and the ex- 
penditure Rs. 3,100. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,500, mainly 
from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 3,400. 

Gobardhan. — Town in the T3istrict and /ahs'il of Muttra, United 
Provinces, situated in 27° 30' N, and 77° 28' E., on the road frcMii 
Muttra city to Dig (Bharatpur State). Population (1901), 6,738. It 
lies in a recess in the sacred hill called GiRi Raj, and is built round 
a fine tank lined with masonry steps, called the Mana.sT Ganga. At the 
Dewali festival in autumn the steps and facade of the surrounding 
buildings are outlined with rows of small lamp.s, producing a beautiful 
effect. Gobardhan is famous in tradition as one of the favourite 
residences of Krishna, and is also remarkable for its architectural re- 
mains. The oldest is the temple of Harl Deva, originally built about 
1560 and restored by a Bania in 1872. Two stately cenotaphs of 
richly carved stone commemorate Randhir Singh and Baldeo Singh, 
Rajas of Bharatpur : they are crowned by domes, the interiors of which 
are adorned with curious paintings. A third cenotaph is being con- 
structed in memory of Raja Jaswant Singh. North of the town, on 
the bank of the beautiful artificial lake called Kusum Sarovar, stands 
a group of buildings built in memory of Suraj Mai by his son, Jawahir 
Singh, soon after Suraj Mai's death near Ghaziabad in 1763. 
Gobardhan is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of 
about Rs. 2,200. There is little or no trade. The primary school has 
about 140 pupils. 

Gobardhangiri. — Hill in Shimoga District, Mysore. See Cjovar- 


Gobindpur Subdivision.— Northern subdivision of Manbhum 
District, Bengal, lying between 23° 38' and 24° 4' N. and 86° 7' and 
86° 50' E., with an area of 803 square miles. The subdivision 
consists of a triangular strip of country between the Damodar 
and Barakar rivers ; to the west the land rises to the Chota Nagpur 
plateau, but to the north and east the country is open and consists of 
a series of rolling downs, with a few isolated hills. The population in 
1 90 1 was 277,122, compared with 221,434 in 1891, the density being 
345 persons per square mile. It contains 1,248 villages, of which 
Gobindpur is the head-quarters ; but no town. The Jherria coal-field 
lies within the subdivision, and the great growth of the population 
during the last decade is due to the rapid development of the 
mining industry. 

GOD Avar I ni strict 281 

Gobindpur Village.— Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name, Manbhum District, Bengal, situated in 23° 50' N. and 86° 32' E. 
Population (1901), 1,293. Gobindpur contains the usual subdivisional 
offices, and a sub-jail with accommodation for 32 prisoners. 

Godagari. — Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Rajshahi 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 24° 28' N. and 88° u/ E., 
in the extreme west of the District, near the junction of the Mahananda 
with the Padma. Population (1901), 235. It possesses an important 
river trade extending as far as the United Provinces, and is a station on 
the steamer route from Damukdia to Malda. A scheme is under con- 
sideration to connect Godagari by railway with Katihar. 

Godavari District. District on the north-east coast of the 
Madras Presidency, lying between 16° 19' and 18° 4' N. and So° 52' 
and 82° 36' E.', with an area of 7,972 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north-east by Vizagapatam District ; on the north by the same Dis- 
trict and the Central Provinces ; on the w^esi by the Nizam's Dominions; 
and on the south-west by Kistna District. It consists of three very dis- 
similar natural divisions : namely, the Agency tract in the north-west, 
the delta of the Godavari river along the coast, and the upland taluks 
which lie midway between these two areas. 

The north-western angle of the District, known as the Agency tract 
from the administrative system there in force", is 
almost entirely occupied by a portion of the range of Physical 
the Eastern Ghats, which here consists of a series 
of broken and scattered hills and spurs rising from the lower uplands. 
The highest peak is Peddakonda, 'big hill ' (4,476 feet). 

The great river Godavari, which gives its name to the District and 
forms its mcjst distinctive feature, enters the Bhadrachalam talnk west 
of the Ghats, and, until it begins to wind its way through the Papikonda 
range, forms the boundary between British territory on the left bank 
and Hyderabad on the right; Emerging from the (ihats into a gently 
undulating plain broken here and there by a few small hill ranges, it 
runs right through the centre of the District proper. Forty miles from 
the sea, opposite Dowlaishweram, it divides into two branches, enclosing 
between them the Amalapuram ialxk, and flows through a wide delta 
which its own silt has formed. At the head of this, at Dowlaishweram, 
is the famous anicut, or dam, which has been constructed to render its 

' While tliis work was jjassing through the I'ress the limits of the ohl Godavnri 
District were altered, the taluks of Yernagfidem, Ellore, Tamikii, Bhimavaram, and 
Narasapur fless Nagarain Island) being transferred to Kistna District. The transfer 
of the Nugar. Albaka, and Cherla tahsTls (about 600 square miles^ from the Central 
Provinces to tiodavari District is under consideration. The present account deals with 
the District as it was before these alterations occurred. 

* S?e the article on Gan.iam Disfrict. 


waters available for irrigation : and from this point to the sea the 
eountry is a vast expanse of rice-tields doited with gardens and villages. 
During the rains the greater part of this tract becomes one sheet of 
water, only village sites, canal banks, roads, and field boundaries appear- 
ing above it. Later in the year, as the rice grows liigher, the dividing 
boundaries arc hidden ; and the whole country looks like a single rice- 
field, only the palm-trees along the edges of the fields, the groves round 
the villages, the road avenues, and the white sails of the boats gliding 
along the main canals l)reaking the uniform sea of waving green crops. 
Ey common usage the alluvial tracts along the left and right banks of 
the river are designated the Eastern and Western Deltas, while to the 
delta proper, the Amalapurani taluk, is given the name of Central 
Delta. The Eastern Delta extends east from Dowlaishweram as far as 
Samalkot, including the greater part of the Ramachandrapuram and 
Cocanada taluks. The Western Delta extends westward from the river 
to Ellore and thence southward along the Colair Lake, and its outlet 
the Upputeru stream, to Narasapur. It includes the taluks of Tanuku, 
Narasapur, and Bhimavaram. 

The upland taluks form the third natural division of the District. 
^'ernagudem and Ellore are an undulating plain broken by low ranges. 
East of the Godavari river, Tuni consists of stony soil with small hills, 
covered, despite their steepness, with forest ; Pithapuram teems with 
fruit trees and is watered by many channels and tanks ; and in Rajah- 
mundry and Teddapuram ' wet ' land alternates with long stretches of 
stony waste. 

The District has a seaboard of about 172 miles. The coast is low 
and sandy, interspersed with tidal swamps and creeks. Its general trend 
is in a north-easterly direction ; but the greater part is within the 
influence of the Godavari river and is continually changing its contour. 
The only port with any trade is Cocanada, and even there, owing to 
shoal-water, vessels are obliged to anchor in the roadstead 4I miles 
from the shore. There are lighthouses at Vakalapudi, 4 miles north 
of Cocanada, and on the Sacramento Shoal ; while the abandoned 
light at Cocanada port, that on Hope Island, and the obelisk 45 feet 
high on Narasapur Point form conspicuous sea-marks. 

Besides the Godavari and its tributary the Sabari, there are no rivers 
of any size in the District. But several minor streams drain the upland 
taluks and are more or less used for irrigation. Of these, the Yeleru, 
running through the Peddapuram taluk and the Pithapuram tahsll, and 
the Yerrakalva, which under the name of Wayyeru becomes merged in 
the Western Delta canal system, are the most important. 

The Archaean gneissic rocks of the District are confined to its north- 
west portion, on each side of the Lower Gondwanas which are found 
there. The Lower Gondw.lna basin of Permo-carboniferous to Triassic 

/'//VS/C.IL .IS/'ECTS 2St 

fresh-water arenaceous deposits lies at gentle angles on the gneissic 
floor, comprising a basal boulder-bed of glacial origin, a lower (Barakar) 
coal-bearing stage, and an upper (Kamptee) stage of barren sandstones. 
From this basin upwards the ]>ower Gondwanas and Archaeans are 
levelled away towards the 3,000 feet plateaux, as if by a series of planes 
of marine denudation. On one of these lie the Upper Gondwanas, 
which run in a low escarpment south-west and north-east from Rajah- 
mundry. Finally above this and the other rock groups lie the slightly 
older Cuddalore sandstones, on which in turn rest the deposits of the 
plains and of the Godavari Valley. 

The physical conformation of the District permits the existence of 
several distinct floras ; and the native plants have been more carefullv 
studied here than elsewhere, owing to the residence of the botanist 
Roxburgh for some time at Samalkot. The delta teems with weeds of 
cultivation, the uplands yield the plants of the dry scrub forest, while 
the hill tracts present an entirely different series. The deep ravines 
near Bison Hill afford the nearest approach to a moist evergreen 
forest to be met with in this part of India. Among the interesting 
plants of the Godavari gorge may be noted Barleria sfn'gosa, Olden- 
laiidia iiudicaulis, and Sauropiis qiiadrangidaris. Bordering the stream 
and in the rapids EiipJwrhia Laivii flourishes, while on the banks such 
ext)tic ferns as Luffa echiiiata and Melilofiis parviflora are founds 

The Agency tract possesses the larger fauna usual to such wild and 
remote regions. Bison {gaiir) frequent the table-lands of the Papikonda 
range, and wild buffalo are occasionally met with on the banks of the 
Sfibari. Nilgai have been shot in the Bhadrachalam fd/i/k. In the 
plains antelope, spotted deer, and wild hog are to be found in several 
localities. The District is rich in bird life, and among the rarer birds 
may be mentioned the imperial pigeon, pied myna, and blnmardj. The 
large sable-fish is caught in considerable quantities at the unicut across 
the Godavari. 

The District Is on the whole a healthy one, but fever is verv pre- 
valent, especially during the cold season. The Agency tracts in 
l)articular are notorious in this respect, and the malaria peculiar to the 
Guditeru valley is of a virulent type. The natives consume con- 
siderable quantities of opium as a prophylactic against the disease. 
Beri-beri is common along the coast. The mean temperature at 
Rajahmundry, in the centre of the District, averages 82°, with a mean 
range of 18°; but the humidity of the atmosphere renders the heat 
oppressive. In Bhadrachalam and the hill tracts generally the tem- 
perature has a much wider range. 

The first four months of the year are practically rainless. The 
south-west monsoon, which sets in about the middle of June, brings 

* Roxburgh's Coro/naiidel Plants. 


nearly two-thirds of the fall. It naturally breaks more heavily 

in the Bhadrachalam iaiuk beyond the Ghats than in the rest of the 

District. Conversely the north-east monsoon is hardly felt in that 

taluk. The annual fall for the whole District averages 31 inches. The 

coast is much exposed to north-easterly cyclones, and in 1787, 1832, 

and 1839 immense loss was caused by them. In the first two of these 

more than 20,000 persons are said to have perished, and the last was 

even more destructive of property. Floods in the Godavari have also 

been a frequent source of damage. x'Mthough embankments were 

very early raised ff)r the protection of the country, six villages in the 

Yernagudem taluk were swept away in 1886, and there were extensive 

inundations in 1891 and 1900. 

In early times the District was included within the two ancient 

kingdoms of Kalinga and Vengi. The frontier between these two 

was a varying one, but it was never farther south 
History. , ,/,,_-. , ,, , r 

than the Godavari river, and generally lay mr to the 

north of the District, in Vizagapatam or even Ganjam. The southern 
border of Vengi seems never to have been farther north than the 
Kistna, and that kingdom often extended many miles to the south and 
west. The earliest rulers of the country of whom we have any know- 
ledge were the Andhras. These were conquered by Asoka in 260 B.C., 
but subsequently ruled for about 400 years independently over a wide 
empire extending nearly to Bombay and Mysore. 'I'hey were followed 
in the early part of the third century a. d. by Pallava chieftains, two of 
whom had their capitals at Vengi near Ellore and Pithapuram. In 
the seventh century the country passed under the Eastern Chalukyas, 
who extended their rule far into Vizagapatam and made Rajahmundry 
their capital. Asoka, the Andhras, and the Pallavas had been Buddh- 
ists ; the Chalukyas were Vaishnavites. The last became the feuda- 
tories (in A.D. 999) of the great Chola empire; and the kingdoms 
were united till the middle of the twelfth century, when the Chola 
power began to decline and Vengi came first under a number of petty 
chiefs, and (at the end of the thirteenth century) under the Ganpati 
dynasty of Warangal. This fell before the Muhammadans, who 
obtained a brief foothold in the country in 1324 ; but the invaders 
were soon driven back, and the Vengi country passed to the Reddi 
kings of Kondavid and Rajahmundry. About the middle of the 
fifteenth century the Vengi and Kalinga countries were united under 
the rule of the (iajapatis of Orissa. The Muhammadans now reappear 
on the scene. In 1470 Rajahmundry and Kondapalli were ceded to 
the Sultan of Gulbarga in return for his assistance, and a few years 
later he subdued the whole of the Gajapati dominions ; but the dis- 
memberment of the Gulbarga kingdom a few years later restored the 
power of the Gajapatis before the end nf the century. At this point 


Krishna Deva, the greatest of the Vijayanagar kings, overran the 
country (15 15) and made it for a short time feudatory to himself; but 
this had no lasting effect, and before 1543 the first Sultan of Golconda 
had quarrelled with the Gajapati princes and had extorted a cession 
of all the country between the Kistna and the Godavari. Revolts 
in these provinces and assistance offered by the Gajapati prince of 
Rajahmundry to the rebels provoked the Muhammadans to cross the 
Godavari and extend their rule farther to the north-east. Rajahmundry 
fell in 1572, and a few years later the whole of the country north of 
the Godavari came under the Sultans of Golconda, and was held by 
them till their overthrow by Aurangzeb in 1687. The power of Delhi 
was little felt so far from the centre of the empire, and the great 
rMimnddrs now made themselves i)ractically independent. Then came 
the disintegration of that empire, and Asaf Jah, Subahdar of the Deccan, 
restored order with a firm hand. 

Europeans had by this time been long established in the District. 
Palakollu, near Narasapur, was the first settlement, founded by the 
Dutch in 1652. They next formed a station at Jagannathapuram, now 
part of Cocanada. The English followed with settlements at Mada- 
POLLAM, now included in the Narasapur Union, and at Viravasaram 
(Virasheroon), a few miles north-west of the former. In 1708 a third 
factory v/as founded at Injaram, and later a fourth at Bandajniur- 
LANKA. About the same time the French possessed themselves of 
Yanam, which they still hold. In 1750 the Subahdar of the Deccan 
granted Nara.sapur, and in 1753 the rest of the Northern Circars, 
to the French, who in 1757 seized the English factories within this 
District, The following year an expedition under Colonel Forde from 
Bengal defeated the French at Condore ^ (Chandurti) near Pithapuram. 
By the subsequent operations English supremacy in the Circars was 
secured; and when these were ceded in 1765 the (lodavari District, 
which was included in the SarkCxrs of Rajahmundry and Ellore, passed 
to the English. At first it was leased to the Faujdar Husain All Khan, 
but in 1769 it was placed under the direct administration of the Chief 
and Council at Masulipatam. The latter proved incapable of coping 
with the turbulence of the za/nlnddrs, and in 1794 Collectorates were 
established at Cocanada, Rajahmundry, and Mogalturru. Several 
changes were made in this arrangement until, in 1859, the Districts 
of Rajahmundry, Masulipatam, and Guntur were re-formed into the 
Godavari and Kistna Districts. The factories which were the original 
cause of the acquisition of the Sarkdrs were abolished in 1830. The 
sudden cessation of a large industry, concurring with a period of 
scarcity, caused a great deterioration in the District. It was partly in 
consequence of this that the plan for building an anient across the 

' ( >rnie describes in detail lliis decisive engngeiiKiit. 


river finally took shape. The effect of this project (completed in 1850) 
on the prosperity of the District has been enormous. In 1874 the 
tali/ks of Bliaclrachaliim and Rekapalli (since amalgamated) were trans- 
ferred from the Central Provinces. In 1879 these fd/i/ks and the 
Rampa hill cf^untry were constituted an Agency under the Scheduled 
Districts Act of 1874. By this enactment the Collector, as Agent to 
the Governor, has extended powers within such areas. The limits 
of the Agency have since been changed considerably from time to 
lime. In 1879 the serious disturbances known as the Rampa rebellion 
broke out in the hill country. They were not finally quelled till 1881, 
and were the last disturbance of the kind in the Presidency in which 
the help of troops has been required. 

The mounds at Pedda Vegi and Denduluru near Ellore are supposed 
to mark the site of the capital of the Buddhist dynasty of Vengi. At 
C.untupalH, 24 miles north of Ellore, is a remarkable series of Buddhist 
remains ; and at ArugoUu in the Yernagudem fdli/k excavations in 
laterite have disclosed the foundations of similar buildings. Near 
Kamavarapukota (in the Ellore taluk) and at Korukonda are rock-cut 
figures of Hindu origin. Some inscriptions of value are to be found in 
the numerous temples (/ the District, notably at Draksharama ; while 
the mosque at Rajahmundry possesses a Muhammadan record, dated 
A. o. 1324, one of the earliest of that religion in Southern India. In 
the Bhadrachalam taluk there are rude stone monuments, under which 
remains indicating a primitive civilization have been found. At 
Palakollu, Narasapur, and Jagannathapuram are interesting relics of 
the early European settlements. 

The population of Godavari District in 1871 was 1,592,939 ; in 1881, 
1,791,512 ; in 1891, 2,078,782 ; and in 1901, 2,301,759. It has in- 
creased at the abnormally high rate of 45 per cent. 
Population. , . , , , . ,,,, ,x- , -, 

durmg the last thirty years. I he District contains 

2,678 towns and villages : but of these 1,141 are in the Agency tract, 
where there are no towns and the villages are exceptionally small. It 
is divided into twelve taluks and tahslls in the plains and four in the 
Agency tract, for which statistical particulars, based on the Census of 
1 901, are given on the next page. 

The head-quarters of these taluks and tahslls (except of Yernagudem 
and Yellavaram, which are at Kovvtiru and Addatigala respectively) are 
situated at the places from which each takes its name. The chief towns 
are the three municipalities of Coc.\n.\da, Rajahmundrv, and Ellork; 
and the Unions of Samai.kot, Pith.\puram, Peddapuram, and Pala- 
kollu. Of the total population, Hindus number 2,236,283, or 97 per 
cent. ; Muhammadans, 43,481 ; Christians, 16,795 ' Animists, 4,139 ; and 
'others,' i,o6i. Immigration (chiefly from Vizagapatam) is a marked 
feature of the District, and sets mainly towards tlie delta. This forms 



the most densely populated area north of Madras, in strong contrast to 
the i\gency tract, which, with 51 persons to the square mile, is the most 
sparsely peopled area in the Presidency. Telugu is the language of 
96 per cent, of the people. In the Bhadrachalam taluk, however, 
about one-half, and in Polavaram about one-fourth, of the people s[)eak 
Koyi, the language of the Koyi hill tribe. 



Number of 



age of 
on in 
ion bc- 



Tuliik or J'li/isil. 

c — 



■3 § 


id I 

3 9 "- 







1 ==- 

Ageiuy Tract. 


1 ! 



• • • 





I, 'S3 








Chodavaiam . 


• a , 













+ 15.0 

j ',183 




+ 16-5 

' 12,213 







+ 2-3 

' 1,938, 

Pithapuraiu . 






+ 0.3 


Peddapmam . 






+ 3.2 


Ramachandrapui nni 






-1- II.O 

8,839 ' 

Rajahmundry . 






+ 14-1 

9,642 ■ 

Amalapuiani . 






+ 8.3 


Ellore . 






+ 5-5 

9,866 I 

Veriiagudem . 






+ 8.6 

4,. 308 







-h 1 1-2 


'raiuiku . 






+ 17.0 


15hlmavaram . 







+ 17-5 

-h 10-7 


District total * 





* The area of the remoilelltd Godavari District is S,6<4 square miles, and its population 

The Koyis make up about a third of tht- whole population of the 
Agency, where they number more than 50,000. In the adjoining 
Malkangiri tahsil of \'izagapatam District there are also some 11,000 
of them. They are a simple, unsophisticated race, who subsist by a 
shifting cultivation called podu, and are a prey to the malaria endemic 
in regions. In the plains almost the whole po[nilation ctjn- 
sists of Telugu castes. Of these, the most numerous are the Kapus 
(457,000) and Malas (391,000). Ne.xt come the Idigas (toddy-drawers), 
numbering 167,000, or seven-tenths of the total strength of the caste in 
the Presidency; the Madigas (114,000); and the Kamma cultivators 
(110,000). Brahmans, who are more numerous than usual, form nearly 
5 per cent, of the Hindu population. 

The Agency tract forms the most exclusively agricultural area in the 
Presidency. The low country differs little from the normal. As usual, 
the great majority of the peoi)le are dependent on the land, though the 


proportion subsisting by transport is increased by the large number of 
boatmen workiiw on the canals. 

The number of Christians in the District increased from 9,064 
in 1891 to 16,795 in 1901 : the advance during the past twenty years 
has exceeded 300 per cent. Of the total, 15,836 are natives of India. 
Lutherans (6,510) and Baptists (5,129) are the two most numerous 
sects. Four Protestant missions are at work : the Canadian Baptist, 
the American Evangelical Lutheran, the Anglican, and the Plymouth 
Brethren (Delta Mission). The work of these is chiefly confined to the 
plains ; but the Anglican Mission has a branch at Dummagudem in 
the Bhadrachalam tdhik, where work is carried on among the Koyis. 
These missions combine educational with evangelical aims. The native 
Roman Catholics number 688, mainly in the large towns. 

The upland and delta taluks differ widely in their agricultural 
conditions. Of the 1,173 square miles of occupied land in Govern- 
. . ment villages in the delta, 73 per cent, was classed as 

silt at the resettlement. 'I'he sandy tracts along the 
sea-coast and the black cotton soil which occurs mainly in the tract 
round the Colair Lake account for the remainder. And, although the 
delta contains a certain amount of ' dry ' land, almost the whole of this 
is commanded by the Godavari irrigation system. The lankas, as the 
islands formed by the river deposits are termed, deserve special mention 
on account of their great fertility. They consist of loam covered in 
places with deep layers of sand ; and, being submerged in times of 
flood, they fluctuate in position and area. Their total extent is about 
15,000 acres. Lanka tobacco is famous. 

In the upland taluks red soils predominate, the sandy red variety 
being the most prevalent. The fertile Yeleru valley in the Yellavaram 
and Peddapuram taluks and the cotton-soil tracts of Rajahmundry are 
noticeable exceptions. In the Agency tract, where the country is 
covered with hills and forests, /(^^/z or nomadic cultivation is practised. 
A clearing is made in the jungle, the trees are burned, and the crop 
sown in the ashes. The following year a fresh site is chosen. 

Of the total area of Godavari District only 3,897 square miles are 
Government land, the remaining 4,075 square miles being held on 
zamindari or indm tenure. The area in 1903-4 for which particulars 
are available is given on the next page, in square miles. 

About a fifth of the total area is forest, and another fourth is other- 
wise not available for cultivation. The margin of cultivable waste is 
unusually small. Of the cultivattd area, 464 square miles, mainly in 
the delta taluks, are cropped more than once within the year. Rice is 
grown on 1,156 square miles, or 52 per cent, of the gross area cropped, 
and is pre-eminently the staple food-grain of the District. Next come 
cholam {Sorghum vulga/r), witli 144 square miles ; and pulses, chiefly 



horse-gram and green gram, with 270 square miles. Rice is the prin- 
cipal crop in all the plains taluks except Yernagudem, while cholain 
and ragi {Eki/sine coracana) are grown in the upland taluks and the 
Agency. Of industrial crops, oilseeds (among which gingelly takes 
the first place) are the most important. Tobacco is raised throughout 
the District, except in the Bhlmavarani taluk, and mainly on the lankas 
in Ramachandrapuram, Amalapuram, and Rajahmundry. Sugar-cane 
is of importance in Ramachandrapuram, Cocanada, and Narasapur, but 
a disease which has attacked the canes during the past few years has 
caused a great contraction in its cultivation. A large area is under 
orchard and garden crops, chiefly in Amalapuram and Narasapur, where 
more than 32,000 acres are devoted to coco-nut plantations. Indigo, 
formerly cultivated on an extensive scale, is now practically confined to 
Amalapuram. Narasapur, with the gardens of Palakollu, stands unique 
in the cultivation of the Batavian orange and pummelo, introduced 
by the Dutch settlers. 

Taluk or Tahsil. 

Area shown 
in accounts. 





Agency Tract. 








Yellavaram . 






Chodavaram . 



t * • 












Tuni . 




Pithapurani . 




■ > • 

Peddapuram . 










Rajahmnndrj' . 






Amalapuram . 






Ellore . 






Yernagudem . 












Tanuku . 






Bhimavaram . 


2 38 









1,086 I 


During the last thirty years the cropped area has increased by more 
than 50 per cent, and now exceeds a million acres. In the District 
proper it is only in the northern part of Ellore and in the swamps 
bordering the Upputeru in the Western Delta that any considerable 
extent of arable land remains unoccupied. In the uplands, however, 
much is yearly left fallow for the sake of pasturage. Various attempts 
have been made from time to time to improve the industrial crops, but 
little perceptible influence has .so far been exercised. The area under 
valuable orchard and garden crops is, however, rapidly increasing. A 

\OI.. XII. U 


Government experimental farm has been started at Samalkot, and 
a nursery garden at Kadiam in the I'^astern Delta. Practically no 
advantage is taken of the Loans Acts in this District. 

There are no distinctive breeds of cattle. Mortality among stock is 
high in the delta, where the conditions })revent a large number being 
maintained, and in the cultivation season they are sent to the upland 
taluks to graze. In these latter large flocks of sheep and goats are 
kept ; but the Kurumba sheep, bred for the .sake of its wool in the 
villages round Ellore, is the only variety calling for remark. 

Of the total area of ryotwdri and inain lands under cultivation in 
1903-4, 1,086 square miles, or 62 per cent., were irrigated. The 
greater part of this (938 square miles) was supplied from Government 
canals, and almost all the remainder from tanks or artificial reservoirs. 
The canals are mainly those fed by the Godavari anient, a great 
masonry dam thrown across the Godavari river opposite Dowlaish- 
weram. A canal takes off from either flank, and a third, supplying the 
Central Delta, from the centre. The area commanded by the system 
is 1,980 square miles, of which 1,207 square miles are cultivable. The 
area actually irrigated at present is about 1,034 square miles; but in- 
cluding both first and second-crop cultivation, water was supplied to 
1,254 square miles in 1903-4. As the Godavari is independent of the 
local rainfall, the irrigated area fluctuates little from year to year. In 
the Ellore tahik there is a considerable area (about 20,000 acres) under 
the Kistna anient system. The number of tanks in repair in the 
District is 1,188. Of these, the most important are the chain in the 
Peddapuram tdhik and the Lingamparti tank, which latter irrigates 
5,000 acres. The little Yeleru river waters a large area, principally in 
the PiTHAPURAM Estate and the adjoining zavilndaris. The Yerra- 
kalva in Yernagudem and the Tammileru and Ramileru in Ellore are 
also utilized. Only 1,392 wells are used for irrigation. 

The forests of Godavari, owing to their diversity and the facility with 
which they can be exploited, are of great value. The District possesses 
952 square miles of actual 'reserved' forest and 76 
square miles of ' reserved ' land, the latter lying 
entirely within the Cocanada taluk. The forests proper are situated 
chiefly within the Agency limits. Here the destructive practice of 
shifting cultivation (j>odu) formerly caused great damage, and its results 
are very apparent in some localities. It has now been prohibited within 
* reserved ' forests ; but it is still permitted without check in the Rampa 
country, to which, for political reasons, the Forest Act has not been 

The principal * reserved ' forests are those of Bhadrachalam, Yella- 
varam, and Polavaram. The first named contains three ranges : 
Rekapalli, MarriL'udem, and Bhadrfichalam. Of these. R(>kapalli con- 

TA\inE jx/) co.]r.\ruxiCATioxs 291 

Uiins, as its doiiiinanl species, large (luanlilies of Xy/ia dolahrifonnis : 

and as ihc timber ran he sawn into sleepers and floated down the river 

direct to the railway, this growth is of great value. With Xylia are 

associated Teniii/m/ia, Pterocarpiis Jlfam/pii/m, Dalbergia /aiifolia, and 

bamboos. The principal tree in the Marrigudem range is teak, and in 

Bhadrachalam Hardwickia binata. The Yellavaram and Polavarani 

forests resemble generally those in the Rekapalli range. In the western 

part of the Agency, Diospyros nielanoxylon also flourishes. Myrabolams 

and tamarind are the principal items of minor produce. Along the 

coast are large tracts of mangrove swamp, and there are three casuarina 

plantations. The total revenue from forests in 1903-4 was about 

1 1 lakhs, and the expenditure about i lakh. A second District Forest 

officer has recently been appointed, with head-quarters at Kunavaram. 

Prospecting for coal has been carried on for some years in the Upper 

Gondwana belt, running from Bhadrachalam through Polavarani and 

Yernagudem to Ellore. Two outcrops of the Barakar 

stage occur, one at Ratsagampalle in Bhadrachalam 

and the other at Bedadanuku in Polavaram. At the former place 
mining was begun, but was stopped by an upthrow fault ; and the shaft, 
which was in the river bed, was found to lie beyond the limits of the 
Presidency. At the latter the outcrop extends over 5^ square miles, 
and forms the only coal-field lying entirely within Madras. No paying 
seam has, however, as yet been discovered. Graphite of a good quality 
is worked by the Godavari Coal Company at Perakonda in the Bhadra- 
chalam taluk, and the same mineral occurs in small quantities in several 
places in Chodavaram. Traces of old iron workings are to be found 
scattered throughout the Agency tract, and there are two small deposits 
of sulphur in the delta. 

Ellore is noted for its woollen carpets. The dyes and wool for these 
are prepared locally, and well-woven carpets of old design can still be 
obtained, though several of the weavers now work on 

European patterns for the big firms in London. ^^ ^. ^\ 

ry . communications. 

Coarse woollen blankets are made in several villages 

round Ellore, and at Undi in the Bhimavaram taluk. The fine cotton 

cloths for which the District was once famous are now made only at 

a few villages round Cocanada and PalakoUu. Coarse cotton cloths 

are, however, still woven at many places. 

The largest factory in the District is the sugar refinery and distillery 

at Samalkot, where the Deccan Sugar and Abkari Company employs 

520 persons daily. This factory has created a demand for jaggery 

(coarse sugar) made from the unfermented juice of the palmyra palm, 

and more than 400,000 trees in the District are tapped for toddy to be 

converted into this substance. There are rice-husking factories at 

Nllapalli, Nidadavolu, and Cocanada. Several small castor-oil factories 

u 2 


are at work at Cocanada, and two tanneries at Ellore. Cocanada also 
possesses a small iron foundry, and the Public Works department work- 
shops at Dowlaishweram employ a large number of hands. In the 
Amalapuram taluk are several indigo factories, the principal being at 
Ainavilli. Of the three salt factories in the District, one (at Cocanada) 
belongs to a private firm, while those at Penuguduru and Mogalturru 
are worked by Government. Three fish-curing yards also exist. A 
small cheroot factory has been opened at Cocanada. 

The exports from the District consist almost entirely of agricultural 
produce. The chief items are rice, other grain, tobacco, oilseeds, f^hl, 
coco-nuts, hides, and fruit. The natural outlet for this trade is the port 
of Cocanada, though the railways and canals have diverted an increas- 
ing proportion to other ports. In addition to these commodities, 
cotton, brought from the Deccan, figures largely in the exports from 
Cocanada. It is shipped principally to the United Kingdom, Belgium, 
and France. Rice goes chiefly to Ceylon and Mauritius, oilseeds to 
France, Burma, and the United Kingdom, and tobacco to Burma, where 
it is made up into cheroots. The total value of the export trade from 
Cocanada in 1903-4 was about 167 lakhs, of which 84 lakhs was sent to 
foreign countries. The imports in the same year were valued at 39 
lakhs. The principal are cotton twist and yarn, piece-goods, grain and 
pulses, kerosene oil, gunny-bags, and sugar. Cotton goods are imported 
coastwise or by canal and rail from Bombay and Madras, gunny-bags 
from Bengal, and kerosene oil from America. A prominent trading 
caste are the Marwaris, who are numerous at Rajahmundry and 
Ambajipeta, the old centres of trade. Ambajipeta used to be the great 
opium market of the District, and the Marwaris probably chose these 
towns as convenient places for disposing of that drug in exchange for 
cloth. Opium is still a noteworthy article of import, the annual con- 
sumption in this District being about 11 lb. per 1,000 of the population, 
compared with an average of i^lb. for the Presidency as a whole. As 
has been mentioned, it is used as a prophylactic against malaria. The 
retail trade of the District is largely in the hands of the Komatis. The 
chief centres of internal commerce are Rajahmundry, where there are 
large depots for the timber floated down the Godavari ; Ellore, Pala- 
koUu, and Ambajipeta. The last named is the centre of the coco-nut 
trade of the delta, and all these places carry on an extensive business 
with tracts beyond the District. There are also numerous weekly 
markets, at which retail trade is conducted. They are controlled by 
the local boards, which in 1903-4 derived an income of Rs. 32,000 
from the fees collected at them. The most important are those at 
Tuni, Jaggammapeta, and Pentapadu. At Draksharama, Ambajipeta, 
and Pithapuram large cattle fairs are held weekly. 

The East Coast section of the Madras Railway (standard gauge) 


enters the District about 10 miles west of Ellore, and running along 
the fringe of the delta crosses the Godavari river at Rajahmundry on 
one of the finest bridges in the Presidency. This work is built of steel 
girders laid on masonry piers, which are sunk from 48 to 100 feet 
below low-water level and stand 44^ feet above it. It has a total 
length of 9,000 feet, or over \\ miles, between abutments, and consists 
of 56 spans of 150 feet each. It was opened to trafific in 1900. From 
Rajahmundry the line runs on to Samalkot, where a branch 10 miles 
long takes off to Cocanada port, and thence north-eastwards until it 
leaves the District at Tuni on the Vizagapatam border. 

The total length of metalled roads is 918 miles, and of unmetalled 
roads 299 miles. Five miles of metalled roads are maintained by the 
Public Works department, and the remainder by the local boards. 
There are avenues of trees along 814 miles of them. The District 
proper is well supplied with metalled roads ; but in the Agency tract 
the only lines are those leading to Addatigala and Chodavaram, and 
a few miles in Polavaram. No tolls are levied along the roads, except 
in the municipalities. 

Most important means of communication are the 493 miles of 
navigable canals in the delta, and above the anicut the Godavari river 
itself, which affords the easiest approach to the interior. The canals 
are closed for clearance and repair for two months during the hot 
season every year. Ferry steamers ply from Rajalimundry to the 
opposite shore of the river, and up to Polavaram and across the river 
at Narasapur. 

Since the construction of the Godavari irrigation system, the District 

has been immune from severe famine. The last ^ 

. „ , ^ . o , ^ Famine. 

serious distress was m 1833, but ui 1896-7 a part 

of the Agency tract was affected. 

For administrative purposes the District proper is divided into four 

subdivisions, two of which are usually in charge of members of the 

Covenanted Service, and the others in charge of . , . . ^ . 

^ ,, rTM Lj- • • 1 7^ Administration. 

Deputy-Collectors. I hese subdivisions are Coca- 
nada, which comprises the taluks of Cocanada and Peddapuram and 
the zavfinddri tahslls of Pithapuram and Tuni ; Rajahmundry, com- 
prising the three idluks of Rajahmundry, Ramachandrapuram, and 
Amalapuram ; Ellore, comprising the three taluks of Ellore, Tanuku, 
and Yernagudem ; and Narasapur, comprising the Narasapur and 
Bhimavaram taluks. The Agency forms a fifth division, usually in 
charge of a European Deputy-Collector. It consists of the Bhadra- 
chalam taluk and the minor taluks of Yellavaram, Chodavaram, 

' Tlieir limits liave been changed since the alteration in the boundaries of tlie 
District above referred to, and the new distribution is given in the article on each 


and Polavaram. There is a iahs'ildar at the head-quarters of each 
tdhik, and, except at Bhadrachalam, a sub-magistrate also. In the 
minor tahiks the (\t\)\x\.y-tahs'ilddrs exercise both revenue and criminal 
jurisdiction. The superior staff consists of the usual officers, except 
that (owing to the importance of the public works in this District) 
there are three Executive Engineers, one in charge of each of the 
three Delta systems mentioned above ; and there are also two District 
Forest officers. 

For the administration of civil justice District Munsifs' courts are 
held at the head-quarters of every taluk, except Ramachandrapuram 
and Vernagudem, in the District proper. The District Judge sits at 
Rajahmundry, and a Sub-Judge at Cocanada. In the Agency tract, 
the tahsilddr of Bhadrachalam and the deputy-A7//.«A/<7/'.v have limited 
civil jurisdiction within their charges. From them appeals lie to the 
Agency Deputy-Collector, who himself tries the more important cases 
and is in turn subordinate to the Collector as Agent. Crime presents 
no salient features, but the total number of cases reported is higher 
than in any other District in the Presidency. This is specially notice- 
able as regards ordinary theft. Organized crime is attributable chiefly 
to a local tribe of Yanadis called Nakkalas, and to wandering gangs 
from the Ceded Districts. 

Under the Muhammadans the District, with the exception of the 
haveli land (or land in the vicinity of military posts required for the 
support of troops), was parcelled out into zaniJiiddris. The yearly rent 
from these was settled in an arbitrary manner, and the zamlnddrs 
had in theory no other claim to them but the favour and policy of their 
rulers. Cradually, however, they arrogated to themselves a proprietary 
and hereditary title, which, in spite of a brief period of dispossession 
under Asaf Jah, obtained recognition in the end. The zainhiddrs 
collected their revenues through agents or by sub-renting in their turn. 
'By ancient and original establishment' the cultivators were entitled 
to half the gross produce. Unless, however, fortunate enough to have 
obtained a grant as mokhdsa or indni, they had no right in the soil ; 
and after the customary fees had been paid and the rapacity of the 
zamlnddrs' servants satisfied, only a fifth share usually remained for 
them. At the time of harvest the crop was valued, threshed, and 
measured ; and the zamlnddr then took his share in money or grain. 

After the cession of the Northern Circars {Sarkdrs) no change was 
at first made in the mode of revenue administration. But soon some 
of the estates began to fall into Government possession, either through 
the rebellion of their owners or because the revenue on them was not 
paid. Such lands were as a rule rented out again by Covernment. 
In 1802-3 a permanent settlement on the model of that in Bengal was 
introduced. Bv this the estates of the zamlnddrs were conferred on 


them in perpetuity, subject to a pesJikash fixed at two-thirds of the 
estimated collections ; while the Government lands were divided into 
similar estates and sold to the highest bidder. From 1803 to 1844 the 
downfall of these proprietary estates rapidly progressed, till in the 
latter year a large part of the District had reverted to Government. 
The revenue systems then adopted for the Government lands were 
the asara and vlsabddi. The leading principle of the former was the 
ascertainment of the Government share by actual measurement ; of 
the latter, the imposition of a lump assessment on each village, the 
incidence on particular holdings being settled by the cultivators among 
themselves. These were superseded in 1846 by the joint revenue 
system, under which, when the annual demand on a \illage had been 
settled, there was no further interference on the part of Government, 
and the cultivators were jointly and severally responsible for the whole 

The completion of the Godilvari irrigation works rendered imperative 
the introduction of a more definite method for the realization of the 
land revenue. Accordingly in 1862 a field survey and settlement were 
commenced. These operations were completed in 1866, in which year 
the ryotivdri system was extended to practically the whole of the Dis- 
trict proper. In 1891 sanction was given for a resurvey, which was 
completed in 1896. A resettlement was also taken in hand in 1894 
and completed in 1899. ^Y '^'^^ latter the rates in the uplands were 
enhanced about one-third, without reclassification of the soils. In the 
delta a reclassification was made to permit the consolidation of the 
land tax and water rate, all land which had been continuously irrigated 
during the previous five years being classed as 'wet.' The result of the 
resettlement was an addition of 4I lakhs, or about 14 per cent., to 
the revenue from Government land. The average rates of assessment 
in the delta and the uplands for ' wet ' land are respectively Rs. 7-9-4 
and Rs. 4-10-2 per acre ; and for 'dry ' land Rs. 3-6-8 and R. 0-12-9. 

The course of events in the Rampa country and the Bhadrachalam 
taluk was different. A few villages in the Agency tract were settled 
in 1 899-1 900, but in Polavaram and Yellavaram the majority of them 
are still farmed out annually. In the Government villages of the 
Bhadrachalam taluk the hillmen used to pay 4 annas for the area one 
axe can clear, or about three acres, but now they pay 4 annas an acre. 

The revenue from land and the total revenue in recent years are 
given below, in thousands of ru[)ees : — 



1 900- 1. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 







Owing to the transfer of part of the District to Kistna, the land 
revenue demand is now about Rs. 43,20,000. 

Outside the three municipalities of Cocanada, Rajahniundry, and 
Ellore, local affairs are managed by the District board and the five 
td/i/k boards, the areas under which correspond respectively with those 
of the five administrative subdivisions mentioned above. The expendi- 
ture of these boards in 1903-4 was about 10 lakhs. More than half 
of this was laid out on the maintenance and construction of roads and 
buildings. The chief source of income is the land cess. Twenty-five 
of the smaller towns are managed by Union panchayats, constituted 
under Madras Act V of 1884. 

The District Superintendent of police has his head-quarters at Rajah- 
niundry. He has an Assistant Superintendent to help him. There are 
84 police stations in the District ; and the regular force, inclusive of 
a reserve of one inspector and 103 men, numbers 1,075, working under 
19 inspectors, besides 835 rural police. 

In addition to the Central jail at Rajahmundry there are 20 subsi- 
diary jails, which can collectively accommodate r86 male and 121 
female prisoners. 

In the matter of elementary education Godavari was the pioneer in 
the Madras Presidency, several villages having submitted to a voluntary 
cess for this purpose as early as 1855. Yet it now stands only sixteenth 
among the Districts as regards the literacy of its people. The per- 
centage of those able to read and write is little more than 4 (8 males 
and 0-7 females); and the Agency tract, where the percentage is 
less than 2, is naturally far more backward than the rest. But pro- 
gress in recent years has been considerable. In i88o~i the total 
number of pupils under instruction was 21,787 ; in 1890-1, 32,255 ; in 
1900-1, 52,258; and in 1903-4, 61,510. On March 31, 1904, there 
were 1,740 educational institutions in the District, of which 1,518 were 
classed as public and 222 as private. Of the former, 1,442 were primary, 
70 secondary, and 3 training schools ; and Arts colleges are maintained 
at Rajahmundry and Cocanada, and a training college at the former 
of these places. These institutions contained altogether 13,939 girls. 
Of the total, 37 were managed by the Educational department, 445 by 
local boards, and 22 by the municipalities ; while 586 were aided from 
public funds, and 428 were unaided but conformed to the rules of the 
department. As usual, the great majority of the pupils were in primary 
classes. This is specially marked in the case of female education. Of 
the male population of school-going age, 2 2 '6 per cent, were in the 
primary stage, and of the female 7-8 per cent. Among Muhammadans 
the corresponding percentages were 105-5 ^'^'^^ 34'7) ^^.r exceeding those 
in any other District. There were 308 schools for Panchamas, with 
4,661 pupils. These are maintained principally by the missionary bodies. 


The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,90,000, of 
which Rs. 1,62,000 was derived from fees. Of the total, 58 per cent, 
was devoted to primary instruction. 

The District possesses 10 hospitals and 20 dispensaries main- 
tained from Local funds, with accommodation for 163 in-patients. In 
1903 the number of cases treated was 310,114, of whom 1,936 were in- 
patients, and 8,520 operations were performed. The expenditure was 
Rs. 67,000, of which all but 6 per cent, was derived from Local and 
municipal funds. Of private institutions the most important is the 
Killock Home for Lepers, opened at Ramachandrapuram in 1900 by 
the Canadian Baptist Mission. It has now 70 inmates. 

During 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 
35" I per 1,000 of the population, or slightly above the average for the 
Presidency. Vaccination is compulsory in the three municipalities 
and in ten of the Unions. 

[Further particulars will be found in the District Manual by H. 
Morris (1878), and the District Gazetteer (1906).] 

Godavari River. — A great river of Southern India, which runs 
across the Deccan from the ^Vestern to the Eastern Ghats ; for sanctity, 
picturesque .scenery, and utility to man, surpassed only by the Ganges 
and the Indus ; total length about 900 miles ; estimated area of drain- 
age basin, 112,000 square miles. The source of the river is on the side 
of a hill behind the village of Trimbak, in Nasik District, Bombay, 
only about 50 miles from the shore of the Indian Ocean. At this 
spot is an artificial reservoir reached by a flight of 690 steps, into 
which the water trickles drop by drop from the lips of a carven image, 
shrouded by a canopy of stone. From first to last the general direction 
of the river is towards the south-east. It passes by Nasik town, and 
then separates Ahmadnagar District from the State of Hyderabad, its 
total course in the Bombay Presidency being about 100 miles. Above 
Nasik it flows along a narrow rocky bed, but farther east the banks are 
lower and more earthy. Fifteen miles below Nasik it receives, on the 
right, the Darna from the hills of Igatpuri, and 17 miles farther down, 
on the left, the Kadva from Dindori. At the latter confluence, at 
Nander, the stream is dammed for irrigation. Near Nevasa it receives 
on the right bank the combined waters of the Pravara and Mula, 
which rise in the hills of Akola, near Harischandragarh. 

After passing the old town of Paithan on its left bank, the Godavari 
now runs for a length of about 176 miles right across the Hyderabad 
State, receiving on its left bank the Purna, which flows in near Karar- 
kher in Parbhani District, and on the right the Manjra near Kondalwadi 
in Nander, while near Dharmsagar in the Chinnur tljluk of Adilabad 
District it receives, again on the right, the Maner. Below Sironcha it 
is joiiTed by the Pranhita, conveying the united waters of the ^^'ARDHA 


and Wainganga ; and from this point it takes a marked south-easterly 
bend, and for about 100 miles divides Chanda District and the Bastar 
l^'eudatory State of the Central Provinces from the Karimnagar and 
^\■arangal Districts of Hyderabad. Thirty miles below the confluence 
of the Pranhita, the Godavari receives the Indravati river from Bastar 
State and lower down the Tal. The bed of the Godavari where it 
adjoins the Central Provinces is broad and sandy, from one to two 
miles in width, and broken by rocks at only two points, called the First 
and Second Barriers, each about 15 miles long. In 1854 it was pro- 
posed to remove these barriers, and a third one on the Pranhita, with 
the object of making a waterway from the cotton-growing Districts of 
Nagpur and Wardha to the sea; but in 1871, after very considerable 
sums had been expended, the project was finally abandoned as im- 
practicable. One of the dams erected in connexion with this project 
still stands, with its locks and canal, at Dummagudem in the north of 
the Godavari District of Madras. Although the Godavari only skirts 
the Central Provinces, it is one of the most important rivers in their 
drainage system, as it receives through the Wardha and Wainganga 
the waters of a portion of the Satpura plateau and of the whole of 
the Nagpur plain. 

Some distance below Sironcha the Godavari leaves the Central Pro- 
vinces behind, and for a while forms the boundary between the Goda- 
vari District of the Madras Presidency and the Hyderabad State ; and 
in this part of its course it is joined on the left bank by a considerable 
tributary, the Sabari. Thence it flows to the sea through the centre of 
the old Godavari District, which has recently been divided, mainly by 
the course of the river, into the two Districts of Godavari and Kistna. 
At the beginning of its course along Madras territory, the river flows 
placidly through a flat and somewhat monotonous country, but shortly 
afterwards it begins to force its way through the Eastern Ghats and a 
sudden change takes place. The banks become wild and mountainous, 
the stream contracts, and at length the whole body of the river pours 
through a narrow and very deep passage known as ' the Gorge,' on 
either side of which the picturesque wooded slopes of the hills rise 
almost sheer from the dark water. Once through the hills, the river 
again opens out and forms a series of broad reaches dotted with low 
alluvial islands {lankas), which are famous for the tobacco they produce. 
The current here is nowhere rapid. At Rajahmundry, where the river 
is crossed by the East Coast line of the Madras Railway on a bridge 
more than i\ miles in length, it varies from 4 to 1 1 feet a second. In 
floods, however, the Godavari brings down an enormous volume of 
\vater, and embankments on both of its banks are necessary to prevent 
it from inundating the surrounding country. 

A few miles below Rajahmundry the river divides into two main 


streams, the Gautami Godavari on the east and the Vasishta Godavari 
on the west, which run down to the sea through a wide alluvial delta 
formed in the course of ages by the masses of silt which the river has 
here deposited. It is in this delta that the waters of the Godavari 
are first utilized on any considerable scale for irrigation. At Dowlaish- 
weram, above the bifurcation, a great ' anient ' or dam has been thrown 
across the stream, and from this the whole delta area has been irrigated. 
See Godavari Canals. 

The Godavari is navigable for small boats throughout the Godavari 
District. Vessels get round the anicut by means of the main canals, of 
which nearly 500 miles are also navigable, and which connect with the 
navigable canals of the Kistna delta to the south. Above the anicut 
there are several steamboats belonging to Government ; but, as already 
obser\ed, the attempts to utilize the Upper Godavari as an important 
waterway have proved a failure. 

The coast of the Godavari delta was the scene of some of the earliest 
settlements of Europeans in India, the Dutch, the English, and the 
French having all established factories there. The channels of the river 
which led to these have now greatly silted up. The little French 
settlement of Yanam still remains, but the others — Bandamurlanka, 
Injaram, Madapollam, and Palakollu -now retain none of their former 

The peculiar sacredness of the Godavari is said to have been revealed 
by Rama himself to the rishi Gautama. The river is sometimes called 
Goda, and the sacred character especially attaches to the Gautami 
mouth. According to popular legend, it proceeds from the same 
source as the Ganges, by an underground passage ; and this identity is 
preserved in the familiar name of Vriddha-Ganga. But every part of 
its course is holy ground, and to bathe in its waters will wash away the 
blackest sin. The great bathing festival, called I'ushkaram, celebrated 
in different years on the most sacred rivers of India, is held every 
twelfth year on the banks of the Godavari at Rajahmundry. The spots 
most frequented by pilgrims are — the source at Trimbak ; the town of 
Bhadrachalam on the left bank, about 100 miles above Rajahmundry, 
where stands an ancient temple of Ramachandra, surrounded by twenty- 
four smaller pagodas ; Rajahmundry itself; and the village of Kotipalli, 
on the left bank of the eastern mouth. 

Godavari Canals.— The head of the delta of the Godavari is at 
Dowlaishweram, in Godavari District, Madras, 40 miles as the crow 
flies from the Bay of Bengal. At this point the river bifurcates into two 
main streams, the Gautami Godavari on the east and the Vasishta 
Godavari on the west, which flow through a wide fan-shaped area of 
alluvial soil, cutting it into three i)ortions called respectively the Eastern, 
Westeln, and Central Deltas, the land in which falls gradually to the 


sea at the rate of about a foot a mile. Above the bifurcation a great 
masonry dam has been thrown across the main stream, and from this 
are led to the three deltas irrigation canals which branch and branch 
again so as to command every portion of them. The proposal thus 
to utilize the water of the river for irrigation was taken in hand by 
Sir Arthur (then Major) Cotton in 1845, and begun under his super- 
vision in 1847. The work was practically completed in two years. It 
consists of a dam running straight across the river, composed of four 
sections, connected by islands in the bed of the stream, which are alto- 
gether 3,982 yards, or 2^ miles, in length. The dam is formed of two 
parallel walls, 42 feet apart from centre to centre, which are built on 
brick wells. The upper wall is i o feet high and the lower 7 feet ; and 
the intervening space is filled in with sand covered by a rubble masonry 
apron, 20 feet of which is horizontal and the remainder curved to meet 
the lower wall. The top of this apron is faced with cut stone, and along 
the crest are automatic iron shutters 2 feet high. Below the lower wall 
is a loose stone apron 150 to 250 feet wide. 

Three separate canal systems take off from this dam— one on either 
flank and one in the centre for the Central Delta. Together, these sup- 
ply water to 662,000 acres and comprise 493 miles of main canals, which 
are all navigable, and 1,929 miles of smaller distributary channels. 
The capital cost of all the delta works to the end of 1903-4 has been 
135 lakhs, and the gross revenue in that year was 2,2, lakhs. Deducting 
working expenses, the net revenue due to the scheme returns a profit of 
between 17 and 18 per cent, on the capital outlay. Next to the dam, 
the most important engineering work in the system is the Gunnavaram 
aqueduct, which extends the irrigation and navigation systems of the 
Central Delta across a branch of the river called the Vainateyam Goda- 
vari to the Nagaram island on the seaward face of the delta. Full 
particulars of the whole scheme will be found in Mr. G. T. A\'alch's 
Engi fleering Works of the Goddvari Delta {M^idx'd^, 1896). 

Godda Subdivision. — Subdivision of the Santal Parganas District, 
Bengal, lying between 24° 30' and 25° 14' N. and 87° 3' and 87° 36' E., 
with an area of 967 square miles. The subdivision comprises two 
distinct portions : to the west and south is a hilly country with rolling 
uplands covered with rock and jungle, and to the east is an alluvial 
plain of great natural fertility. Its population in 1901 was 390,323, 
compared with 384,971 in 1891. It contains 1,274 villages, one of 
which, GoDDA, is the head-quarters ; but no town. In the east the 
subdivision, which has a density of 404 persons per square mile, con- 
tains part of the sparsely inhabited Daman-i-koh Government estate, 
but the Mahagama and Godda thdnas to the west form one of the most 
fertile and densely populated tracts in the District. 

Godda Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 


name in ilie Santal Parganaii District, Bengal, situated in 24° 50' N. 
and 87° 17' E. Population (1901), 2,208. 

Godhra Taluka. — Northern tdluka of the western portion of Panch 
Mahals District, Bombay, lying between 22° 42' and 23° d' N. and 
73° 22' and 73° 58' E., with an area of 585 square miles. It has 
one town, Godhra (population, 20,915), the head-quarters; and 225 
villages. The population in 1901 was 96,406, compared with 107,567 
in 1891, the decrease being due to famine. The density, 165 persons 
per square mile, is nearly equal to the District average. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 92,000. The taluka is 
chiefly a roughly tilled plain, covered with brushwood and forest ; but to 
the north its surface is broken by patches and peaks of granite rock. 
The westerly portion is well wooded and well tilled. The climate is 
unhealthy. The annual rainfall averages 40 inches. The Mahi and 
the Panam flow through the taluka. Maize is the staple of cultivation. 

Godhra Town. — Head-quarters of the idluka of the .same name in 
Panch Mahals District, Bombay, and also head-quarters of the District, 
situated in 22" 46' N. and 73° 37' E., on the Godhra-Ratlam Railway, 
319 miles from Bombay. Population (1901), 20,915; Hindus number 
10,028, Muhammadans 10,083, ^'""d Jains 635. Formerly it was the 
residence of a provincial governor under the Muhammadan kings of 
Ahmadabad. Godhra is now the head-quarters of the Rewa Kantha 
Political Agency, which was transferred from Baroda to the Collector 
of the Panch Mahals in 1880. The Godhra municipality, constituted 
in 1876, had an average income of Rs. 19,000 during the decade end- 
ing 1 90 1. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 20,104. There are two 
tanneries doing a moderate business. Godhra is the centre of the 
trade in timber and firewood extracted from the forests of the District 
and neighbouring States, and exported to the rest of Gujarat. Near 
the town is an embanked lake 70 acres in area. The town contains 
a Sub-Judge's court, a civil hospital, and an English high school with 
154 pupils; also 5 vernacular schools for boys and 2 for girls, w-ifh 
194 and 315 pupils respectively. 

Godna. — Town in Saran District, Bengal. See Revelganj. 

Gogha. — Town in the Dhandhuka tdluka of Ahmadabad District, 
Bombay, situated in 21° \\' N. and 72° 17' E., in the peninsula 
of Kathiawar, on the Gulf of Cambay, 193 miles north-west of Bom- 
bay City. Population (1901), 4,798. About three-quarters of a mile 
east of the town is an excellent anchorage, in some measure sheltered 
by the island of Piram, which lies still farther east. It appears to have 
been known as the port of Gundigar in the days of the Vallabhi king- 
dom, and was mentioned by Friar Jordanus in 1321 as Caga. The 
natives of this town are reckoned the best sailors or lascars in India ; 
and stiips touching here may procure water and supplies, or repair 


tlamages. The roadstead is a safe lefuge during the south-west mon- 
soon, or for vessels that have parted from their ancliors in the Surat 
roads, the bottom being a uniform bed of mud, and the water always 
smooth. There is a lighthouse on the south side of the entrance, 
visible for lo miles, ^^'hen the Dutch raised Surat to be the chief port 
of Gujarat, the Cambay ports were more or less injured. Gogha has of 
late years lost its commercial importance. During the American Civil 
War it was one of the chief cotton marts of Kathiawar. It is now 
deserted, its cotton-presses idle, and its great storehouses ruinous and 
empty. Its rival, Bhaunagar, is 1 1 miles nearer to the cotton districts, 
and has the advantage of railway communication. North of the town 
is a black salt marsh, extending to the Bhaunagar creek. On the other 
sides undulating cultivated land slopes to the range of hills, 12 miles 
off. South of the town is another salt marsh. The land in the neigh- 
bourhood is inundated at high spring-tides, which renders it necessary 
to bring fresh water from a distance of a mile. The town contains 
a Sub-Judge's court, a dispensary, and four boys' schools, of which one 
is an English middle school with 18 pupils and three are vernacular 
schools with 230 pupils, including one girl. The municipality, estab- 
lished in 1855, had an average income during the decade ending igoi 
of Rs. 4,000. In 1903-4 its income was Rs. 5,800. The sea-borne 
trade of Gogha in 1903-4 was valued at Rs. 1,87,000: exports, 
Rs. 81,000; imports, Rs. 1,06,000. 

Gogra {Ghdgra ; Skt. ghai-gJiara^^^ \M\X\ng' or 'laughter'; other 
names, Sarju or Sarayti (the Sarabos of Ptolemy), and in the lower part 
of its course Deoha or Dehwa). — The great river of Oudh. Rising in 
Tibet (30° 40' N. and 80° 48' E.), it flows through Nepal under the 
name Karnali or Kauriala, piercing the Himalayas at ShTsha PanT, 
and shortly after throws off a branch to the east called the Girwa, 
which now brings down the main stream. The Kauriala enters British 
territory between Kherl and Bahraich, and forms the boundary between 
those Districts. It receives the Girwa not many miles from the border, 
and just below this the Suhell, one of the three branches of the Sarda. 
llie main branch of the Sarda, called Dahawar, joins it at Mallanpur, 
a few miles below Katai Ghat, near which place the Sarju is received. 
The Sarju formerly joined the Gogra in Gonda, but early in the nine- 
teenth century a European timber merchant diverted its course into an 
old bed. At Bahramghat a third branch of the Sarda, named Chauka, 
adds to its volume, and from this point the united stream is regularly 
called Gogra or Sarju, though these names are sometimes applied at 
Mallanpur, From the name Sarju is derived the appellation of an im- 
portant tribe of Brahmans called Sarwaria, a contraction of Sarjuparia, 
meaning those who ' dwell beyond ' (i. e. on the north side of) the Sarju. 
The Gogra now turns east and divides (ionda on its north bank from 


Pnira Banki and Fyzabad on the south. After passing Ajodhya city, it 
separates BastI and Gorakhpur from Fyzabad, and then from Azamgarh 
and BalHa, and receives the Rapt! and Little Gandak from the north. 
After being joined by the Chauka it receives little drainage from the 
right bank, and is in fact higher than the valley of the Gumti which lies 
south of it. In Azamgarh a branch is given off, called the Chhoti 
(' lesser ') Sarjii, which was apparently an old bed of the river, and joins 
the Ganges after a long course through Azamgarh, GhazTpur, and Ballia. 
East of Gorakhpur District the Gogra forms the boundary between 
Saran District of Bengal and Ballia District of the United Provinces 
for about 40 miles. It falls into the Ganges in 25° 44' N. and 84° 42' E. 

The Kauriala and Girwa are both navigable for a short distance 
before entering British territory ; and until the opening of the Bengal 
and North-^Vestern Railway, within the last twenty years, trade on the 
Gogra was of great importance. Many years ago a pilot service existed 
for a short time, and steamers plied as far as Bahramghat in Bara Bank! 
District. The traffic is still considerable, and large quantities of timber, 
grain, and spices come down from Nepal, or are carried in the lower 
reaches. At Bahramghat saw-mills used to be worked by the Forest 
department, but have recently been sold. The most important place 
on the banks of the river is Fyzabad, with Ajodhya, the sacred birth- 
place of Rama, adjoining it. Tanda in Fyzabad and Barhaj in Gorakh- 
pur are also towns of some size, engaged in trade. The chief mart on 
the banks of the Gogra in Bengal is Revelganj in Saran District. The 
trade of Nawabganj in Gonda, which stands some miles from the river, 
is now largely carried by rail. River steamers from Patna ply as high 
as Ajodhya, calling at many places and competing with the railways for 
both goods and passenger traffic. 

The river is spanned by two fine railway bridges : the Elgin Bridge 
near Bahramghat (3,695 feet long), and a bridge at Turtipar (3,912 feet). 
The variability of its course is shown by the method of construction of 
the first-named bridge, which was built on dry land, the river being then 
trained under it. The height above sea-level is 350 feet at Bahramghat 
and 193 feet at Turtipar; and the flood discharges are 877,000 and 
1,111,000 cubic feet per second respectively. At Ajodhya a bridge of 
boats is maintained, except during the rains, when a steamer plies. 
Another important ferry is at 1 )ohrIghat on the road from Azamgarh 
to Gorakhpur. 

Gogunda. — Chief town of an estate of the same name in the State 
of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 24° 46' N. and 73° 32' E., in the 
Aravalli Hills, 2,757 feet above the sea, about 16 miles north-west of 
Udaipur city. Population (1901), 2,463. The estate, which consists 
of 75 villages, is held by one of the first-class nobles of Mewar, who is 
styled -Raj. He is a jhala Rajput and descended from the Dei.wara 


house. The income of the estate is about Rs. 24,000, and a tribute 
of Rs. 2,040 is paid to the Darbar. 

Gohad. — Town in the Tonwarghar district of (IwaHor State, Central 
India, situated in 26° 26' N. and 78° 27' E. Population (1901), 5,343. 
The town dates from the beginning of the eighteenth century, when it 
was seized by the Jat family whose descendants now rule at Dholpur. 
From 1707 to 1739, however, it was held by the Bhadauria Rajputs, hut 
was recovered by Rana Bhim Singh in the latter year. The Rana in 
1779 concluded a treaty with the British by which he was confirmed 
in possession of this place, while by the fourth article of the Treaty of 
Salbai Sindhia was bound not to molest him. The Rana, however, 
soon failed in carrying out the terms of his treaty ; and on the with- 
drawal of our support Gohad was seized by Mahadji Sindhia in 1784. 
Sindhia placed AmbajT Inglia in charge, who in 1803 concluded a treaty, 
without reference to Sindhia, surrendering Gohad to the British. The 
Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon with Sindhia in the same year left it uncertain 
whether Gohad should be restored to Sindhia, and it was made over 
to the Rana in 1804. Lord Cornwallis, on succeeding as Governor- 
General in 1805, reversed this policy and, under a treaty concluded 
in that year, withdrew his support of the Rana. Sindhia at once seized 
the fort, which has since remained a part of Gwalior. 

The town stands on the right bank of the Vaisali river, a tributary 
of the Sind, and is surrounded by three walls, within the innermost 
of which stands a massive fort. The latter was built by the Jat chief 
Rana Bhim Singh in 1739, and contains a large palace built by Rana 
Chhatrapati Singh, now used as an office, and several other buildings, 
all profusely covered with carving, which is, however, of no great merit. 
To the south of the palace is a large tank, the Lachman Tal, with 
a small temple in the centre. A school, a resthouse, and a police 
station are situated in the town. 

Gohana Tahsil. — Tahsil of Rohtak District, Punjab, lying between 
28° 57' and 29° 17" N. and 76° 29' and 76° 52' E., with an area of 336 
square miles. The population in 1901 was 147,295, compared with 
138,555 in 1891. It contains the three towns of Gohana (population, 
6,567), its head-quarters, Barauda (5,836), and Butana (7,509) ; and 
78 villages, including Mundlana (5,657). The land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-6 lakhs. The tahsil is flat and well 
wooded, and ample means of irrigation are available. 

Gohana Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name in 
Rohtak District, Punjab, situated in 29*^ 8' N. and 76° 42' E., on the 
Western Jumna Canal, 20 miles north of Rohtak town. Population 
(1901), 6,567. The town is .said to have been the site of a fort belong- 
ing to Prithwl Raj, afterwards destroyed by Muhammad of Ghor. 
A yearly fair is held here at the shrine of Shah Zia-ud-din Muhammad, 

GONNA 305 

a saint who accompanied Miihamniatl of Ghor to India. There are 
also two temples in honour of the Jain Arhat Parasnath, at which an 
annual festival takes place. The municipality was created in 1873. 
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 9,300, 
and the expenditure Rs. 9,500. The income in 1903-4 amounted to 
Rs. 8,300, chiefly derived from octroi, and the expenditure to Rs. 8,200. 
The town is of no commercial importance. The municipality maintains 
a dispensary and an Anglo-vernacular middle school. 

Gohelwar {Gohikvad).--~Prant or division of Kathiawar, Bombay. 
It takes its name from the Gohel Rajputs who own the greater part, and 
includes, among others, the chiefships of Bhaunagar and Palitana. 
It lies along the Gulf of Cambay, with an area of 4,210 square miles. 
The population in 1901 was 581,079. The revenue in 1903-4 amounted 
to Rs. 55,-7,787- 

Gohna {Gai/nd). — A lake of recent formation situated near the 
small village of the same name in the Garhwal District of the United 
Provinces, in 30° 22' N. and 79° 29' E. Towards the end of the rains 
in 1893 two landslips took place on the right bank of the Birahl GangS, 
a tributary of the Alaknanda {see Ganges). The side of a steep hill, 
towering 4,000 feet above the level of the stream, crashed down into 
the valley, hurling large blocks of limestone against the opposite cliff to 
the distance of a mile in places, and forming a dam more than two 
miles long at the base and one-third of a mile along the top, which 
completely blocked the valley to a height (jf 850 to 900 feet. It has 
been estimated that the dam contained 9 billion cubic feet of dolomite 
.ind detritus, weighing 800 million toiis. Special arrangements were 
successfully made to avoid the damage to life and property to be 
expected when the water should reach the top of this dam and com- 
mence to cut it away. The pilgrim road to the shrines in the Upper 
Himalayas lies close along the line of escape, and bridges were dis- 
mantled and diversions constructed. At Hard war it was necessary to 
protect the head-works of the Ganges Canal. In December, 1893, the 
area of the lake was about one scjuare mile and its depth 450 feet. By 
July, 1894, the lake had become a large sheet of water, nearly 4 miles 
long and half a mile broad, and the level of the water had risen nearly 
170 feet, while percolation was freely taking place. A month later the 
water was rising about 4 feet a day, and on the morning of August 25 
water began to trickle over the dam, which was rapidly cut away. It 
was found next day that the level of the lake had fallen 390 feet, leaving 
a stretch of water 3,900 yards long with an average bre;idth of 400 
yards. The depth near the dam was 300 feet, and the bed had already 
silted up about 85 feet. Immediately below the dam the flood rose 280 
feet, but its height rapidly decreased as the channels of the rivers which 
carried "it off widened. At Rudraprayag, 51 miles away, the rise was 

vol.. XII. X 


140 feet : at lieasghat, yij miles, 88 feet; ami at Hardwar, 149 miles, 
only II ur 12 feet. The total damage caused to public property was 
valued at more than Rs. 95,000, but no lives were lost except those of 
five persons who insisted on remaining just below the dam. At Hard- 
war the head-works of the Ganges Canal were slightly damaged, but 
beyond this point the flood had no appreciable effect. The outlet of 
the lake now appears to have a stable bed. 

\Seleitions from Records, Government of India, Public Works Depart- 
ment, No. CCCXX/K] 

Gojra. — Town in the Toba Tek Singh ta/isii of the new Lyallpur 
District, Punjab, situated in 31° 9" N. and 72° 42' E., 20 miles north of 
the /«/^«/ head-quarters. Population (1906), 2,589. The business done 
in this rising mart on the railway, which has sprung into existence in 
the last six years owing to the extension of the Chenab Canal to the 
surrounding country, bids fair to rival in importance that of Lyallpur 
itself. The town contains two cotton-ginning factories^ one cotton- 
press, one combined ginning and pressing factory, and one combined 
ginning factory and flour-mill. The total number of hands employed 
in 1904 was 250. It is administered as a 'notified area.' 

Gokak Taluka. — Eastern tdluka of Belgaum District, Bombay, 
lying between 15° 57' and 16° 30' N. and 74° 38' and 75° 18' E., with 
an area of 671 square miles. It contains one town, Gok.^k (population, 
9,860), the head-quarters; and 113 villages, including Konnur (5,667). 
The population in 1901 was 116,127, compared with 118,556 in 
1891. The density, 173 persons per square mile, is below the District 
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-5 lakhs, and for 
cesses Rs. 13,000. Gokak has the worst climate in Belgaum, being 
malarious during the cold months and oppressive during the hot season. 
In the monsoon, however, it is pleasant, and free from the excessive rains 
of Belgaum town, the average fall being 25 inches. The sandstone hills 
in Gokak intercept the monsoon showers from the west, rendering the 
plain beyond especially liable to drought. The two sections of the 
Gokak Canal irrigate about 28 square miles. The source of supply is 
from the Ghatprabha river, on which are situated the famous Gokak 

Gokak Town. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name in 
Belgaum District, Bombay, situated in 16'^ 10' N. and 74"" 49' E., 
8 miles from Gokak Road station on the Southern Mahratta Railway. 
Population (1901), 9,860. The town was formerly the seat of a large 
dyeing and weaving industry, not yet extinct, and was also known for 
its manufacture of toys representing figures and fruits, made of light 
wood and of a particular earth found in the neighbourhood. The 
municipality, established in 1853, had an average income of Rs. 12,500 
during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 8,500. 

GOT. A 307 

A fort, standing on an isolated peak behind the tcjwn, is said to have 
been built by one of the Adil Shahi Sultans of Bijapur. The earliest 
mention of Gokak is probably as Gokage, which occurs in an inscrip- 
tion dated 1047. In 1685 the town was the head-quarters of a district 
or sarkdr. Between 171 7 and 1754 it fell to the Nawabs of Savanur, 
who built the mosque and Ganji Khana. In 1836, on the death of 
Govind Rao Patvardhan, the town and ialitka lapsed to the British. 
The town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a dispensary, a 
municipal English school, and five other schools with 427 pupils, of 
which one with 25 pupils is a girls' school. 

.Vbout 2)\ niiles north-west of Gokak town and 3 miles from Dhupdal 
station on the Southern Mahratta Railway are the Gokak Falls, where 
the Ghatprabha takes a mighty leap of 170 feet over a sandstone cliff 
into a picturesque gorge. In the monsoon the falls well repay a 
visit. On the right bank of the river close to the falls is a cotton- 
mill, established in 1887. The mill employs daily 2,038 hands, 
and produces annually 17,000,000 lb. of yarn and 2,000,000 lb. of 
cloth. To supply motive power, as well as for irrigation purposes, 
the Gokak storage works were constructed in 1889- 1902, whereby 
907,000,000 cubic feet of water are impounded. The cost of the 
works was 17 lakhs. 

Gokalpura. — Petty State in MahI Kantha, Bombay. 

Gokarn. — Town in the Kumta tCxhika of North Kanara District, 
Bfjmbay, situated in 14° 32' N. and 74° 19' E., 10 miles north of 
Kumta town. Population (1901), 4,834. Gokarn is a place of pilgrim- 
age frequented by Hindu devotees from all parts of India, especially by 
wandering pilgrims and ascetics who go round the principal shrines of 
the country. The Mahabaleshwar temple here is built in the Dravidian 
style, and is famed as containing a fragment of the original liiigain 
given to Ravana by Siva — one of the twelve famous lingaiiis of all 
India. Upwards of a hundred lamps are kept perpetually alight from 
funds supplied by devotees. A fair is held annually in February, at 
which from 2,000 to 8,000 people assemble. Gokarn is mentioned in 
both the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The municipality, established 
in 1870, had an average income during the decade ending 1901 of 
Rs. 1,300. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 1,600. Besides the great 
temple of Mahabaleshwar, twenty smaller shrines, thirty iiiigaiiis, and 
thirty holy bathing-places are held in special reverence by Smartas and 

Gola. — Town in the Bansgaon tahsll of Gorakhpur District, United 
Provinces, situated in 26° 21' N. and 83° 21' E., on the left bank of 
the Gogra. Population (1901), 4,944. The town is one of the most 
important in the south of the District, but its trade has suffered from 
the competition of Barhaj, which is now on the railway. Potatoes 

X 2 

3o8 GOLA 

are largely ciiltivatedin the neighbourhood. Ciolri is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,200. It contains 
a town school with 112 pupils, and a girls' school with 22. 

Gola. — Town in the IMuhamdi tahsll of Kherl District, United Pro- 
vinces, situated in 28° 5' N. and 80° 28' E., on the Lucknow-Bareilly 
State Railway. Population (1901), 4,913- The place is of great 
antitjuity, and carvings and terra-cotta figures of Buddhist types have 
V)een found in the neighbourhood. It is picturesquely situated near 
a sal forest. To the east lies the celebrated temple of Gokarannath, 
round which are situated many smaller temples, dharmsalas, and 
monasteries inhabited by gosaiiis. The temple is esteemed one of 
the most sacred in the whole of Oudh, and contains a ////;'«;//, of which 
several tales are told. It is said to have been brought by Ravana, 
king of Ceylon. Aurangzeb attempted to pull it up with chains and 
elephants ; but flames burst forth, and the eni[)eror was induced to 
endow the shrine. Gola is one of the chief trading centres in the 
District, and grain and sugar are exported in considerable (juantities. 
The town contains a branch of the American Methodist Mission, 
a dispensary, and a school with 90 pupils. 

Golaghat Subdivision.— The most westerly subdivision of Sibsagar 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 25*^ 49' and 26'' 55' 
N. and 93° 3' and 94° 11^ E., with an area of 3,015 square miles. The 
eastern portion is a level plain, which supports over 200 persons per 
square mile. Rice is grown on the low land, and tea and sugar-cane on 
land which is too high for rice. West of Golaghat town there is com- 
paratively little population. The ui)per valley of the Dhansiri is for 
the most i)art covered with dense jungle, and north of this river lie 
the forest-clad Mikir Hills. The density for the whole subdivision 
is thus only 55 persons per square mile, compared with 120 for the 
District as a whole. The population in 1901 was 167,068, or nearly 
20 per cent, more than in 1891 {139,203). The subdivision contains 
one town, Golaghat (population, 2,359), '^hc head-quarters ; and 792 
villages. The annual rainfall at Golaghat averages 82 mches, but 
at Dimapur, on the southern border, less than 60 inches. The tea 
industry has contributed to the development of the subdivision. In 
1904 there were 47 gardens, with 20,324 acres under plant, which gave 
employment to 45 Europeans and 23,883 natives. In the Mlklr Hills 
and the Dhansiri valley are extensive forest Reserves, whi<-h in 1903-4 
covered an area of 780 square miles. The assessment for land revenue 
and local rates in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,18,000. 

Golaghat Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Sibsagar District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 
26" 31' N. and 93° 59' E., on the right bank of the Dhansiri river. 
The town had a population in 1901 of 2,359, and is adnunislered as 

GO I. CO.XDA 309 

a Union under (IJengal) Act V of 1876, the expenditure in 1903-4 
amounting to about Rs. 6,000." There is a flourishing ba/.ar, tlie 
principal shops in which are owned by Marwari merchants, who do 
a large business with the tea gardens in the neighbourhood. The 
chief articles of export are cotton, which is brought down by the Nagas, 
mustard seed, and molasses. The chief imports are cotton piece- 
goods, grain and pulse, kerosene and other oils, and salt. During 
the rains feeder-steamers come up the Dhansiri as far as (lolaghal, 
but in the dry season the nearest steamer ghat is at Shikarighat, rS 
miles away. The nearest railway station is at Kamarband Ah, about 
8 miles south of the town. The Subdivisional Officer is almost in- 
variably a European. Besides the usual offices, Golaghal has a small 
jail, a dispensary with fourteen beds, and a high school under private 

Golconda. — Fortress and ruined city in the Atraf-i-balda District of 
Hyderabad State, situated in 17° 23' N. and 78^ 24' E., 5 miles west 
of Hyderabad city. The fort was originally constructed by the Raja of 
W'arangal, who ceded it in 1364, together with its dependencies, to 
Muhammad Shah Bahmani of (lulburga. For a time it was known as 
Muhammadnagar. In 15 12 the place passed from the Rahmanis to the 
Kutb Shahis, who had their capital here till the foundation of Hyder- 
abad. In 1687 the city was taken by Aurangzeb after a siege of eight 
months, and the last of the Kutb Shahis was deported to Daulatabad. 
The fortress, which is situated on a rocky ridge of granite, is extensive, 
and contains many enclosures. It is surrounded by a strong crenel- 
lated stone wall, over 3 miles in circumference, with 87 bastions at the 
angles ; some of these still contain large pieces (jf ordnance bearing 
Persian inscriptions. Inside the walls are ruins of numerous palaces, 
mosques, and dwellings, scattered everywhere, while the citadel or 
bala hisar is in good preservation. There are eight gates to the fort, of 
which four are now in use. The moat which surrounds the fort is 
choked with rubbish in most places. About half a mile to the north 
of the fort are the tombs of the Kutb Shahi kings. These buildings, 
though constructed of granite, have suffered from the ravages of time 
and the damage done by the siege guns of Aurangzeb, while the 
enamelled tiles which once adorned them have been stolen. In shape 
the tombs are oblong or square, the lower portion being an arcade of 
pointed arches on a raised terrace, and the whole crowned by a dome. 
The actual sarcophagus is usually of black basalt or greenstone, beauti- 
fully carved. Golconda is now garrisoned by a few Arabs and by the 
Golconda Brigade, consisting of a battery and one regiment each of 
cavalry and inftmtry. The river Musi flows south of the fort. In Eng- 
lish literature Golconda has given its name lo the diamonds which were 
found "at many places within the dominions of the Kutb Shahi dynasty. 

;,io COL COX J) A 

There are no diamond mines within the immediate neigliboiirhood of 
Golconda itself. 

Gold Fields. — Municipal area in Kolar District, Mysore. See Kolar 
Gold Imklds. 

Goler. — Estate in the Dera /ahsil of Kangra District, Punjab, with 
an area of 25 square miles. Legend says that Hari Chand, the Katoch 
Raja of Kangra, fell into a dry well when hunting. He was missed by 
his companions, and believed to have been killed, so his heir was 
proclaimed king. When rescued from the well Hari Chand could not 
reclaim his throne, but he founded Haripur as the capital of a separate 
principality, called Goler. Under Shah Jahan, Raja Rup Chand was 
employed in subduing a Katoch rebellion ; and under Akbar, Kunwar 
Man Singh and his son Jagat Singh played a great part, the fief of 
Kabul being bestowed on the former in 1585. Under the Sikhs, Raja 
Bhiip Singh was at first an ally of Ranjit Singh against the Katoch 
kings, but in 181 2 his territory was confiscated. On the British annex- 
ation, his son, Shamsher Singh, obtained a Jdglr of 20 villages. This 
grant is now held by his nephew, Raja Raghunath Singh, and its 
revenue amounts to about Rs. 26,000. 

Golgonda. — Taluk in the south-west of Vizagapatam District, 
Madras, lying between 17° 22' and 18° 4' N. and 82° and 82*" 50' E., 
with an area of 1,263 square miles (of which 738 square miles are in 
the Agency tract). The population in 1901 included 123,507 persons 
in the ordinary and 33,929 in the Agency tract: total, 157,436, com- 
pared with 147,841 in 1 89 1. The head-quarters are at Narasapatnam 
(population, 10,589), and there are 517 villages. The demand for land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,02,000. The Agency part 
of the taluk is exceedingly hilly and is situated on both slopes of the 
Ghats, the drainage of the northern part passing into the Machkund 
river and thence to the Godavari. The hills are, as a rule, covered 
with fine forests, and considerable areas of these (about 260 square 
miles) have been ' reserved,' forming the most important of the Govern- 
ment forests in the District. The taluk was one of the sixteen ancient 
zawhidan's which existed in Vizagapatam at the time of the permanent 
settlement, the zami/idar being a relation and feudatory of the Jeypore 
Raja ; but disturbances arose caused by the incapacity of the zami/idar, 
and in 1837 the estate was sold at auction for arrears of revenue and 
bought in by Government. To it were added the Kottakota and 
Vemulapudi estates, which had been similarly purchased by Govern- 
ment in 1833 and 1831, and this tract forms the ryotwdri portion 
of the taluk; the southern part is still zaml/iddri. In 1845-8, and 
again in 1857-8, extensive risings took place among the hill chiefs, but 
since 1858 no trouble has occurred. The eastern part of the plains 
portion of the taluk is under continuous cultivation, irrigated from 


the Komaravolu Ava lying on the VlraviUi tahfil botindary. From 
Kondasantha and Krishnadevipeta, i:;hat roads run up into the hills, 
and along the latter there is considerable traffic in jungle produce, 
grain, and salt. 

Gomal. — River and mountain pass in the South ^^'azTristan Agency, 
North-West Frontier Province. See Gumal. 

Gond. — Tribe in Central Provinces. See Gondwana. 

Gonda District. — North-eastern District of the Fyzabad Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 26° 46' and 27° 50' N. and 81° n' 
and 82" 46' E., with an area of 2,813 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north by the lower range of the Himalayas, separating it from 
Nepal ; on the east by Basti ; on the south by the Gogra, which 
divides it from Fyzabad and Bara Bank!; and on the west by Bahraich. 
The District forms a level plain with slight inequali- 
ties, and is well wooded. During the fine clear asnects 

months at the end of the rainy season the range 
of the Himalayas, with the snowy peak of Dhaulagiri in the centre, 
forms a magnificent background to the north. The people live in 
small hamlets scattered about the village lands. There are three 
natural divisions. In the north is situated a moist tract of tarai land 
extending a little south of the Raptl. The centre forms a level upland 
area or uparhar, and south of it lies a broad low tract extending to 
the alluvial soil in the bed of the Gogra. The Gogra and Rapti, the 
principal streams, flow from north-west to south-east. In the tarai 
a number of small streams flow from north to south to meet the Burhi 
(or ' old ') Raptl. The remaining rivers have a course from north-west 
to south-east, and are, in order : the Suwawan, Kuwana, BisiihT, 
Chamnai, Manwar, Tirhi, and Sarju or Suheli. Most of these are only 
small streams in the hot season. The whole District is studded with 
small shallow lakes or jh'ils, the water of which is largely used for 

In the north limestone boulders are found in the beds of the torrents 
rushing down from the Outer Himalayas. Elsewhere the formation 
is the ordinary alluvium, which in places contains calcareous lime- 
stone or kankar. 

Forests are ' reserved ' in the north of the District and in a small 
area in the centre. There is also a large tract of forest on the banks 
of the Kuwana, which is private property. These contain sal {Shorea 
robust a), asna {Terminalia totnentosd), dhau [Anogeissi/s laiifolia), khair 
{Acacia Catechu), &c. Mango, viahud {Bassia /atifolia), shlsham 
{Dalbergia Sissod), and various kinds of fig are the commonest trees 
in other parts. 

Tigers and bears are found in the northern forests, and leopards are 
commOn there and are occasionally met with farther south. Several 

312 CO.VDA dtstrict 

kinds of deer are found, and antelope, nilgai, wolves, and jackals arr 
common. Snipe, water-fowl, jungle-fowl, pea fowl, quail, partridges, 
and ortolans are the chief game-birds. Fish abound in the rivers and 
lakes, and crocodiles are also common. 

The damp submontane tract is very unhealthy, and fever is also 
prevalent in all parts of the District. The proximity of the mountains 
and the heavy rainfall make the climate comparatively cool, the average 
monthly temperature ranging from about 62° in January to 91° in May. 

The annual rainfall over the whole District averages 44 inches, 
ranging from 51 in the north to 40 in the south. Extreme fluctuations 
occur from year to year; the fall amounted to 75 inches in 1894 and 
to only 22 inches in 1874. In 1901 nearly 17 inches of rain fell in 
twenty-four hours at Tarabganj, one of the heaviest falls ever recorded 
in the plains of the United Provinces. 

The District formed part of the great kingdom of Kosala, ruled 
over by the kings of the Solar race from Ajodhya. At the death of 
Rama the northern portion fell to his son. Lava, with 
the capital city of SravastT, which is identified by 
some writers with Set Mahet. Ancient remains show that many sites 
were inhabited during the palmy days of Buddhism ; but when the 
Chinese pilgrims visited the holy places in the fifth and seventh 
centuries the country had relapsed into jungle. Many traditions are 
related of the young warrior of Islam, Saiyid Salar, who died fighting 
the chiefs of this tract near Bahraich, and many tombs are pointed out 
as those of his warriors. The history during the Muhammadan period 
is chiefly that of the varying fortunes of the Rajput clans who seized 
it from the Doms. The Muhammadan governor resided at Bahraich, 
but often had no authority outside his own fort. The rise of the 
Rajputs, according to their own traditions, dates from the fourteenth 
century. The Kalhans clan was the first to attain importance ; but 
it fell at the end of the fifteenth century, owing to the curse of 
a Brahman, whose daughter had been carried off by the Raja. The 
Janwars spread over the north of the District, and finally the Bisens 
acquired a great territory covering 1,000 square miles. AVhen Oudh 
was granted to Saadat Khan early in the eighteenth century, the local 
Rajas north of the Gogra were virtually independent. The Raja of 
Gonda slew Nawab Alawal Khan, the first of the new governors 
of Bahraich, but was later so far conquered that he undertook to pay 
a fixed tribute. It was not, however, till the close of the eighteenth 
century that the Oudh government was able to break up the Bisen 
power and to collect revenue direct from the village headmen. The 
chiefs in the north and east of the District retained a partial indepen- 
dence still longer. Gonda suffered much from misrule in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries, during which several great ialukas were 


acquired by bankers and officials. Annexation in 1856 passed off 
quietly ; but Colonel Boileau, the Deputy-Commissioner, lost his life 
in attempting to arrest a notorious freebooter. 

On the outbreak of the Mutiny, the Raja of Cionda threw in his lot 
with the rebels and joined the standard of the Begam of Oudh at 
Lucknow. The Raja of Balrampur remained loyal throughout. He 
steadily declined to recognize the rebel government, received and pro- 
tected Sir C. Wingfield, the Commissioner of Gonda and Bahraich, 
together with other ]'>nglish officers in his fort, and afterwards forwarded 
them safely under a strong escort to Corakhpur. The Raja of Gonda, 
after the relief of Lucknow, fixed his camp at Lampti on the Chamnai 
river, with a force said to amount to 20,000 men, who were, however, 
dispirited at the English successes elsewhere. After only a feeble 
resistance the broken remnants of his force were swept across the 
Rapt! and over the lower range of the Himalayas into Nepal. Most 
of the rebel talukddrs accepted the amnesty ; but neither the Raja 
of Gonda nor the Rani of Tulsipur could be induced to surrender 
(although the conduct of the former throughout the Mutiny had been 
free from o\ert crime), and their estates were accordingly confiscated 
and conferred as rewards upon Maharajas Sir Drigbijai Singh of 
Balrampur and Sir Man Singh of Ajodhya. 

Set Mahet is the only site which has been excavated ; but ruins are 
known to exist at many other places, among which may be named 
Bansdila, Paltipur, Lodha Dih, Raya-ke-than, and Paras. There are 
no striking buildings of the Muhammadan period. The chief Hindu 
shrines are at DebI Patan and Chhapia. 

The District contains 8 towns and 2,760 villages. At the last four 
enumerations the numbers were as follows: (1869) 1,168,462, (1881) 
1,270,926, (1891) 1,459,229, and (1901) 1,403,195. popyi^tjon 
There are three tahslls — Gonda, Tarabganj, and 
Utraui.a— each named from its head-quarters. The principal towns 
are the municipalities of Balrampur and Gonda, and the ' notified 
areas 'of Nawabganj and Utraula. The following tal)le gives the 
chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 


Gonda • 
Utraula . 

District total 


Number of 


c ~ 

!2 i S 






















j 384,021 
I 364,993 
I 654,181 

a; . 

o c 

'5 Si 

p ^ 





1, 403; 1 9.5 ! 499 

> c - 

:r c c 00 o 

! 0_0 - O' 

' > o -^ 




11 CJ cj U 

C - CO ^ 

3 O O •* 



.:;i4 GOX/)A ni STRICT 

Hindus numl^cr nearly 85 per cent, of the toUil, and Muhanimadans 
15 per cent. 'l"he District is thickly populated, except in the north, 
where there is a large area of forest. The decrease between 1891 
and 1901 was chiefly due to the effects of excessive rain in 1894, and 
to a smaller extent to the drought of 1896. Many emigrants go from 
Gonda to the West Indies, Fiji, and Natal. Eastern Hindi of the 
Awadhi dialect is spoken almost universally. 

Brahmans are the most numerous of the Hindu castes, numbering 
about 214,000, or 18 per cent, of the total. Other castes found in large 
numbers are the Ahirs (graziers and cultivators), 140,000; Korls 
(weavers and labourers), 126,000; KurmTs (agriculturists), 105,000; 
Rajputs, 55,000 ; Kahars (servants and cultivators), 49,000 ; Muraos 
(market-gardeners), 47,000 ; and Banias, 32,000. The Barwars, who 
number 2,218, are a small caste of criminals who have been settled 
here in the hope of reformation. A few Tharus, who appear to 
be of Mongolian origin, are the only people who can survive in 
the most fever-stricken parts of the tarai. Among Musalmans, 
Rajputs number 41,000; Shaikhs, 23,000; Pathans, 22,000; and 
Julahas (weavers), 19,000. Agriculture supports 64 per cent, of the 
total population, and general labour 9 per cent. Brahmans cultivate 
29 per cent, of the total area held by tenants, and Rajputs 12 per cent. 
Kurmis, Muraos, and Kachhis, who are the best tenants, hold about 
14 per cent. 

In 1 90 1 there were 175 native Christians, of whom 61 were 
Methodists. The American Methodist Mission was opened at Gonda 
in 1859. 

The agricultural conditions are closely connected with the physical 

features already described. The tarai is pre-eminently a rice country, 

. , but is very unhealthy, and is liable to heavy floods. 

Asricultur6. . . _ _ , . 

South of It lies the i/parhar or upland area, in which 

the soil is usually a rich loam, which deteriorates to sand in the west 

and on the high banks of the streams. Wheat and rice, varied by 

gram and arhar, are the staples here. Sugar-cane and poppy are 

grown near the village sites, and near the swamps the valuable jarhafi 

or late rice is cultivated. In the tarhar or lowlands the subsoil is 

sand, and fertility depends on the composition and thickness of the 

surface layer. This tract requires little irrigation, but is subject to 

floods, and the chief crops are maize in the autumn and peas or 

barley in the spring. Poppy is grown in all parts and is a very 

valuable crop. In the neighbourhood of the Tikri forest much 

damage is done to cultivation by wild beasts. 

The ordinary tenures of the Province of Gudh are found. Talukddri 

estates include about 60 per cent, of the total area, and nearly 15 per 

cent, is sub-settled. There is also a large area held in small plots on 


complicated tenures by under-proprietors. The main agricultural 
statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles: — 






Gonda . 

















Rice is the staple most largely grown, occupying 732 square miles, or 
41 per cent, of the net area cultivated. Wheat (463 square miles), 
maize (489), gram (247), peas and masur (241), and barley (118) are 
also important food-crops, while poppy covered 37 square miles, sugar- 
cane 28, and oilseeds 12. 

There has been a considerable increase in the cultivated area since 
the first settlement ; but this has chiefly taken place in the single iahsll 
of Utraula, where population has grown rapidly, large tracts of jungle have 
been reclaimed, and the extension of the railway has made markets 
more accessible. Few changes have occurred in methods of cultivation. 
The area under poppy and sugar-cane has risen, and more land is under 
the valuable late rice than formerly. The prevailing feature of the 
cultivation is mediocrity, which is due to the large proportion of high- 
caste tenants, who are obliged by social custom to employ labourers 
instead of working with their own hands. Very few advances are taken 
under the Agriculturists' Loans Act, and none has been given under 
the Tand Improvement Act except in 1896-7. Out of a lakh ad- 
vanced during the ten years ending 1900, Rs. 28,000 was lent in the 
wet year 1894-5, and Rs. 33,000 in the drought of 1896-7. The loans 
in the next four years amounted to only Rs. 250. 

The cattle bred locally are of poor quality, and animals of a better 
class are usually imported from the neighbouring District of Bahraich. 
Ponies are used to a large extent as pack-animals. Sheep and goats are 
fairly numerous, but no particular breeds are recognized. 

In 1903-4 tanks and swamps supplied irrigation for 248 square miles 
and wells for 240, while rivers were used to serve only 13 square miles. 
Few Districts have better natural advantages. In the iarhar irrigation 
is little required in ordinary years, and the nparhdr is provided with 
numerous tanks and wells. The number of wells is steadily increasing, 
and they can be made at a comparatively small cost. Water is usually 
raised from wells by means of a long lever, to which a pot is attached by 
a rope. The swing-basket is used to distribute water from Jhlls. Only 
a few crops are flooded, and the ordinary method of irrigation is to 
scatter water from small channels with a wooden shovel. In the tarai the 
rain-water is held up by small embankments to keep the rice-fields moist. 


' Reserved ' forests cover an area of 162 s(jiiare miles. The most 
important is a tract of 142 square miles, lying along the base of the hills 
with a width varying from three to six miles. Near the east this forest 
contains valuable sal {S/iorea fol>i/sta) awX asna {^Terminal ia fometitosa). 
Towards the west the sal gives place to dhaii [Anogeissus latifolid) and 
Jialdu {Adina cordifoUd). A little shjshatii {Dalbergia Sissoo) is found 
in the moister tracts near the mountain torrents. The TikrI forest has 
an area of about twenty square miles, chiefly in the Tarabganj tahsil 
near the centre of the District. It supplies sal timber and fuel to 
Gonda and Ajodhya, In 1903-4 the forests yielded a revenue of 
Rs. 50,000, the chief items being firewood and charcoal. 

The only mineral product is kankar or nodular limestone, which is 
used for metalling roads and for making lime. 

The District has few industries besides agriculture. Coarse cotton 

cloth is woven for local use at several places, but no fine tissues are 

[produced. At Utraula there is a small manufacture 

Ira e an ^^j- (^j-namental potterv. No other articles are pro- 

communications. ^ - ... . 

duced locally except those of use m agriculture or in 

domestic life, which can be made by the blacksmith, the carpenter, and 

the potter. 

The export trade consists almost entirely of agricultural produce. 
Rice, peas, maize, opium, timber, and fuel are the chief exports, while 
piece-goods, salt, metals, and refined sugar are imported. Nawabganj 
and Colonelganj attract most of the trade in the south of the District, 
and Utraula and TulsTpur are the chief centres for the export of the 
rice tracts in the north. Smaller but flourishing bazars have grown up 
at most of the villages near stations on the railway. Some trafitic is still 
carried by the Rapti and Gogra, especially the latter ; but the railway is 
now the chief means of transport. There is a small trade with Nepal, 
which supplies grain in exchange for piece-goods and sugar ; but it is 
hampered by the absence of roads. 

Gonda is better supplied with communication by rail than with roads, 
but the latter have recently been improved and added to. The main 
line of the Bengal and North-Western Railway crosses the south of the 
District. From Gonda town one branch strikes off to the north-west, 
leading to Bahraich, while another leads north and north-east towards 
the Nepal border. The latter till recently terminated at TulsTpur, but 
has now been continued to Uska Bazar in BastI, and gives off a short 
line to the Nepal frontier. A third branch runs south from the main 
line at Mankapur to the bank of the Gogra opposite Ajodhya. Out of 
606 miles of road, only no are metalled. The latter are in charge of 
the Public Works department, but the whole cost is charged to Local 
funds. Avenues of trees are maintained on 388 miles. The chief routes 
are from Gonda town to Fyzabad and Balrampur and towards Utraula. 


Scarcity was experienced in 1865, 1869, and 1874, and in the latter 
year relief works were required, and distress was severe. In 1878-9 
relief works were again oi)ened, but only for about 
two and a half months. The drought of 1896 fol- 
lowed a succession of bad years in which the crops had been injured 
by excessive rain, and the health of the people had been severely 
affected. Relief works and poorhouses were opened, but the [propor- 
tion of the population relieved was not high. 

'I'he Deputy -Commissioner is usually assisted by a member of the 

Indian Civil Service, and by four Deputy-Collectors . , . . 

., J . T J- '..1 rr r , Admitiistration. 

recruited m India. 1 here are two officers of the 

Opium department, and a ta]isildar is stationed at the head-quarters 

of each tahsll. 

Civil cases are heard b\ three Munsifs and a Subordinate Judge, and 
the District and Sessions Judge of Gondii has civil and criminal juris- 
diction also in Bahraich. Crime is of the ordinary type. Dacoity is 
very rare. The Barwars conmiit their crimes far beyond the limits of 
the District. The complicated tenures on which land is held give rise 
to much litigation, and the Brahmans of Gonda have a bad reputation 
for perjury and forgery. 

A large area in the south-east of the District was ceded to the British 
in 1 810, but was restored to the Nawab of Oudh at the close of the 
Nepalese \\'ar in 181 6, in return for land acquired elsewhere and in 
extinction of a loan. At annexation in 1856, a summary settlement 
was made, by which the revenue was fixed at 9-7 lakhs. On the restor- 
ation of order after the Mutiny the same demand was again levied. 
Owing to the backward state of the District the regular settlement was 
postponed for some years. It was preceded by a survey and was com- 
menced in 1868, the first assessment being completed in 1873. This 
assessment was based on estimates of the annual value of each village. 
In forming the estimates the rent-rolls were used, but they were cor- 
rected by applying what were found tcj be prevailing rates, and still more 
reliance was placed on rates obtained by estimating the value of agri- 
cultural produce. No allowance was made for the great difference 
between the rents paid by high-caste and low-caste tenants, and a 
succession of bad seasons soon shc^wed that the revenue fixed could 
not be paid. A revision was at once undertaken and was completed 
by 1876, the 'assets' being now calculated on the basis of the actual 
rent rolls, and allowances being made for the low rents paid by high 
castes. The revenue demand thus fixed amounted to i5-3 lakhs. The 
latest revision of settlement was made between 1897 and 1902, the first 
two years being occupied in a resurvey. An area of 860 square miles, 
or almost the whole of the tanii^ is held by the Maharaja of Balram- 
pur on* a permanent settlement, as a reward for services in the Mutiny, 



and was tlius excluded. The revision in the rest of the District was 
based as usual on the corrected rent-rolls, and the new revenue demand 
amounted to 45-5 per cent, of the rental 'assets.' In 1903-4 the land 
revenue demand for the whole District was i6-6 lakhs, the incidence 
being R. i per acre, varying from R. 0-7 to Rs. 1-4 in dSSi^xtnt parganas. 
Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 




1900- 1. 1903-4. 

Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


15,73 16,63 
21,96 23,17 

There are two municipalities, Gonda and Balrampur, and two 
'notified areas,' Nawabganj and Utraula, besides four towns ad- 
ministered under Act XX of 1856. Beyond the limits of these places, 
local affairs are managed by the District board, which had an income 
of 1-7 lakhs in 1903-4, chiefly derived from rates. The expenditure 
was 1-6 lakhs, including a lakh spent on roads and buildings. 

Gonda contains 1 7 police stations ; and the District Superintendent 
of police has under him a force of 3 inspectors, 91 subordinate officers, 
and 361 constables, besides 112 municipal and town police, and 2,911 
rural and road police. The District jail contained a daily average of 
446 prisoners in 1903. 

The population of the District is not remarkable for its literacy. 
Three per cent, of the total (6 males and o-i females) could read and 
write in 1901. The number of public schools increased from 137 with 
4,361 pupils in 1880-1 to 150 with 6,955 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 
there were 191 such schools with 9,390 pupils, of whom 248 were 
girls, besides 35 private schools with 445 pupils. Only 437 pupils had 
advanced beyond the primary stage. Two schools are managed by 
Government and 144 by the District board. The total expenditure on 
education was Rs. 46,000, of which Local funds provided Rs. 30,000, 
and fees Rs. 6,000. 

There are 16 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
148 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 143,000, 
including 2,237 in-patients, and 4,687 operations were performed. The 
expenditure in the same year amounted to Rs. 16,000, chiefly met from 
Local funds. 

About 33,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting the low proportion of 24 per 1,000 of population. Vaccina- 
tion is compulsory only in the municipalities. 

[H. R. C. Hailey, Settlement Report (1903); H. R. Nevill, District 
Gazetteer (1905).] 

Gonda Tahsil. — Head-quarters tahfil of Gonda District, United 


Provinces, comprising the parganas of Gonda and Paharapur, and 
lying between 27° I'and 27° 26' N. and 81° 38' and 82° 19' E., with 
an area of 619 square miles. Population fell from 404,172 in 1891 to 
384,021 in 1901. There are 784 villages and three towns, including 
Gonda (population, 15,811), the District and iahsll head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 491,000, and 
for cesses Rs. 50,000. The density of population, 620 persons per 
square mile, is the highest in the District. The tahsil lies chiefly in 
the central upland area, which forms the most fertile portion. It is 
bounded on the north by the Kuwana, along which stretches a belt of 
jungle, while the TirhT flows across the south and the Bisuhi across 
the centre. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 422 square 
miles, of which 187 were irrigated. In ordinary years tanks or swamps 
supply almost as large a proportion as wells. 

Gonda Town. — Head quarters of Gonda District and tahsil. United 
Provinces, situated in 27° 8' N. and 81° 58' E., at the junction of 
several branches of the Bengal and Norlh-Western Railway. Popula- 
tion (1901), 15,811. The name of the town is popularly derived from 
gonthd or got hdn, a ' cattle pen,' and its foundation is ascribed to Man 
Singh, a Bisen Rajput, who possibly lived in the early years of Akbar's 
reign. The last Raja of Gonda threw in his lot with the mutineers in 
1857, and his estates were forfeited and conferred on the owner of the 
AjODHVA Estate. The town is of mean appearance, but is adorned 
with two large tanks. The chief public buildings, besides the usual 
courts, are the male and female hospitals, the District school, and 
a literary mstitute with a library. Gonda has been administered as 
a municipality since 1869. During the ten years ending 1901 the 
income and expenditure averaged Rs. 18,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 22,000, including octroi (Rs. 11,000) and rents (Rs. 3,600); 
and the expenditure was also Rs. 22,000. There is a considerable 
trade in agricultural produce, but no manufacturing industry. Eight 
schools have 260 pupils. 

Gondal State.— Native State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, 
Bombay, lying between 21^^ 42' and 22° 8' N. and 70" 3' and 71° 7' 
E., with an area of 1,024 square miles. With the exception of the 
Osam hills, the country is flat. Several streams intersect the State, 
the largest, the Bhadar, being navigable by small boats during the rains. 
The climate is good, and the annual rainfall averages 25 to 30 inches. 

The chief of Gondal is a Rajput of the Jadeja stock, with the title 
of Thakur Sahib. Gondal is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akban and the 
Mirdt-i-Ah»iadi as a Vaghela holding in sarkdr Sorath. The founder 
of the State was Kumbhojl I, who received Ardoi and other villages in 
the seventeenth century from his father Meramanji. Kumbhojl II, 
fourth t)f the line, raised the State to its present position, by acquiring 


the rich pargana of Dhorajl and Upleta as well as Sarsai, &c. The 
ruler entered into engagements with the British in 1807. The family 
holds a saiiad authorizing adoption ; the succession follows the rule of 
primogeniture. The chief is entitled to a salute of 11 guns. The 
present chief, H. 11. Thakur .Sahib .Sir Bhagvat SinhjT, was created a 
K.CM.E. in 1887, and a G.C.I.E. in 1897. He has also received the 
degrees of LL.D. and D.C.L. 

The {)oi)ulation at the last four enumerations was : (1872) 137,217, 
(1881) 135,604, (1891) 161,036, and (1901) 162,859. There are 5 
towns and 169 villages. In 1901 Hindus numbered 125,397, Musal- 
mans 30,442, and Jains 6,811.. The capital is Goxoai. Town. 

For purposes of irrigation, water is drawn in leathern bags from wells 
and rivers by means of bullocks. A new water-works scheme for both 
irrigation and water-supi)ly has recently been completed at a cost of 
5-^ lakhs. The net revenue realized by the end of 1904 showed 
a return of 1-14 per cent, on irrigation outlay and 1-04 per cent, on 
water-supply outlay. Out of the total area of 1,024 square miles, 612 
were returned in 1903-4 as cultivated. The total irrigated aiea is 
53 square miles. An experimental farm and four public gardens are 
maintained. Horse-breeding is carried on with four stallions, and cattle- 
breeding with two bulls. The chief products are cfjtton and grain ; 
and the chief manufactures are cotton and woollen fabrics, gold em- 
broidery, brass and copper utensils, wooden toys, and ivory bangles. 
The State contains six ginning factories and one cotton-press. There 
are iif miles of first-class metalled road between Gondal and Rajkot. 
Gondal has always been pre-eminent amongst the States of its class for 
the vigour and success with which public works have been prosecuted. 
The produce of the State is exported from Mangrol, \'eraval, and 
Todiya. In 1903-4 the exports were \alued at more than 8 lakhs, and 
the imports at 22^ lakhs. The Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar 
Railway passes through the State, which has a share in the line, and 
also a branch of it, the Jetalsar-Rajkot Railway, in which the State has 
a three-eighths share. 

Gondal ranks as a tirst-class State in Kathiawar. The chief has 
l)Ower to try his subjects for all offences, the trial of British subjects 
for capital offences, however, requiring the previous permission of the 
Agent to the Governor. The estimated gross revenue in 1903-4 was 
more than 15 lakhs, chiefly derived from land (12 lakhs): and the 
expenditure was 13 lakhs. The State pays a tribute of Rs. 1,10,721 t(j 
the British Government, the Gaikwar of Baroda, and the Nawab of 
Junagarh. Of the five municipalities, the largest is Gondal. The police 
force consists (1905) of 400 mounted and foot police, and there is an 
armed irregular force of 203 men. Eleven courts administer civil and 
criminal justice ; and there are two jails and two lock-ups, which had 


a daily average of 93 prisoners in 1903-4. Besides a Girasia college 
at Ciondal, the State contains 85 schools with 6,803 pupils. In 1903-4 
there were 2 hospitals and 4 dispensaries, affording relief to 46,000 
persons, of whom 1,300 were in-patients. In the same year 3,800 
persons were vaccinated. 

Gondal Town.— Capital of the State of the same name in Kathi- 
awar, Bombay, situated in 21° 57' N. and 70° 53' E., on the western 
bank of the Gondali river. Population (1901), 19,592, including 
12,995 Hindus, 4,289 Musalmans, and 2,239 Jains. Gondal is con- 
nected with Rajkot, Jetpur, Junagarh, Dhoraji, Upleta, and Manekwara 
by good roads. It is a railway station on the branch line between 
Rajkot-Jetalsar on the Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar Railway. 
The town is fortified. It contains two public gardens, an orphanage, 
an asylum, a hospital, and a Girasia college. 

Gondii.. — Village in the Tirora tahsll of Bhandara District, Central 
Provinces, situated in 21° 28'' N. and 80° 13' E., on the Bengal-Nagpur 
Railway, 81 miles from Nagpur and 601 from Bombay. Gondia is the 
junction for the new Satpura narrow-gauge railway which runs to Jubbul- 
pore across the Satpura plateau. Population (1901), 4,457. It is one 
of the two leading goods stations in Bhandara District, receiving the 
produce of the surrounding area of Bhandara and of the lowlands of 
the adjoining Balaghat District. A large weekly grain market is held 
here. The greater part of the town stands on Government land, 
and the ground rents realized are credited to a fund for sanitary 
purposes, which is supplemented by a house rate. A branch station 
of the American Pentecostal Mission at Raj-Nandgaon has recently 
been established. Gondia contains Hindi and Marathi primary schools, 
and a dispensary. 

Gondwana. — A name given by the Muhammadans to a tract of 
country now in the Central Provinces and Central India. Abul Fazl 
describes Gondwana or Garha Katanka as bounded on the east by 
Ratanpur, a dependency of Jharkhand or Chota Nagpur, and on the 
west by Malvva, while Panna lay north of it, and the Deccan south. 
This description corresponds fairly closely with the position of the 
Satpura plateau, as the Chhattisgarh plain on the east belonged to 
the Ratanpur kingdom, incorrectly designated as a dependency of 
Chota Nagpur, while part of the Narbada valley was included in the 
old Hindu kingdom of Malwa. Little or nothing was known of 
Gondwana at this time ; and indeed as late as 1853 it was stated before 
the Royal Asiatic Society that ' at present the Gondwana highlands 
and jungles comprise such a large tract of unexplored country that they 
form quite an oasis in our maps.' Gondwana to the Muhammadans 
signified the country of the Gonds, the Dravidian tribe at present 
bearing" that name. How they obtained it is a question which has 

vol.. XII. Y 


been discussed by General Cunnitlgham '. As pointed out by him, 
the Gonds do not call themselves by this name, but commonly by that 
of Koitur. He considers that Gond probably comes from Gauda, the 
classical name of part of the United Provinces and Bengal. A Benares 
inscription relating to one of the Ghedi kings of Tripura or Tewar 
(near Jubbulpore) states that he was of the Haihaya tribe, who lived on 
the banks of the Narbada, in the district of the western Gauda in the 
province of Malwa. Three or four other inscriptions also refer to the 
kings of Gauda in the same locality. The hypothesis can scarcely 
be considered as more than speculative ; but, if correct, it shows that 
the name Gond has simply a local signification, the Gonds being the 
inhabitants of western Gauda, and the name being derived from 
the same source as that of the Gaur Brahmans and Rajputs. 

More than 2\ millions of Gonds were enumerated at the Census of 
190T, of whom nearly 2 millions belong to the Central Provinces, and 
the remainder to Bengal, Madras, and Berar. Large numbers of them 
live on the Satpura plateau, the Chota Nagpur plateau, and the hills 
of Bastar between the MahanadT and Godavari, while they are less 
numerous on the Vindhyan Hills. The Gonds are among the most 
important of all the Dravidian tribes, and were formerly a ruling race, 
the greater part of the Central Provinces having been held by three 
or four Gond dynasties from about the fourteenth to the eighteenth 
century. Such accounts of them as remain, even allowing for much 
exaggeration, indicate the attainment of a surprising degree of civiliza- 
tion and prosperity. So far back as the fifteenth century we read in 
Firishta that the king of Kherla sumptuously entertained Ahmad Shah 
Wall, the Bahmani Sultan, and made him rich offerings, among which 
were many diamonds, rubies, and pearls. Under the Garha-Mandla 
dynasty the revenues of Mandla District are said to have amounted 
to 10 lakhs of rupees. When the castle of Chauragarh was sacked by 
one of Akbar's generals in 1564, the booty found, according to Firishta, 
comprised, independently of jewels, images of gold and silver and 
other valuables, no fewer than a hundred jars of gold coin, and 
a thousand elephants. Of the Chanda rulers the Settlement ofticer 
who has recorded their history wrote that ' they left, if we forget the 
last few years, a well-governed and contented kingdom, adorned with 
admirable works of engineering skill, and prosperous to a point which 
no after-time has reached.' 

These States were subverted by the Marathas in the eighteenth 
century, and the Gonds were driven to take refuge in the inaccessible 
highlands, where the Marathas continued to pillage and harass them, 
until they obtained an acknowledgement of their supremacy and the 
promise of an annual tribute. Under such treatment the hill Gonds 
' Kecords ofihr .4 rchaeohs^ical Siirvn' . vol. ix, \\. i-;o. 


soon lost every vestige of civilization, and became the cruel treacherous 
savages depicted by travellers of this period, when they regularly 
plundered and murdered stragglers and small parties passing through 
their hills, while from their strongholds, built on the most inaccessible 
spurs of the Satpuras, they would